Luis R Lopez

Waterbury Hospital, Waterbury, Connecticut, United States

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Publications (35)124.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aspirin (ASA) irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) leading to decreased thromboxane-mediated platelet activation. The effect of ASA ingestion on thromboxane generation was evaluated in patients with diabetes (DM) and cardiovascular disease. Thromboxane inhibition was assessed by measuring the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11dhTxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2. The mean baseline urinary 11dhTxB2 of DM was 69.6% higher than healthy controls (P = 0.024): female subjects (DM and controls) had 50.9% higher baseline 11dhTxB2 than males (P = 0.0004), while age or disease duration had no influence. Daily ASA ingestion inhibited urinary 11dhTxB2 in both DM (71.7%) and controls (75.1%, P < 0.0001). Using a pre-established cut-off of 1500 pg/mg of urinary 11dhTxB2, there were twice as many ASA poor responders (ASA "resistant") in DM than in controls (14.8% and 8.4%, respectively). The rate of ASA poor responders in two populations of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients was 28.6 and 28.7%, in spite of a significant (81.6%) inhibition of urinary 11dhTxB2 (P < 0.0001). Both baseline 11dhTxB2 levels and rate of poor ASA responders were significantly higher in DM and ACS compared to controls. Underlying systemic oxidative inflammation may maintain platelet function in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease irrespective of COX-1 pathway inhibition and/or increase systemic generation of thromboxane from non-platelet sources.
    World journal of diabetes. 04/2014; 5(2):115-127.
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    ABSTRACT: OxLDL/β2GPI complexes have been implicated in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and associated with disease severity and adverse outcomes. We investigate the significance of anti-oxLDL/β2GPI antibodies and oxLDL/β2GPI complexes in patients with arterial and idiopathic venous disease. A cohort of 61 arterial disease patients, 32 idiopathic venous disease patients, and 53 healthy controls was studied. Because statins influence oxLDL/β2GPI, these complexes were analyzed on subjects not taking statins. Arterial and venous groups expressed higher levels of IgG anti-oxLDL/β2GPI antibodies than controls without any other significant clinical association. OxLDL/β2GPI complexes were significantly elevated in arterial (0.69 U/mL, P = 0.004) and venous disease (0.54 U/mL, P = 0.025) than controls (0.39 U/mL). Among arterial diseases, oxLDL/β2GPI was 0.85 U/mL for carotid artery disease, 0.72 U/mL for peripheral artery disease, and 0.52 U/mL for abdominal aortic aneurysm. There was a significant association with male gender, age, hypertension, and history of thrombosis. Subjects with oxLDL/β2GPI above the median (0.25 U/mL) were more likely to have arterial (OR 4.5, P = 0.004) or venous disease (OR 4.1, P = 0.008). Multivariate regression indicated that males (P = 0.021), high cholesterol (P = 0.011), and carotid disease (P = 0.023) were significant predictors of oxLDL/β2GPI. The coexistence of oxLDL/β2GPI in arterial and venous disease may suggest a common oxidative mechanism that independently predicts carotid artery disease.
    Research Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 2014:234316.
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    ABSTRACT: Immunologic research into pathogenic mechanisms operating in autoimmune-mediated atherosclerosis initially focused on adaptive immunity. Current interest is directed to more basic inflammatory mechanisms. Chronic inflammation (innate immunity-associated) may trigger initial events that can lead to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This chronic inflammation may start early in life and be perpetuated by classic atherosclerosis risk factors. Lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein seems to be a key event in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein triggers inflammatory and immunogenic events that promote endothelial dysfunction and the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an autoimmune response capable of accelerating the intracellular accumulation of lipids within atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein binds β2-glycoprotein I to form circulating complexes found in both autoimmune and non-autoimmune atherosclerosis. It is likely that β2-glycoprotein I and/or these complexes contribute to early atherogenesis by stimulating pro-inflammatory innate immunity through endogenous sensors and inflammasome/interleukin-1 pathways. We discuss the chronic inflammatory (innate) and autoimmune (adaptive) responses operating in atherosclerosis to discern the role of autoimmunity in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
    BMC Medicine 01/2014; 12(1):47. · 7.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The innate immune system represents the first line of host defense against a wide variety of pathogens and endogenous danger signals. It relies on trans-membrane signaling and cytoplasmic receptors (danger sensors) to trigger early inflammatory responses. As with the adaptive immunity, an innate immune response can cause tissue injury, chronic inflammation and disease. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich proteins (NLRs) are a family of cytoplasmic receptors for endogenous danger signals. Inflammasomes are multi-molecular complexes of pyrin-containing NLRs (NLRPs) that regulate pro-inflammatory caspases and interleukin 1 cytokines in response to various stimuli. Cholesterol crystals and oxidation-specific epitopes (oxLDL, ROS) are some of the endogenous signals capable of activating NLRP inflammasomes. Thus, an inflammasome-induced IL-1β dysregulation may represent an early atherogenic mechanism that initiates atherosclerosis. The plasma protein, β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI), complexed to anionic phospholipids is the main antigenic target for antiphospholipid antibodies. In addition to anticoagulant properties, circulating β2GPI has more pleiotropic functions affecting fibrinolysis, angiogenesis, apoptosis and atherogenesis. OxLDL interacts with β2GPI to form oxLDL/β2GPI pro-atherogenic complexes in both autoimmune-mediated and non-autoimmune atherothrombotic diseases. Due to its interaction with oxLDL, the contribution and implication of β2GPI in early atherogenesis via the innate (inflammasome/IL-1) system are hypothesized.
    Autoimmunity reviews 04/2012; · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aspirin (ASA) irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) leading to decreased thromboxane-mediated platelet activation. The effect of ASA ingestion on platelet activation, thromboxane generation, oxidative stress and anti-oxidant biomarkers was studied in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Baseline and post-ASA samples (100/325 mg x 7 days) were obtained from 75 DM patients and 86 healthy controls for urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11 dhTxB2), 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and serum sP-Selectin, nitrite (NO(2)(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity. Compared to baseline controls, baseline DM had higher mean levels of 11 dhTxB2 (3,665 ± 2,465 vs 2,450 ± 1,572 pg/mg creatinine, p=0.002), 8-isoPGF2α (1,457 ± 543 vs 1,009 ± 412 pg/mg creatinine, p<0.0001), NO(2)(-) (11.8 ± 7.3 vs 4.8 ± 5.3 μM, p<0.0001), NO(3)(-) (50.4 ± 39.3 vs 20.9 ± 16.7 μM, p<0.0001) and sP-Selectin (120.8 ± 56.7 vs 93.0 ± 26.1 ng/mL, p=0.02), and the same held for post-ASA levels (p<0.0001). ASA demonstrated no effect on 8-isoPGF2α, NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), sP-Selectin or PON1 activity in either DM or controls. Post ASA inhibition of urinary 11 dhTxB2 was 71.5% in DM and 75.1% in controls. There were twice as many ASA poor responders in DM than in controls (14.8% and 8.4%) based on systemic thromboxane reduction. Urinary 8-isoPGF2α excretion was greater in DM ASA poor responders than good responders (p<0.009). This suggests that oxidative stress may maintain platelet function irrespective of COX-1 pathway inhibition and/or increase systemic generation of thromboxane from non-platelet sources.
    Thrombosis Research 04/2012; 130(3):350-4. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been associated with portal vein thrombosis (PVT). This study explored the contribution of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) to PVT in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. A total of 50 patients with liver cirrhosis and PVT, 50 patients with liver cirrhosis without PVT, 50 consecutive PVT without liver cirrhosis, and 50 controls. aPL tests: lupus anticoagulants (LAs), immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL), IgG anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-I (β(2)GPI), and IgG β( 2)GPI-complexed with oxidized low-density lipoprotein antibodies (ox-LDL). Lupus anticoagulants were negative in all patients. A titre of IgG aCL >40 IgG phospholipid units (GPL) was present in 2% of patients with liver cirrhosis and in none of the other groups. In all, 4% of patients with PVT without cirrhosis were positive for IgG β(2)GPI in the absence of any other positive aPL and labelled as primary APS. aPL play no role in PVT associated with liver cirrhosis but can be tested in idiopathic PVT.
    Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 08/2011; 17(4):367-70. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on oxidised low-density lipoprotein/beta2-glycoprotein I (oxLDL/ β2GPI) complex concentration in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: open label 2:1 assignment of consecutive diabetic patients into oral rosuvastatin (10 mg daily for six weeks) arm or observational arm with measurements of serum oxLDL/ β2GPI complexes, nitric oxide metabolites, asymmetric dimethyl arginine, nitrotyrosine alongside routine biochemistry at baseline and end of study in all patients.ResultsAfter rosuvastatin treatment the mean serum concentration of oxLDL/β2GPI decreased from 0.79±0.49 units/mL to 0.53±0.36 units/mL (p
    The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease 12/2010; 10(6):292-299.
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)/beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) complexes have been implicated in atherogenesis. oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes were measured in 339 patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Approximately 68% had angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) and significantly higher mean + or - SD levels of oxLDL/beta2GPI (3.75 + or - 6.31 U/mL) than patients with normal coronary arteries (2.21 + or - 3.03 U/mL; P = .0026). Patients with severe CAD had significantly higher mean + or - SD levels of oxLDL/beta2GPI (8.71 + or - 12.87 U/mL) compared with the overall mean of 3.25 U/mL (P < .05) and a significantly higher rate (28.9%) of adverse events than the overall rate of 11.2% (P < .05). Patients with adverse events had higher mean + or - SD levels of oxLDL/beta2GPI (4.05 + or - 5.38 U/mL) than patients without adverse events (3.15 + or - 5.53; P = .029). The relative risk for adverse events in higher oxLDL/beta2GPI quartiles was 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-9.1; P = .06) for quartile 3 and 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-10.4; P = .02) for quartile 4. Our results support the concept that oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes are associated with severity of CAD and a 3.5-fold increased risk for adverse outcomes.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 05/2010; 133(5):737-43. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) have been implicated in atherogenesis. We studied 344 patients with acute coronary syndromes; approximately 40% were aPL+ in 1 or more tests and 60% aPL-. In 215 patients, coronary artery disease (CAD) was angiographically documented, with 43.7% positive for aPL vs 34.9% of patients without CAD positive for aPLs. Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI; 54%) and anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)/beta2GPI (48%) were most frequent, accounting for 87% of all aPL+ CAD cases. aPLs correlated with severity of CAD (P = .012). Adverse events occurred in 16.7% of patients with CAD, more frequently in patients who were aPL+ (P = .0006; relative risk, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.6). Patients who were aPL+ with severe CAD had more adverse events than patients who were aPL- with severe CAD (P = .005) and aPL+ patients undergoing revascularization procedures (P = .001). Vascular events occurred in 21.7% of aPL+ patients compared with 7.1% of aPL- patients (P = .005). Anti-beta2GPI and anti-oxLDL/beta2GPI were associated with CAD severity and adverse outcomes.
    American Journal of Clinical Pathology 10/2009; 132(4):613-20. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular inflammation is common in certain systemic autoimmune diseases and contributes to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and oxLDL/beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) complex formation. These complexes have been implicated as proatherogenic autoantigens that participate in the development of atherosclerotic disease. We have demonstrated that the in vitro macrophage uptake of oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes increases in the presence of IgG anti-beta2GPI antibodies and that IgG immune complexes containing oxLDL/beta2GPI upregulate the expression of both scavenger and Fcgamma receptors to activate beta2GPI specific T cells. Some persistent infections may cause immune responses that promote atherogenesis. Cellular immunity (Th1) against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) derived heat shock protein 60 (Hp-HSP60) cross-reacts with endogenous HSP60 to cause cardiovascular disease likely by molecular mimicry. Infectious cellular response may be proatherogenic,while the humoral response (antibody production) maybe protective. We review the recent progress in our understanding of autoimmunity and infectious immunity that promote atherosclerosis.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 10/2009; 29(6):714-21. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid peroxidation occurs frequently in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases and contributes to autoimmune vascular inflammation. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) interacts with beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), forming oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes. Circulating oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes and autoantibodies to these complexes have been demonstrated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. These findings suggest an immunogenic nature of the complexes and an active proatherogenic role in autoimmunity. Biochemical characterization of the complexes and immunohistochemical studies of atherosclerotic lesions suggest that most of the complexes originate in the arterial wall and are released into circulation. The in vitro macrophage uptake of oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes increased significantly in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (anti-beta2GPI), suggesting that macrophage Fcgamma receptors are involved in the lipid intracellular influx that leads to foam cell formation. These findings provide an immunologic explanation for the accelerated development of atherosclerosis seen in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome.
    Current Rheumatology Reports 03/2009; 11(1):61-9. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), characterized by elevated serum levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and thromboembolic complications, is a common cause of acquired hypercoagulability. The plasma protein beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) is the most clinically relevant antigenic target for aPL. Recent experimental evidence from our laboratory substantiated the concept that IgG anti-beta2GPI immune complexes containing oxidized LDL (oxLDL) not only facilitated the intracellular accumulation of oxLDL in macrophages but also allowed the presentation of beta2GPI epitopes to pathogenic autoreactive T cells. Both mechanisms required FcgammaRI-mediated uptake by macrophages/monocytes. Furthermore, several clinical studies demonstrated that the presence of circulating oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes and IgG autoantibodies to these complexes was significantly associated with vascular inflammation (i.e. autoimmune-mediated atherothrombosis) in autoimmune patients. In this article, we review recent findings concerning the biochemical and immunologic mechanisms involved in autoimmune-mediated atherothrombosis in patients with APS.
    Autoimmunity reviews 02/2009; 8(6):500-5. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes atherosclerosis through a complex interaction of inflammatory and immunologic factors that lead to macrophage lipid uptake and foam cell formation. OxLDL interacts with beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) forming oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes. These complexes may be formed in the arterial intima during atherogenesis and released into the circulation. Autoantibodies against oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes have been demonstrated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome, and shown to be significantly associated with arterial thrombosis. The observation that monoclonal autoantibodies against oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes significantly increased the oxLDL uptake by macrophages strongly suggests that such IgG autoantibodies are pro-atherogenic. In this article, we review the recent progress in our understanding of LDL oxidation, oxLDL/beta2GPI complex formation, and immune regulation of atherogenesis.
    Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 12/2008; 37(1):12-9. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries associated with various risk factors that promote lipid abnormalities (i.e., dyslipidemia), development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions, plaque rupture, and vascular thrombosis. Experimental evidence from biochemical and clinical studies support the idea that arterial thrombosis is an autoimmune process resulting from 'autoantibody'-mediated pro-atherogenic mechanisms now seen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). In addition, it has been shown that persistent infections of Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cause immune responses (infectious immunity) in their hosts that promote atherogenesis. In this article, we review recent progress in our understanding of immune- and infection-mediated atherosclerosis.
    Autoimmunity Reviews 02/2008; 7(3):214-22. · 7.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunolocalization of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL), beta2-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI), CD4(+)/CD8(+) immunoreactive lymphocytes, and immunoglobulins in atherosclerotic lesions strongly suggested an active participation of the immune system in atherogenesis. Oxidative stress leading to ox-LDL production is thought to play a central role in both the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. ox-LDL is highly proinflammatory and chemotactic for macrophage/monocyte and immune cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure circulating ox-LDL have been developed and are being currently used to assess oxidative stress as risk factor or marker of atherosclerotic disease. ox-LDL interacts with beta(2)GPI and circulating ox-LDL/beta(2)GPI complexes have been demonstrated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It has been postulated that beta(2)GPI binds ox-LDL to neutralize its proinflammatory and proatherosclerotic effects. Because beta(2)GPI is ubiquitous in plasma, its interaction with ox-LDL may mask oxidized epitopes recognized by capture antibodies potentially interfering with immunoassays results. The measurement of ox-LDL/beta(2)GPI complexes may circumvent this interference representing a more physiological and accurate way of measuring ox-LDL.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2007; 1109:303-10. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) plays a critical role in early stages of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that oxLDL forms stable complexes with beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), and that these complexes were frequently present in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes were shown to be antigenic targets for autoantibodies present in APS. To understand the role of autoantibodies in accelerated atherosclerosis of SLE and APS, we investigated the binding characteristics of beta2GPI and oxLDL to mouse macrophages, and the effect of anti-beta2GPI and anti-oxLDL autoantibodies on this macrophage binding. IgM anti-oxLDL antibody (derived from Apoe -/- mouse) showed inhibitory effect on oxLDL binding to macrophages. Although beta2GPI partly inhibited oxLDL binding to macrophages, IgG anti-beta2GPI autoantibody (derived from APS model mouse) showed pro-atherogenic property by promoting the binding of oxLDL/beta2GPI to macrophages.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/2007; 1108:489-96. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated the presence of aPL in patients with chest pain/acute coronary syndromes (ACS) to determine if aPL were associated with the presence and severity of CAD, adverse outcomes, and other coronary risk factors. Patients with chest pain/ACS were evaluated for aPL prior to diagnostic and therapeutic investigations. Coronary angiograms were graded according to the severity of disease. Risk factors, including family histories, were assessed and patients were followed for adverse outcomes. To date, 232 patients (116 M, 116 F, mean age 63 years) with a mean follow-up of 9 months were studied. Thirty-seven percent (86/232) were positive for one or more aPL. More women, 49/86 (57%), were aPL positive versus men, 37/86 (43%). The presence of aPL appeared associated with both presence and severity of CAD (P = 0.176 women; P = 0.163 men). In patients undergoing procedures (angioplasty, stent, bypass), aPL was significantly associated with both an increase in adverse cardiac outcomes (P = 0.045) and extracardiac thrombotic events (P = 0.033). Anti-beta2 glycoprotein-1 (abeta2GP1) was the most frequent aPL, occurring in 68.5% of aPL-positive patients with CAD. Anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) occurred in only 7.4%. IgM isotypes were the most frequent for all categories of aPL (range 55-90%). Family history of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-related events was more significant in aPL-positive than aPL-negative individuals (P = 0.027).
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 07/2007; 1108:466-74. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) is one of the strongest independent predictors of cardiovascular disease. We have previously reported that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) interacts with beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), implicating oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes as putative autoantigens in autoimmune-mediated atherosclerotic vascular disease. In this study, we investigated the interaction of CRP with oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes and its association with atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). CRP/oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes were predominantly found in sera of DM patients with atherosclerosis. In contrast, noncomplexed CRP isoforms were present in sera of patients with acute/chronic inflammation, i.e., various pyrogenic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and DM. Immunohistochemistry staining colocalized CRP and beta2GPI together with oxLDL in carotid artery plaques but not in synovial tissue from RA patients, strongly suggesting that complex formation occurs during the development of atherosclerosis. Serum levels of CRP correlated with soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes correlated with total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c. Thus, the generation of CRP/oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes seems to be associated with arterial inflammation, hyperglycemia, and hypercholesterolemia. CRP/oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes can be distinguished from pyrogenic noncomplexed CRP isoforms and may represent a more specific and predictive marker for atherosclerosis.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 05/2007; 48(4):768-81. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is thought to promote atherosclerosis through complex inflammatory and immunologic mechanisms that lead to lipid dysregulation and foam cell formation. Recent findings suggested that oxLDL forms complexes with beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) in the intima of atherosclerotic lesions. Autoantibodies against oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and/or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and significantly correlate with arterial thrombosis. IgG autoantibodies having similar specificity emerged spontaneously in non-immunized NZWxBXSB F1 mice, an animal model of APS, and a monoclonal autoantibody (WB-CAL-1; IgG2a) against complexed beta2GPI (oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes) was derived from the same mice. WB-CAL-1 significantly increased the in vitro uptake of oxLDL/beta(2)GPI complexes by macrophages. This observation strongly suggests that such IgG autoantibodies are pro-atherogenic. In contrast, IgM anti-oxLDL natural antibodies found in the atherosclerosis-prone mice (ApoE(-/-) and LDL-R(-/-) mice) have been proposed to be anti-atherogenic (protective). The presence of IgG anti-oxLDL antibodies in humans has been documented in many publications but their exact clinical significance remains unclear. In this article, we review recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms involved in oxidation of LDL, formation of oxLDL complexes, and antibody mediated-immune regulation of atherogenesis.
    Progress in Lipid Research 12/2006; 45(6):466-86. · 12.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to the pre-mature or accelerated development of atherosclerosis has been reported in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. These findings motivated a great deal of research into the role of autoimmunity in atherogenesis. The relationship between atherosclerosis and cholesterol metabolism to atherosclerosis has been well established. However, the participation of newer inflammatory and immunologic mechanisms are emerging as relevant factors for the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions.
    Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 09/2006; 32(3):537-51. · 1.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

542 Citations
124.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2010
    • Waterbury Hospital
      Waterbury, Connecticut, United States
    • Okayama University
      • Department of Cell Chemistry
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2005
    • Tokai University
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Hiratuka, Kanagawa, Japan