A Siniscalchi

University of Bologna, Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy

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Publications (52)93.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the currently available evidence on thoracic epidural anesthesia effects on splanchnic macro and microcirculation, in physiologic and pathologic conditions. A PubMed search was conducted using the MeSH database. Anesthesia, Epidural was always the first MeSH heading and was combined by boolean operator AND with the following headings: Circulation, Splanchnic; Intestines; Pancreas and Pancreatitis; Liver Function Tests. EMBASE, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials.gov and clinicaltrialsregister.eu were also searched using the same terms. Twenty-seven relevant studies and four ongoing trials were found. The data regarding the effects of epidural anesthesia on splanchnic perfusion are conflicting. The studies focusing on regional macro-hemodynamics in healthy animals and humans undergoing elective surgery, demonstrated no influence or worsening of regional perfusion in patients receiving thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA). On the other hand most of the studies focusing on micro-hemodynamics, especially in pathologic low flow conditions, suggested that TEA could foster microcirculation. The available studies in this field are heterogeneous and the results conflicting, thus it is difficult to draw decisive conclusions. However there is increasing evidence deriving from animal studies, that thoracic epidural blockade could have an important role in modifying tissue microperfusion and protecting microcirculatory weak units from ischemic damage, regardless of the effects on macro-hemodynamics.
    World journal of critical care medicine. 02/2015; 4(1):89-104.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Kidney function usually deteriorates after intestinal transplant, with prevalence of renal failure almost 20% after 5 years. We report our results on adults from single institution over >10 years. Methods Forty-six patients were transplanted with 22 survivors; we divided them in 2 groups: Group 1, recipients with creatinine >1.2 mg/dL (normal, 0.50–1.2) and Group 2, normal creatinine. Group 1 included 12 patients (9 males) with a mean age of 42.8 years; all lived at home, with normal creatinine at transplant (apart from 1 patient with a creatinine of 1.6 mg/dL), and were mainly transplanted for short bowel syndrome. One underwent retransplantation. Immunosuppression was based on alemtuzumab (8 recipients) plus tacrolimus (FK). Group 2 included 10 patients (6 males) with a mean age of 34.7 years; all lived at home, had normal creatinine at transplantation, and were mainly transplanted for short bowel syndrome. Immunosuppression was mainly based on alemtuzumab (8 recipients) plus FK. Results There were no relevant differences between the 2 groups regarding number of recipients, sex, baseline creatinine at transplant, reason for transplantation, retransplantation, immunosuppression, antifungal or antiviral therapy, hospitalization, total parenteral nutrition (or fluids), or stoma. The only relevant difference was age (P = .04); patients with deteriorated kidney function or altered creatinine were found to be older.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2014; 46(7):2322–2324. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Laparoscopic liver resection is considered risky in cirrhotic patients, even if minor surgical trauma of laparoscopy could be useful to prevent deterioration of a compromised liver function. This study aimed to identify the differences in terms of perioperative complications and early outcome in cirrhotic patients undergoing minor hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with open or laparoscopic technique. Methods. In this retrospective study, 156 cirrhotic patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma were divided into two groups according to type of surgical approach: laparoscopy (LS group: 23 patients) or laparotomy (LT group: 133 patients). Perioperative data, mortality, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results. Groups were matched for type of resection, median number of nodules, and median diameter of largest lesions. Groups were also homogeneous for preoperative liver and renal function tests. Intraoperative haemoglobin decrease and transfusions of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma were significantly lower in LS group. MELD score lasted stable after laparoscopic resection, while it increased in laparotomic group. Postoperative liver and renal failure and mortality were all lower in LS group. Conclusions. Lower morbidity and mortality, maintenance of liver function, and shorter hospital stay suggest the safety and benefit of laparoscopic approach.
    HPB Surgery 01/2014; 2014:871251.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The possibility of outlining a risk profile for perioperative blood transfusion of cirrhotic patients submitted to hepatic resection can help to rationalize transfusion policy. Methods: Data from 323 hepatic resections, performed in cirrhotic patients, were reviewed. Bootstrap and a leave-one-out logistic regressions were applied to test the accuracy of available risk scores for peri-operative transfusion identified from PubMed search of the last 20 years, to refine them, and to provide internal validation for present results. Results: One-hundred-six patients (32.8%) required blood transfusions during either intra- and/or post-operative. The predictive accuracy of three identified risk scores was poor with the Area under Receiver Operating Characteristics (AUROC) curves <0.70 in all cases. Tumor diameter, hemoglobin and presence of coronary artery disease were confirmed, in the present cohort, as predictors of blood transfusion together with serum albumin and bilirubin. The leave-one-out logistic regression results in an AUROC of 0.80, and of 0.79 for internal validation, significantly higher than that of the three scores tested (P<0.001). A Maximal Surgical Blood Order Schedule stratification was proposed. Conclusions: The risk profile for transfusion of cirrhotic patients undergoing hepatectomy can be better assessed with a model that combines already known clinical factors and hepatic function indexes.
    Minerva anestesiologica 11/2013; · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of early rejection after intestinal transplantation correlates with heightened risk of graft loss and mortality. Many different induction or pre-conditioning protocols have been reported in the last 10 yr to improve outcomes; however, sepsis remains prevalent and diminishes long-term results. We recently began a "2-dose" alemtuzumab trial protocol - 15 mg at day 0 and 15 mg repeated on day 7 - with the hope of reducing our infection rate. We compared three different protocols used at our institution (daclizumab, conventional "4-dose" alemtuzumab, and "2-dose" alemtuzumab). There was a significantly lower rate of early rejection with the "2-dose" alemtuzumab protocol in our study group of mainly (88%) intestinal grafts without accompanying liver engraftment with its protective immunologic effect. Sepsis remained low. Longer follow-up will be required to evaluate the effects of this new protocol on longer-term outcomes.
    Clinical Transplantation 07/2013; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is associated with a hyperdynamic circulation (HC). In this observational study, we aimed to investigate the predictive factors of HC, its impact on intraoperative hemodynamic and postoperative outcome, early ICU and in-hospital mortality, in cirrhotic patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). METHODS: 242 patients with cirrhosis undergoing cadaveric OLT were included. Before starting the transplant procedure and under general anesthesia, a pulmonary artery catheter was introduced to assess hemodynamic parameters. The baseline assessment was carried out approximately 30 minutes after the catheter placement and repeated during the anhepatic phase, 10 minutes after the reperfusion and at the end of surgery. The patients were divided into two groups: in group 1 the patients had SVR > 900dynes sec-1 m-2 cm-5, in group 2 SVR @900 dynes sec-1 m-2 cm-5. RESULTS: 82 patients (33%) presented severe HC. In multivariate analysis 2 factors were associated with the occurrence of HC: beta-blockers use [Exp (B) = 4.42 (95% CI 1.18-17); p=0.001, (34% and 12% in groups 1 and 2, p<0.001, respectively)] and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score [Exp (B) =1.066; 95% C.I. = 1.025 - 1.109; p=0.001]. CONCLUSION:MELD score was an independent predictor of HC, and beta-blockers resulted associated with lower incidence of HC in cirrhotic patients undergoing cadaveric OLT. Intraoperative HC correlates with hemodynamic alterations, requiring more blood products and vasopressor use, this may increase the risk of renal failure, early ICU death and in-hospital mortality.
    Minerva anestesiologica 10/2012; · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Slight alterations in cardiac enzymes are frequently observed perioperatively among liver transplant patients. The significance of these changes in the absence of ongoing acute cardiac pathology is unknown. We sought to evaluate the link between early postoperative anomalies of serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in the absence of an evident cardiac cause and kidney injury during the first week of hospital stay. We retrospectively enrolled 30 patients in the study, recording several perioperative variables, particularly cTnT on intensive care unit ICU arrival as well as 6 and 12 hours later. We grouped patients with cTnT levels >0.03 ng/mL as the high-TnT group; the others were control subjects. We recorded the highest serum creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels during the first week of the hospital stay. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated according to the Cockroft-Gault formula. Ten patients composed the high-TnT group. Their perioperative variables showed higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores and significantly greater incidences of acute kidney injury, failure, and dialysis need than control patients. GFR dropped from 118 to 66 mL/min among this group versus 112 to 105 mL/min in control subjects (P = .021). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed a higher association between the high-TnT group and acute kidney injury (P = .036) than with the MELD score (P = .719). Serum cTnT levels could be influenced by both preoperative and intraoperative conditions that predispose to kidney injury.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2012; 44(7):1999-2001. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-reperfusion syndrome (PRS) during isolated intestinal transplantation (ITx) is characterized by decreased systemic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and cardiac output and by a moderate increased pulmonary arterial pressure. We hypothesize that the more severe PRS causes a poorer long-term outcome. The primary aim of this study was to determine the independent clinical predictors of intra-operative PRS, as well as to investigate the link between the severity of PRS and the intra-operative profiles and to examine the post-operative complications and their relationship with transplant outcome. This observational study was conducted on 27 patients undergoing isolated ITx in a single adult liver and multivisceral transplantation center. PRS was considered when the mean arterial blood pressure was 30% lower than the pre-unclamping value and lasted for at least one min within 10 min after unclamping. The main results of this study can be summarized in two findings: in patients undergoing ITx, the duration of cold ischemia and the pre-operative glomerular filtration rate were independent predictors of PRS and the occurrence of intra-operative PRS was associated with significantly more frequent post-operative renal failure and early post-operative death.
    Clinical Transplantation 10/2011; 26(3):454-60. · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hepatic cirrhosis is associated with an important cardiovascular alterations. In this report, we review our transplant center experience with liver transplantation in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) era, in particular this study investigate the relationship between severity of liver disease assessed by MELD score and postoperative events. Our retrospective review was performed on 242 cirrhotic patients underwent liver transplanation at the Department of Surgery and Transplantation of the University of Bologna. Biochemical and hemodynamic variables were evaluated by Swan-Ganz catherization. Dindo's classification of postoperative complications was used for the evaluation of postoperative course. Morbidity occurred in 158 patients (65.2%) and 13 patients died during the hospital stay. Considering the highest grade of complication occurred, non life-threatening complications occurred in the 47.9% of cases (116 patients) and life-threatening complications, excluding patient death, in 17.3% (42 patients). Patients with MELD >30 showed a longer ICU stay, tracheal intubation and in-hospital stay. In conclusion MELD score is tightly related to postoperative complications.
    Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica 09/2010; 56(3):253-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation (OLT) is a valid therapeutic option for patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The most critical phase during OLT is considered to be graft reperfusion, where in large changes in patient homeostasis occur. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the hemodynamic and cardiac changes among a large series of patients with FHF, to determine independent clinical predictors of the occurrence of postreperfusion syndrome (PSR) and its relationship to clinical and hemodynamic parameters and transplant outcomes. Systemic hemodynamic and cardiac functions were evaluated by Swan-Ganz catheterization in 58 patients before OLT. The patients were divided into two subgroups on the basis of PSR, which was defined as a mean arterial blood pressure 30% lower than the immediate previous value lasting for at least 1 minute within 5 minutes after unclamping. PSR occurred in 24 patients (41%). Significant differences upon bivariate analysis was observed for the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score, which was significantly higher among patients with PSR, namely 32 (range = 18-43) versus 23 (range = 12-32) (P = .001). Higher serum creatinine values were significantly different among patients with PSR: 1.4 (range = 1.2-2.2) versus 2.1 (range = 2.5-3.2) mg/dL (P < .01). Systemic hemodynamic alterations of FHF progressively worsen with increasing severity of liver disease. PSR developed in approximately 40% of patients; its prevalence was significantly related to the severity of the disease. Finally, patients with renal failure showed greater risk to develop an PSR during OLT.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2010; 42(4):1197-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allograft rejection in intestinal transplantation occurs frequently, and bacterial, fungal, and viral infections related to strong immunosuppression regimens remain an important complication posttransplantation. Induction therapy has enabled improvement in graft and patient survival rates. In analyze the effects of daclizumab and alemtuzumab as induction therapies on inflections complications and incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) during the early posttransplantation period. Between December 2000 and August 2009, we performed 43 intestinal transplantation procedures in 42 adult recipients (median [SD] age, 34.8 [9.5] years; male-female ratio, 22:20; isolated or multivisceral graft, 32/11), and compared findings during the first 30 days posttransplantation in 40 recipients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 treated with daclizumab (Zenapax; Hoffman-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland): 8 isolated intestinal grafts and 4 multivisceral grafts) and 28 treated with alemtuzumab (Campath-1H: 22 isolated intestinal grafts and 6 multivisceral grafts). Maintenance immunosuppression was based on tacrolimus and steroids in the first group and low-dose tacrolimus in the second group. During the first month posttransplantation, 8 daclizumab recipients (66.6%) experienced 9 episodes of mild ACR, which were successfully treated with steroid therapy, and 8 patients (66.6%) developed a bacterial infection requiring treatment. Fourteen episodes of ACR occurred in 12 alemtuzumab recipients (42.8%): 11 mild, 1 mild to moderate, and 2 moderate; 16 patients (57.1%) required treatment for infections. Five-year patient cumulative survival was 66% in daclizumab recipients and 43% in alemtuzumab recipients. Five-year graft survivals was 66% in daclizumab recipients and 41% in alemtuzumab recipients. In both groups, P was not statistically significative. The infection rate is considerably high with both protocols. Alemtuzumab seems to offer better immunosuppression against ACRs during the first month posttransplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2010; 42(1):35-8. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical approaches to complicated benign intestinal failure are accepted worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. Intestinal transplant surgery is thought to rescue patients in whom complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) develop. To report our experience with surgical intestinal rescue in an adult population with intestinal failure. An intestinal rehabilitation program initiated at our institution included comprehensive medical rehabilitation, surgical bowel rescue, and transplantation. From 2000 to 2009, of 81 adult patients referred by our gastroenterologists for bowel rehabilitation, 42 (51,8%) underwent 43 transplantations (32 isolated intestinal grafts and 11 multivisceral grafts). Underlying diseases were primarily short-bowel syndrome, Gardner syndrome, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Thirty-nine patients (48,2%) underwent surgical rescue (40 cases) consisting of bowel resection, adhesiolysis, stricturoplasty, liver transplantation with portocaval hemitransposition (6 cases in 5 patients). Underlying diseases were primarily intestinal fistulas, stenosis, or perforations, short-bowel syndrome, cocoon syndrome, and complete portal thrombosis. After a mean (SD) follow-up of 1043 (1016) days, in the transplantation population, 21 patients (50%) are alive, with a 1-, 3-, 5-year patient survival of 76%, 59%, and 52%, respectively, and graft survival of 66%, 54%, and 48%, respectively. After 901 (404) days in the rescue population, 32 patients (82%) are alive (2 died, and 5 were lost to follow-up); in 75%, TPN 25% was discontinued, and are receiving oral feeding with TPN support. The 1- and 3-year survival rate was 100% and 83%, respectively. Deaths occurred primarily in the transplantation population. Intestinal surgical rescue, when possible, is optimal.
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2010; 42(1):39-41. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Allograft rejection in intestinal transplantation occurs frequently, and bacterial, fungal, and viral infections related to strong immunosuppression regimens remain an important complication posttransplantation. Induction therapy has enabled improvement in graft and patient survival rates. Objectives: In analyze the effects of daclizumab and alemtuzumab as induction therapies on inflections complications and incidence of acute cellular rejection (ACR) during the early posttransplantation period. Patients and Methods: Between December 2000 and August 2009, we performed 43 intestinal transplantation procedures in 42 adult recipients (median [SD] age, 34.8 [9.5] years; male-female ratio, 22:20; isolated or multivisceral graft, 32/11), and compared findings during the first 30 days posttransplantation in 40 recipients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 treated with daclizumab (Zenapax; Hoffman-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland): 8 isolated intestinal grafts and 4 multivisceral grafts) and
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2010; 42:35-38. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Surgical approaches to complicated benign intestinal failure are accepted worldwide, especially in the pediatric population. Intestinal transplant surgery is thought to rescue patients in whom complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) develop. Objective: To report our experience with surgical intestinal rescue in an adult population with intestinal failure. Patients and Methods: An intestinal rehabilitation program initiated at our institution included comprehensive medical rehabilitation, surgical bowel rescue, and transplantation. From 2000 to 2009, of 81 adult patients referred by our gastroenterologists for bowel rehabilitation, 42 (51,8%) underwent 43 transplantations (32 isolated intestinal grafts and 11 multivisceral grafts). Underlying diseases were primarily short-bowel syndrome, Gardner syndrome, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Thirty-nine patients (48,2%) underwent surgical rescue (40 cases) consisting of bowel resection, adhesiolysis, stricturoplasty, liver transpla
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2010; 42:39-41. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The application of intestinal transplantation is limited by the high rate of infectious complications that can occur; the migration of enteric microorganisms to extraintestinal sites (bacterial translocation) has been suggested to be responsible for this event. We reviewed 95 intestinal biopsies performed on 28 transplanted patients to identify histologic features predictive of isolation of enteric microorganisms in extraintestinal sites within the first month after transplantation. At least 1 isolation of enteric microorganisms in the peritoneal cavity and/or in blood samples was obtained in 13 patients (46.4%); this event led to higher 1-year mortality (38.5% vs. 6.7%; P = .041). Of the 95 biopsies, 38 were followed by positive cultures (40.0%), showing higher degrees of mucosal vascular alterations (Ruiz grade) and ischemia/reperfusion injuries (Park/Chiu grade) compared with the negative cases (P < .05). We also observed an higher prevalence of positive cultures in relation to acute cellular rejection episodes (P = .091). Neither clinical or surgical factors nor immunosuppressive therapy were observed to be significantly related to positive cultures. Histologic alterations of the small bowel allograft are related to isolation of enteric microorganisms in extraintestinal sites. The degree of these histologic features can identify patients at high risk of potentially life-threatening infectious complications and death.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2009; 41(4):1325-30. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) is used to determine organ allocation priorities for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), although its value to predict posttransplantation mortality and morbility is controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze postoperative courses and (to evaluate the relationships between MELD score and postoperative) complications. We retrospectively examined the courses of 242 patients including 186 males and 56 females of overall mean age of 53 +/- 10 years who underwent primary liver transplantation. The classification of Dindo-characterized 5 grades of severity to evaluate postoperative events. The data showed that 171 patients (70.7%) experienced complications, while 71 (29.3%) had none. We observed that MELD score and complications were related (P < .05). Patients with complicated courses post-OLT displayed a 22.80 mean value of the MELD score, while those without complications showed a 17.64 mean value. The MELD score was also significantly associated with the time of intensive care unit stay and in hospital. Finally, we noted that MELD score and mortality were significantly correlated (P < .05). In conclusion, MELD score can be considered to be an objective system to predict the prevalence and severity of postoperative complications after liver transplantation.
    Transplantation Proceedings 05/2009; 41(4):1240-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel transplantation can be associated with large fluid shifts due to massive blood loss, dehydration, vascular clamping, long ischemia times, intraoperative visceral exposure, intestinal denervation, ischemic damage, and lymphatic interruption. Fluid management is the major intra- and postoperative problem after small bowel and multiple organ transplantation, because of the highly variable fluid and electrolyte needs of the transplant recipient. Third-space fluid requirements can be massive; inadequate replacement leads to end-organ dysfunction, particularly renal failure. Several liters of fluid may be required in the initial 24 to 48 hours postoperatively to simply maintain an adequate central pressure to provide a satisfactory urine output. During this time patients may develop extensive peripheral edema, which dissipates over the next few days as the fluids are mobilized and requirements stabilize. Based on our experience in 29 cases of intestinal transplantation and 4 cases of multivisceral transplantation, we have herein described the intraoperative fluid management and hemodynamic changes. Our study confirmed a large quantity of fluid administration during and after small bowel transplantation that required adequate volume monitoring.
    Transplantation Proceedings 07/2008; 40(6):2031-2. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Opioids can induce central sensitization and hyperalgesia, referred to as "opioid-induced hyperalgesia." Our report describes a patient who underwent intestinal transplant followed by immunosuppressant-related neuropathic pain. Her pain was treated with limited success over the course of 3 yr with different therapies, including i.v. morphine. She developed opioid-induced hyperalgesia, which was successfully treated with rapid detoxification under general anesthesia. Detoxification improved her quality of life, including the ability to resume physiotherapy. Six months after treatment, she remained opioid free. Our experience suggests that rapid detoxification under general anesthesia may be an effective treatment for opioid-induced hyperalgesia and merits comparison to traditional detoxification methods.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 03/2008; 106(2):645-6, table of contents. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel transplantation can be associated with large fluid shifts due to massive blood loss, dehydration, vascular clamping, long ischemia times, intraoperative visceral exposure, intestinal denervation, ischemic damage, and lymphatic interruption. Fluid management is the major intra- and postoperative problem after small bowel and multiple organ transplantation, because of the highly variable fluid and electrolyte needs of the transplant recipient. Third-space fluid requirements can be massive; inadequate replacement leads to end-organ dysfunction, particularly renal failure. Several liters of fluid may be required in the initial 24 to 48 hours postoperatively to simply maintain an adequate central pressure to provide a satisfactory urine output. During this time patients may develop extensive peripheral edema, which dissipates over the next few days as the fluids are mobilized and requirements stabilize. Based on our experience in 29 cases of intestinal transplantation and 4 cases of multiviscera
    Transplantation Proceedings 01/2008; 40:2031-2032. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation 01/2008; 86. · 3.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

317 Citations
93.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine DIMES
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2006–2008
    • Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
    • Università Politecnica delle Marche
      • Chair of Biological Sciences
      Ancona, The Marches, Italy
  • 2000–2005
    • Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
      • • Department of Biomedical, Metabolical and Neurosciences
      • • Emergency department
      Modène, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 2004
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Recanati/Miller Transplantation Institute
      Manhattan, NY, United States