[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary (n-6)-polyunsaturated fatty acids influence cancer development, but the mechanisms have not been well characterised in gastric carcinoma.
We used two in vivo models to investigate the effects of these common dietary components on tumour metastasis. In a model of experimental metastasis, immunocompromised mice were fed diets containing linoleic acid (LA) at 2% (LLA), 8% (HLA) or 12% (VHLA) by weight and inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with human gastric carcinoma cells (OCUM-2MD3). To model spontaneous metastasis, OCUM-2MD3 tumours were grafted onto the stomach walls of mice fed with the different diets. In in vitro assays, we investigated invasion and ERK phosphorylation of OCUM-2MD3 cells in the presence or absence of LA. Finally, we tested whether a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin, could block peritoneal metastasis in vivo.
Both the HLA and VHLA groups showed increased incidence of tumour nodules (LA: 53%; HLA: 89%; VHLA: 100%; P<0.03); the VHLA group also displayed increased numbers of tumour nodules and higher total volume relative to LLA group in experimental metastasis model. Both liver invasion (78%) and metastasis to the peritoneal cavity (67%) were more frequent in VHLA group compared with the LLA group (22% and 11%, respectively; P<0.03) in spontaneous metastasis model. We also found that the invasive ability of these cells is greatly enhanced when exposed to LA in vitro. Linoleic acid also increased invasion of other scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells, OCUM-12, NUGC3 and MKN-45. Linoleic acid effect on OCUM-2MD3 cells seems to be dependent on phosphorylation of ERK. The data suggest that invasion and phosphorylation of ERK were dependent on COX. Indomethacin decreased the number of tumours and total tumour volume in both LLA and VHLA groups. Finally, COX-1, which is known to be an important enzyme in the generation of bioactive metabolites from dietary fatty acids, appears to be responsible for the increased metastatic behaviour of OCUM-2MD3 cells in the mouse model.
Dietary LA stimulates invasion and peritoneal metastasis of gastric carcinoma cells through COX-catalysed metabolism and activation of ERK, steps that compose pathway potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention.
British Journal of Cancer 10/2010; 103(8):1182-91. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An inverse relationship exists between the expression of 15-lipoxygenase-2 (15-LOX-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) compared with their expression in prostate carcinoma cells (PC-3). The reason for this difference, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that this inverse expression partly involves the 15-LOX-2 promoter and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-(S)-HETE), a product of 15-LOX-2 that binds to PPARgamma. We identified an active steroid nuclear receptor half-site present in the 15-LOX-2 promoter fragment F-5 (-618/+177) that can interact with PPARgamma. After forced expression of wild-type PPARgamma, 15-(S)-HETE (1 microM) decreased F-5 reporter activity in PrECs whereas forced expression of 15-LOX-2 resulted in 15-(S)-HETE production which enhanced F-5 activity in PC-3. In contrast, the expression of dominant-negative PPARgamma reversed the transcriptional activation of F-5 by enhancing it 202-fold in PrEC or suppressing it in PC-3; the effect in PC-3 was positively increased 150-fold in the presence of 15-(S)-HETE (1 microM). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma interacted with 15-LOX-2 promoter sequences in pulldown experiments using biotinylated 15-LOX-2 (-560/-596 bp) oligonucleotides. In gelshift analyses PPARgamma and orphan receptor RORalpha were shown to interact with the F-5 fragment in PC-3 cells. These data suggest that crosstalk mechanisms exist between the 15-LOX-2 gene and PPARgamma to counterbalance expression and help explain the inverse relationship of these genes in normal versus cancer cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human colon tumors have elevated levels of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1), suggesting that 15-LO-1 may play a role in the development of colorectal cancer. Also, 15-LO-1 metabolites can up-regulate epidermal growth factor signaling pathways, which results in an increase in mitogenesis. However, metabolites of 15-LO-1 can serve as ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), and activation of this receptor causes most colon cancer cell lines to undergo a differentiative response and reverse their malignant phenotype. Hence, the role 15-LO-1 plays in colon cancer is not clear. To clarify the role of 15-LO-1 in carcinogenesis, the effect of 15-LO-1 and its metabolites on epidermal growth factor signaling and PPARgamma was investigated. In HCT-116 cells, exogenously added 15-LO-1 metabolites, 13-(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-(R)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, and 13-(S)-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid, up-regulated the MAPK signaling pathway, and an increase in PPARgamma phosphorylation was observed. Furthermore, in stable overexpressing 15-LO-1 HCT-116 cells, which produce endogenous 15-LO-1 metabolites, an up-regulation in mitogen-activated protein kinase and PPARgamma phosphorylation was observed. Incubation with a MAPK inhibitor ablated MAPK and PPARgamma phosphorylation. The 15-LO-1 up-regulates MAPK activity and increases PPARgamma phosphorylation, resulting in a down-regulation of PPARgamma activity. Thus, 15-LO-1 metabolites may not only serve as ligands for PPARgamma but can down-regulate PPARgamma activity via the MAPK signaling pathway.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2001; 276(37):34545-52. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissue. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are expressed in human colorectal tissue and activation of PPARs can alter COX-2 expression. In macrophages, activation of PPARs down-regulates COX-2 expression. We examined the effect of PPARalpha and PPARgamma ligands on untreated and TNF-alpha-induced COX-2 expression in the human colorectal epithelial cell line HT-29. The expression of PPARalpha and PPARgamma was confirmed in these cells. TNF-alpha, an inflammatory cytokine, increased COX-2 expression via the NFkappaB pathway. In the absence of TNF-alpha, WY14643 (PPARalpha activator) caused an increase, while BRL49653 (PPARgamma activator) did not alter COX-2 expression. When HT-29 cells were incubated with TNF-alpha and WY14643, a further increase in COX-2 expression was detected. Incubation with TNF-alpha and BRL49653 caused an additional twofold increase in COX-2 expression. Our results suggest that both PPARalpha signaling and TNF-alpha signaling increase COX-2 expression by independent pathways, while PPARgamma stimulates COX-2 expression by up-regulation of the TNF-alpha pathway.
Experimental Cell Research 08/2001; 267(1):73-80. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human colorectal carcinoma Caco-2 cells, sodium butyrate (NaBT) induces the expression of the reticulocyte, 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) and causes these cells to undergo differentiation and apoptosis. 15-LO-1 is also expressed in human colorectal epithelium with a significant higher expression observed in colorectal tumors. In this study, we have prepared stable Caco-2 cells that expressed 15-LO-1 under control of an inducible promoter. These cells provide a model system to study regulation of 15-LO-1 activity in colorectal cells without the interfering presence of NaBT and are useful to study the biological function of 15-LO-1. The expressed 15-LO-1 was highly active as measured in cell lysates, but we were unable to detect metabolism in intact cells. The addition of calcium to the media for the Caco-2 cells was required for 15-LO-1 to translocate from the cytosol to the membrane which is frequently a requirement for lipoxygenase activity. Despite the addition of calcium and translocation, little lipoxygenase activity was detected with intact cells. However, after removal of phenol red, a common constituent of cell culture media, we were able to detect 15-LO-1 activity in the transfected Caco-2 cultured cells. Thus the presence of calcium and the absence of antioxidants present in commonly used culture media are required for expressed 15-LO-1 to be catalytically active and to permit an examination of its biological effects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an early event in the sequence of polyp formation to colon carcinogenesis. COX-2 is at elevated levels in human colorectal cancers and in tumors and polyps of mouse models of colorectal cancer. Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is the initial event leading to colorectal cancer. Colorectal cells in culture which express mutant APC are often used to examine the association of COX-2 expression and apoptosis. The expression of full-length APC in HT-29 cells, a human colorectal carcinoma cell line which normally expresses truncated APC and highly expresses COX-2, inhibits cell growth through increased apoptosis and results in a down-regulation of COX-2 protein. In this report, we examine whether down-regulation of COX-2 is directly linked to the increase in apoptosis observed in these HT-29-APC cells. We present evidence that COX-2 and apoptosis are not linked since COX-2, although expressed, is catalytically inactive. Interestingly, the COX-2 cloned from HT-29 cells is catalytically active when transfected into HCT-116 cells, a colorectal cell line which normally does not express COX-2, but is not active in the HT-29 cell line itself.
Experimental Cell Research 06/2000; 256(2):563-70. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is associated with the earliest stages of colorectal tumorigenesis and appears to be responsible for the hereditary condition familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Evidence indicates that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced and at elevated levels in human colorectal cancers and in the polyps of mouse FAP models. We have used HT-29 cells, a human colorectal carcinoma cell line with a mutant carboxy-truncated APC gene, in which intact APC gene has been introduced under the control of an inducible promoter. These HT-29-APC cells provide a suitable model system to examine how COX-2 expression becomes dysregulated after loss of APC function. Induction of full-length APC causes the HT-29-APC cells to undergo apoptosis. However, differentiation, as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity, is not induced upon expression of full-length APC. Full-length APC protein has been shown to bind the intracellular protein beta-catenin and, as a result, the Lef/Tcf transcription factors are down-regulated. Analysis of APC immunoprecipitates demonstrate a time-dependent increase of beta-catenin interacting with full-length APC. Thus, the Lef/Tcf signaling pathway is intact at this point in these cells. Furthermore, upon expression of full-length APC, COX-2 protein expression is down-regulated while COX-2 mRNA levels remain the same. These data indicate that APC plays a role, either directly or indirectly, in the translational regulation of COX-2. Treatment of the HT-29-APC cells with sodium butyrate, an inducer of apoptosis, does not alter COX-2 protein expression. Thus, COX-2 down-regulation appears to be APC specific and not just due to apoptotic induction. APC appears to uniquely regulate COX-2 expression. The mechanism by which COX-2 protein expression is down-regulated in the HT-29-APC cells is under investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the expression and activity of rat 12-lipoxygenase (LO) in rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) cells during apoptosis and cell differentiation. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) treatment induced wild-type RIE (W-RIE) cells to undergo differentiation and apoptosis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, a marker of cell differentiation, and DNA fragmentation, an index of apoptosis, were increased by NaBT treatment. Arachidonic acid was metabolized primarily to 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) suggesting induction of 12-LO activity. In contrast, sense-RIE (S-RIE) cells engineered to overexpress COX-2 were resistant to apoptosis by treatment with 5 mM NaBT and NaBT did not induce 12-LO activity. The upregulation of 12-LO expression by NaBT in W-RIE cells was confirmed at both the transcriptional and translational level but 12-LO was undetectable in S-RIE cells following NaBT treatment. The expression of 12-LO mRNA in W-RIE cells occurs as early as 6 h after treatment and reaches maximum expression at 24 h following treatment. This inducible 12-LO was isolated by RT-PCR and identified as rat "leukocyte-type" 12-LO. The level of 12-LO expression in W-RIE cells was dependent on the concentration of NaBT and appears to reflect the extent of cell differentiation. NDGA, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, attenuated induction of ALP activity by NaBT treatment of W-RIE cells. These observations suggested that 12-LO is regulated by treatment with NaBT and is associated with cell differentiation in rat intestinal epithelial cells.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 09/1999; 368(1):45-55. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipid metabolism can play an important role in the development and progression of human cancers. We have used Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts as a model system to study how lipid metabolites can alter cell proliferation and apoptosis. For example, the linoleic acid metabolite 13(S)-HpODE enhances EGF-dependent growth by inhibiting de-phosphorylation of the EGFR which leads to activation of the MAP kinase pathway. In contrast, the arachidonic acid metabolite, PGE2, inhibits EGF-dependent mitogenesis and the expression of the proto-oncogenes c-myc, c-jun, and jun-B. In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which PGE2 attenuates these responses by studying the EGF signaling cascade in SHE cells. PGE2 pretreatment caused a concentration-dependent decrease in EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP kinase and a corresponding inhibition of EGF-stimulated MAP kinase activity. Pretreatment of the SHE cells with PGE2 had little effect on the magnitude of EGF-dependent receptor auto-phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of GAP suggesting a down-stream target. Treatment of cells with forskolin and EGF causes similar inhibition of MAP kinase phosphorylation as observed with PGE2 and EGF. Since PGE2 elevates cAMP in these cells, it may act by altering cAMP accumulation. Raf-1 activity can be inhibited by a cAMP-dependent process. Raf-1 activity, measured by phosphorylation of Mek-1, was attenuated by the addition of PGE2. To determine if inhibition of Raf-1 activity causes inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway, cells were concomitantly incubated with PGE2 and EGF. Inhibition of MAP kinase phosphorylation was observed. From these data, we propose that in SHE cells PGE2 increases cAMP levels, which in turn causes inhibition of Raf-1 activity. The MAP kinase pathway is thus downregulated which decreases mitogenesis and proto-oncogene expression. This study demonstrates that an arachidonic acid metabolite can modulate phosphorylation and activity of key signal transduction proteins in a growth factor mitogenic pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The determination of protein nitrotyrosine content has become a frequently used technique for the detection of oxidative tissue damage. Protein nitration has been suggested to be a final product of the production of highly reactive nitrogen oxide intermediates (e. g. peroxynitrite) formed in reactions between nitric oxide (NO.) and oxygen-derived species such as superoxide. The enzyme prostaglandin H synthase-2 (PHS-2) forms one or more tyrosyl radicals during its enzymatic catalysis of prostaglandin formation. In the presence of the NO.-generator diethylamine nonoate, the electron spin resonance spectrum of the PHS-2-derived tyrosyl radical is replaced by the spectrum of another free radical containing a nitrogen atom. The magnitude of the nitrogen hyperfine coupling constant in the latter species unambiguously identifies it as an iminoxyl radical, which is likely formed by the oxidation of nitrosotyrosine, a stable product of the addition of NO. to tyrosyl radical. Addition of superoxide dismutase did not alter the spectra, indicating that peroxynitrite was not involved. Western blot analysis of PHS-2 after exposure to the NO.-generator revealed nitrotyrosine formation. The results provide a mechanism for nitric oxide-dependent tyrosine nitration that does not require formation of more highly reactive nitrogen oxide intermediates such as peroxynitrite or nitrogen dioxide.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1997; 272(27):17086-90. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tyrosyl radical, which may initiate the cyclooxygenase reaction, has been detected in prostaglandin H synthase by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In the crystal structure of ovine prostaglandin H synthase-1, Tyr348 and Tyr385 are in close proximity to the heme. We mutated these residues to phenylalanine to test for their involvement in tyrosyl radical formation. Native enzyme formed a tyrosyl radical centered at g = 2.0036 with a width of 28 gauss. The Y348F mutant formed a singlet signal similar to that of native enzyme with a width of 28 gauss (g = 2.0039). In contrast, the radical signals seen with the Y385F and Y348F/Y385F mutants were 23 gauss (g = 2.004) and 22 gauss (g = 2.0037). In short, tyrosyl radicals are formed even in the absence of both Tyr348 and Tyr385. In Y345F containing mutants, a cluster of aromatic amino acids which surrounds the heme group may provide an alternate pathway for electron abstraction from a more distant tyrosine, yielding a narrow tyrosyl radical signal.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/1995; 207(2):652-60. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two different isoforms of prostaglandin H synthase, prostaglandin H synthase-1 and prostaglandin H synthase-2, have been identified. Both isozymes catalyze both cyclooxygenase and peroxidase reactions. Residues identified as being essential for catalysis by ovine prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-1 are all conserved in prostaglandin H synthase-2. This suggests that the enzymic reaction mechanisms are fundamentally the same for both isozymes. A tyrosyl radical, which may initiate the cyclooxygenase reaction, is detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy after addition of arachidonic acid or hydroperoxides to ovine prostaglandin H synthase-1. We report here that human prostaglandin H synthase-2 also generates a tyrosyl radical centered at g = 2.0040 with a width of 29 gauss, similar to prostaglandin H synthase-1. This is the first spectral evidence that the two isoforms are similar mechanistically.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/1994; 202(3):1592-8. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several free radical species, attributed to tyrosyl radicals, have been previously observed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy during reaction of pure ovine prostaglandin H synthase-1 (PGHS-1) with hydroperoxide or fatty acid substrates. The identity and location of amino acid residue(s) involved in formation of these radicals has been investigated using wild type and mutant PGHS-1 expressed in transfected COS-1 cells. Upon reaction with hydroperoxide, detergent extracts from microsomes of cells expressing wild type ovine PGHS-1 rapidly produced EPR signals made up of a broad component, resembling either the wide doublet or the wide singlet seen in reactions of the purified ovine enzyme, mixed with a variable proportion of a narrow component. Isotope replacement with perdeuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine in wild type PGHS-1 caused no change in enzymatic activity or capability to form a peroxide-induced radical, but the radical was an isotropic singlet without any wide features. This loss of splitting in the deuterated enzyme establishes that the wide radical signal in PGHS-1 is indeed a tyrosyl radical, validating the earlier assignment based on spectral similarities with a tyrosyl radical in ribonucleotide reductase. A Y385F mutation abolished cyclooxygenase but not peroxidase activity, and the peroxide-induced EPR was narrowed to a singlet essentially identical with that obtained with indomethacin-treated ovine enzyme. Isotopic replacement with perdeuterated tyrosine and phenylalanine in the Y385F mutant led to further narrowing of the peroxide-induced EPR to an isotropic singlet, establishing that this radical also involved a tyrosine residue. A Y355F mutant exhibited some decrease in cyclooxygenase activity, but the peroxidase activity and the peroxide-induced radical characteristics were not significantly different from those of the wild type enzyme, indicating that Tyr355 is not involved in tyrosyl radical formation in PGHS-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1994; 269(7):5085-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The active site sequence 385-YHWH-388 of ovine prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-1 (PGHS-1) has residues critical for cyclooxygenase and peroxidase catalysis. Tyr385 is essential for cyclooxygenase activity, His386, for peroxidase activity, and His388, for both activities. To determine the importance of Trp387, we used site-directed mutagenesis to replace Trp387 of PGHS-1 with arginine, phenylalanine, and serine. W387R and W387S lacked significant activity. W387F retained both cyclooxygenase and peroxidase activities. Thus, we conclude that Trp387 is not essential for catalysis by PGHS-1. Purified PGHS-1 is a homodimer. There are two putative leucine zipper regions in ovine PGHS-1 involving residues 345-366 and 487-508. We tested for a role of these leucine zippers as determinants of dimer formation. Helix-breaking proline mutations were introduced at Leu359 or Leu501. Neither of these residues proved to be essential for peroxidase activity; but, mutations at each residue greatly reduced or eliminated cyclooxygenase activity. Both mutant proteins chromatographed as dimers on Sephacryl G-200. Thus, neither of these putative leucine zipper regions alone is responsible for PGHS-1 dimer formation.