Douglas K Bowles

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States

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Publications (31)120 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vascular dysfunction has been associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a severe form of hyperlipidaemia. We recently demonstrated that swine with FH exhibit reduced exercise-induced systemic, but not pulmonary, vasodilatation involving reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Since NO normally limits endothelin (ET) action, we examined the hypothesis that reduced systemic vasodilatation during exercise in FH swine results from increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction. Systemic and pulmonary vascular responses to exercise were examined in chronically instrumented normal and FH swine in the absence and presence of ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan. Intrinsic reactivity to ET was further assessed in skeletal muscle arterioles. FH swine exhibited ~9-fold elevation in total plasma cholesterol versus normal swine. Similar to our recent findings, systemic, not pulmonary, vasodilatation during exercise was reduced in FH swine. Blockade of ET receptors caused marked systemic vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal swine that was significantly reduced in FH swine. The reduced role of ET in FH swine in vivo was not the result of decreased arteriolar ET responsiveness, as responsiveness was increased in isolated arterioles. Smooth muscle ET receptor protein content was unaltered by FH. However, circulating plasma ET levels were reduced in FH swine. ET receptor antagonism caused pulmonary vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal, but not FH, swine. Therefore, contrary to our hypothesis, FH swine exhibit a generalised reduction in the role of ET in regulating vascular tone in vivo likely resulting from reduced ET production. This may represent a unique vascular consequence of severe familial hypercholesterolaemia.
    The Journal of Physiology 01/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function (e.g. the NO- cGMP-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) pathway), limits shear stress induced vasodilation, and is therefore expected to reduce exercise-induced vasodilation. To assess the actual effects of hypercholesterolemia on endothelial function and exercise-induced vasodilation, we compared the effects of eNOS and PDE5 inhibition in chronically instrumented Yucatan (Control) and Rapacz Familial Hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, at rest and during treadmill exercise. The increases in systemic vascular conductance produced by ATP and exercise,were blunted in FH compared to Control swine. The vasoconstrictor response to eNOS inhibition, with Nitro-L-Arginine (NLA), was attenuated in FH compared to control swine, both at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, whereas the vasodilator response to nitroprusside was slightly enhanced, the vasodilator response to PDE5 inhibition, with EMD360527, was reduced in FH compared to control swine. Finally, in the pulmonary circulation FH resulted in attenuated vasodilator responses to ATP, whilst maintaining the responses to both NLA and EMD360537. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia reduces exercise-induced vasodilation in the systemic, but not the pulmonary circulation. This reduction appears the principal result of a decrease in NO bioavailability, which is mitigated by a lower PDE5 activity.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 10/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sex hormone status has been demonstrated to play a role in the regulation of ion channel activity. We previously demonstrated increased L-type Ca channel current (ICa) in coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of male swine compared with female swine. In male swine, endogenous testosterone increases ICa in SMCs through enhanced expression of the pore-forming α1 subunit Cav1.2. Conversely, the role of sex hormones in female swine has not been previously investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of ovariectomy on L-type Ca channel activity and expression in female Yucatan miniature swine. Sexually mature female swine were obtained from a breeder and randomly assigned to intact female (IF; n = 5) and ovariectomized (OVX; n = 6) groups. Sensitivity to depolarization-induced contractions was increased by ovariectomy. Accordingly, L-type ICa was enhanced in OVX (-9.5 [0.6] pA/pF) versus IF (-4.5 [0.3] pA/pF) swine, although L-type Ca channel α1 subunit (Cav1.2; α1c) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were unchanged. Of the L-type Ca channel β subunits, β1 (188 [31]) and β2a (561 [79]) had higher mRNA expression levels (target/18S) than β3 (9 [1]) and β4 (2 [0.1]). Although β2a, β3, and β4 mRNA and protein expressions were not different between groups, protein expression of the β1 subunit (Cavβ1) was decreased in OVX swine compared with IF swine. Endogenous female hormones inhibit L-type Ca channel activity in coronary SMCs potentially via the up-regulation of Cavβ1 subunit expression.
    Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 10/2013; · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • Isabelle Masseau, Michael J Davis, Douglas K Bowles
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Reduction of vascular inflammation might contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. We hypothesized that 1) exercise would reduce carotid endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and that 2) in vivo detection of carotid inflammation can be achieved in a large animal model using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) with VCAM-1 targeted microbubbles. METHODS: Familial Hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine were divided into sedentary (Sed) and exercise-trained (Ex) groups. Ex pigs underwent 16-20 wk of treadmill aerobic exercise. At the end of the study, in vivo CEU with VCAM-1 targeted microbubbles and assessment of endothelial-dependent dilation (EDD) were performed in carotid arteries. VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression were compared to markers of atherosclerotic disease and health, and in vitro EDD was assessed in carotid arteries. RESULTS: Exercise training did not reduce inflammation nor did it improve EDD in carotid arteries of FH swine. Markers of atherosclerosis including VCAM-1 were prominent in the bifurcation compared to the proximal or distal common carotid artery (CCA) and inversely associated with phosphorylated- and total-eNOS. Signal intensity from VCAM-1-to-control microbubbles positively correlated with carotid VCAM-1 protein expression, validating our technique. CONCLUSION: These results first demonstrate that aerobic exercise has no effect on carotid endothelial inflammatory markers and EDD in FH swine. Second, our findings indicate that CEU using VCAM-1 targeted microbubbles can detect inflammation in vivo, providing strong foundations for longitudinal studies examining the effect of therapeutic interventions on the inflammatory status of the endothelium.
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise 07/2012; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    Erin K O'Connor, Jan R Ivey, Douglas K Bowles
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    ABSTRACT: Low endogenous testosterone levels have been shown to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular benefits associated with testosterone replacement therapy are being advocated; however, the effects of endogenous testosterone levels on acute coronary vasomotor responses to androgen administration are not clear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of acute androgen administration on in vivo coronary conductance and in vitro coronary microvascular diameter in intact and castrated male swine. Pigs received intracoronary infusions of physiologic levels (1-100 nM) of testosterone, the metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and the epimer epitestosterone while left anterior descending coronary blood flow and mean arterial pressure were continuously monitored. Following sacrifice, coronary arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and exposed to physiologic concentrations (1-100 nM) of testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and epitestosterone. To evaluate effects of the androgen receptor on acute androgen dilation responses, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry for androgen receptor were performed on conduit and resistance coronary vessels. In vivo, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone produced greater increases in coronary conductance in the intact compared to the castrated males. In vitro, percent maximal dilation of microvessels was similar between intact and castrated males for testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. In both studies epitestosterone produced significant increases in conductance and microvessel diameter from baseline in the intact males. Androgen receptor mRNA expression and immunohistochemical staining were similar in intact and castrated males. Acute coronary vascular responses to exogenous androgen administration are increased by endogenous testosterone, an effect unrelated to changes in androgen receptor expression.
    Biology of sex differences. 05/2012; 3(1):10.
  • M Harold Laughlin, Douglas K Bowles, Dirk J Duncker
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, α- and β-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest and at comparable levels of exercise, mainly because of decreases in heart rate and duration of systole. EX does not stimulate growth of coronary collateral vessels in the normal heart. However, if exercise produces ischemia, which would be absent or minimal under resting conditions, there is evidence that collateral growth can be enhanced. While there is evidence that EX can decrease the progression of atherosclerotic lesions or even induce the regression of atherosclerotic lesions in humans, the evidence of this is not strong due to the fact that most prospective trials conducted to date have included other lifestyle changes and treatment strategies by necessity. The literature from large animal models of CAD also presents a cloudy picture concerning whether EX can induce the regression of or slow the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, while evidence from research using humans with CAD and animal models of CAD indicates that EX increases endothelium-dependent dilation throughout the coronary vascular tree, evidence that EX reverses or slows the progression of lesion development in CAD is not conclusive at this time. This suggests that the beneficial effects of EX in CAD may not be the result of direct effects on the coronary artery wall. If this suggestion is true, it is important to determine the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 01/2012; 302(1):H10-23. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia has been suggested to have direct negative effects on myocardial function due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and increased myocyte death. Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a significant mediator of cell death, which is enhanced by ROS generation and attenuated by exercise training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on the MPT response of cardiac mitochondria. We tested the hypothesis that familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) pigs would have an enhanced MPT response and that exercise training could reverse this phenotype. MPT was assessed by mitochondrial swelling in response to 10-100 μM Ca(2+). FH pigs did show an increased MPT response to Ca(2+) that was associated with decreases in the expression of the putative MPT pore components mitochondrial phosphate carrier (PiC) and cyclophilin-D (CypD). FH also caused increased oxidative stress, depicted by increased protein nitrotyrosylation, as well as decreased levels of reduced GSH in cardiac mitochondria. Expression of the mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), thioredoxin-2 (Trx2), and peroxiredoxin-3 (Prx3) was greatly reduced in the FH pigs. In contrast, cytosolic catalase expression and activity were increased. However, chronic exercise training was able to normalize the MPT response in FH pigs, reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, and return MnSOD, Trx2, Prx3, and catalase expression/activities to normal. We conclude that FH reduces mitochondrial antioxidants, increases mitochondrial oxidative stress, and enhances the MPT response in the porcine myocardium, and that exercise training can reverse these detrimental alterations.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 08/2011; 301(5):R1250-8. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ET(A)) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K(+) currents (I(K(+))) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca(2+) from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ET(A)-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)) was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)), illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2011; 301(4):H1687-94. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the salutary effects of exercise training on conduit artery endothelial cells have been reported in animals and humans with cardiovascular risk factors or disease, whether a healthy endothelium is alterable with exercise training is less certain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of exercise training on transcriptional profiles in normal endothelial cells using a genome-wide microarray analysis. Brachial and internal mammary endothelial gene expression was compared between a group of healthy pigs that exercise trained for 16-20 wk (n = 8) and a group that remained sedentary (n = 8). We found that a total of 130 genes were upregulated and 84 genes downregulated in brachial artery endothelial cells with exercise training (>1.5-fold and false discovery rate <15%). In contrast, a total of 113 genes were upregulated and 31 genes downregulated in internal mammary artery endothelial cells using the same criteria. Although there was an overlap of 66 genes (59 upregulated and 7 downregulated with exercise training) between the brachial and internal mammary arteries, the identified endothelial gene networks and biological processes influenced by exercise training were distinctly different between the brachial and internal mammary arteries. These data indicate that a healthy endothelium is indeed responsive to exercise training and support the concept that the influence of physical activity on endothelial gene expression is not homogenously distributed throughout the vasculature.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 05/2011; 301(2):H555-64. · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • D K Bowles, M H Laughlin
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    ABSTRACT: A combination of poor diet and physical inactivity was the second leading "actual cause of death" in 2000 in the United States, with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, in particular, being the most significant contributor. It is widely recognized that the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) is blunted by a life style incorporating moderate levels of physical activity. Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for CHD, however the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of a physically active lifestyle remain largely unknown. This Highlighted Topic series of mini-reviews will examine some of the most plausible mechanisms, and how the effect of activity may be modified by genetics and disease. The goal is to provide new information addressing these important questions and provide the impetus for future studies. We believe the field is on the verge of a major advance in understanding how exercise training programs work with lifestyle interventions to prevent and treat atherosclerosis and CHD.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 05/2011; 111(1):308-10. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Craig A Emter, Douglas K Bowles
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    ABSTRACT: Suppression of smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation marker genes is central to SMC phenotype modulation during vasculo-proliferative diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Upregulation of the intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (K(Ca)3.1) is integral for mitogen-induced suppression of SMC marker genes and post-angioplasty restenosis. Modulation of SMC marker gene expression has been observed following Ca(2+) influx from multiple sources, however, it is unknown whether upregulation of K(Ca)3.1 and/or suppression of SMC differentiation genes is dependent on a Ca(2+) mediated mechanism. The purpose of this study was to determine the dependence of mitogen-induced SMC phenotype modulation on store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). In growth-arrested, differentiated rat aortic SMCs, platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) augmented SOCE. However, PDGF-BB induced upregulation of K(Ca)3.1 and downregulation of the SMC marker gene smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) and myocardin was not dependent on SOCE. Co-treatment with the iPLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) inhibited the effects of PDGF-BB on SMC phenotype modulation and SOCE. Our results indicate SOCE is not required for PDGF-BB induced phenotype modulation in rat aortic SMCs. Rather, we implicate a novel BEL-sensitive mechanism which regulates both SOCE and phenotype modulation, independently.
    Cell calcium 07/2010; 48(1):10-8. · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Safety concerns associated with drug-eluting stents have spurred interest in alternative vessel therapeutics following angioplasty. Microbubble contrast agents have been shown to increase gene transfection in vivo in the presence of ultrasound. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheter could mediate plasmid DNA transfection from microbubble carriers to the porcine coronary artery wall following balloon angioplasty. In the presence of plasmid-coupled microbubbles in vitro only cells exposed to ultrasound from the modified IVUS catheter significantly expressed the transgene. A porcine left anterior descending coronary artery underwent balloon angioplasty followed by injection and insonation of microbubbles from the IVUS catheter at the site of angioplasty. After 3 days, an approximately 6.5-fold increase in transgene expression was observed in arteries that received microbubbles and IVUS compared to those that received microbubbles with no IVUS. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that IVUS is required to enhance gene transfection from microbubble carriers to the vessel wall in vivo. This technology may be applied to both drug and gene therapy to reduce vessel restenosis.
    Journal of Vascular Research 11/2009; 47(3):270-4. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (MaxiK) channels play a pivotal role in maintaining normal arterial tone by regulating the excitation-contraction coupling process. MaxiK channels comprise alpha and beta subunits encoded by Kcnma and the cell-restricted Kcnmb genes, respectively. Although the functionality of MaxiK channel subunits has been well studied, the molecular regulation of their transcription and modulation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is incomplete. Using several model systems, we demonstrate down-regulation of Kcnmb1 mRNA upon SMC phenotypic modulation in vitro and in vivo. As part of a broad effort to define all functional CArG elements in the genome (i.e. the CArGome), we discovered two conserved CArG boxes located in the proximal promoter and first intron of the human KCNMB1 gene. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed serum response factor (SRF) binding to both CArG elements. A luciferase assay showed myocardin (MYOCD)-mediated transactivation of the KCNMB1 promoter in a CArG element-dependent manner. In vivo analysis of the human KCNMB1 promoter disclosed activity in embryonic heart and aortic SMCs; mutation of both conserved CArG elements completely abolished in vivo promoter activity. Forced expression of MYOCD increased Kcnmb1 expression in a variety of rodent and human non-SMC lines with no effect on expression of the Kcnma1 subunit. Conversely, knockdown of Srf resulted in decreases of endogenous Kcnmb1. Functional studies demonstrated MYOCD-induced, iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium currents in porcine coronary SMCs. These results reveal the first ion channel subunit as a direct target of SRF-MYOCD transactivation, providing further insight into the role of MYOCD as a master regulator of the SMC contractile phenotype.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2009; 284(48):33671-82. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Bradley S Fleenor, Douglas K Bowles
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise training (EX) following percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography (PTCA) reduces progression to restenosis and increases event-free survival rates. Our aim was to determine whether EX inhibits lesion development and/or alters the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of the neointima (NI) in a porcine PTCA model. Miniature Yucatan swine were assigned to cage confinement (SED) or EX for 20 wk. After 16 wk, all animals underwent a PTCA procedure of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCX), with subsequent placement of an externalized jugular catheter. Animals recovered for 2 days and then resumed the previous protocol of SED or EX. Twelve days following PTCA, all animals received an intravenous bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injection to label proliferating cells. At 28 days following PTCA, the animals were euthanized, the LAD and LCX excised, and underwent standard histological processing for total collagen, type I collagen, fibronectin, BrdU, and Verhoeff-van Gieson stain. Our results demonstrate that EX significantly decreased lesion size and NI proliferation (-48%) in the LAD (P < 0.05) but not the LCX. Furthermore, EX attenuated type I collagen expression only in LAD, whereas total collagen was increased (5.9%) and fibronectin was decreased (-7.9%) in the NI of both vessels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, EX following PTCA may increase event-free survival rates following PTCA by decreasing lesion size and altering ECM composition.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 07/2009; 107(3):937-45. · 3.48 Impact Factor
  • Bradley S Fleenor, Douglas K Bowles
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    ABSTRACT: Adventitial fibroblasts have previously been proposed to be a major constituent of the neointima following coronary balloon angioplasty. The present study utilized the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chase technique to track adventitial fibroblast migration early after balloon injury in swine. BrdU (30 mg/kg), a marker of proliferating cells, was given intravenously 1 or 2 days after balloon angioplasty. For each time point, one animal was euthanized 24 h after injection to identify the location of the proliferating cells, while a second animal was euthanized 25 days after angioplasty to determine whether the proliferating cells migrated to form the neointima. Our results demonstrate that BrdU-positive cells were located primarily in the adventitia with all three time points 24 h after balloon angioplasty. Furthermore, when BrdU was injected on day 1 or 2 only 0.65 +/- 0.17% and 1.7 +/- 0.64%, respectively, of neointimal cells were BrdU positive on day 25. In conclusion, these results demonstrate a negligible contribution of coronary adventitial fibroblasts to neointima formation following coronary balloon angioplasty, supporting the concept that the neointima is primarily of smooth muscle cell origin.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 03/2009; 296(5):H1532-9. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    D L Tharp, D K Bowles
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    ABSTRACT: The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (K(Ca)3.1) was first described by Gardos in erythrocytes and later confirmed to play a significant role in T-cell activation and the immune response. More recently, K(Ca)3.1 has been characterized in numerous cell types which contribute to the development of vascular disease, such as T-cells, B-cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, and dedifferentiated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Physiologically, K(Ca)3.1 has been demonstrated to play a role in acetylcholine and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) induced hyperpolarization, and thus control of blood pressure. Pathophysiologically, K(Ca)3.1 contributes to proliferation of T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and vascular SMCs, as well as the migration of SMCs and macrophages and platelet coagulation. Recent studies have indicated that blockade of K(Ca)3.1, by specific blockers such as TRAM-34, could prove to be an effective treatment for vascular disease by inhibiting T-cell activation as well as preventing proliferation and migration of macrophages, endothelial cells, and SMCs. This vasculoprotective potential of K(Ca)3.1 inhibition has been confirmed in both rodent and swine models of restenosis. In this review, we will discuss the physiological and pathophysiological role of K(Ca)3.1 in cells closely associated with vascular biology, and the effect of K(Ca)3.1 blockers on the initiation and progression of vascular disease.
    Cardiovascular & hematological agents in medicinal chemistry 02/2009; 7(1):1-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that testosterone increases coronary smooth muscle protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) both in vivo and in vitro and inhibits coronary smooth muscle proliferation by inducing G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest in a PKC delta-dependent manner. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether endogenous testosterone limits coronary neointima (NI) formation in a porcine model of post-angioplasty restenosis. Sexually mature, male Yucatan miniature swine were either left intact (IM), castrated (CM), or castrated with testosterone replacement (CMT; Androgel, 10 mg/day). Angioplasty was performed in both the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries with balloon catheter overinflation to induce either moderate (1.25-1.3 x diameter; 3 x 30 s) or severe (1.4x diameter; 3 x 30 s) injury, and animals were allowed to recover for either 10 or 28 days. Injured coronary sections were dissected, fixed, stained (Verheoff-Van Gieson, Ki67, PKC delta, p27), and analysed. Vessels without internal elastic laminal rupture were excluded. Following moderate injury, intimal area, intima-to-media ratio (I/M), and I/M normalized to rupture index (RI) were increased in CM compared with IM and CMT. RI, medial area, and intimal/medial thickness (IMT) were not different between groups. NI formation was inversely related to serum testosterone concentration. Conversely, following severe injury, there were no significant differences between the groups. Testosterone inhibited proliferation and stimulated PKC delta and p27(kip1) expression during NI formation (10 days post-injury). These findings demonstrate that endogenous testosterone limits coronary NI formation in male swine and provides support for a protective role for testosterone in coronary vasculoproliferative diseases, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis.
    Cardiovascular research 02/2009; 82(1):152-60. · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary arterioles from hypercholesterolemic swine display attenuated adenosine-mediated vasodilatation that is attributable to the elimination of voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) channel stimulation. For the present study, we tested the hypotheses that exercise training would correct impaired adenosine-induced dilatation in coronary arterioles from hypercholesterolemic pigs through restoration of adenosine activation of Kv channels and that vasodilatation to the receptor-independent adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, would also be attenuated in arterioles from hypercholesterolemic pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned to a control (NC) or high-fat, high-cholesterol (HC) diet for 20 wk. Four weeks after the diet was initiated, pigs from both groups were assigned to exercise training (Ex; 5 days/wk for 16 wk) or sedentary (Sed) protocols, resulting in four groups of pigs: NC-Sed, NC-Ex, HC-Sed, and HC-Ex. Arterioles ( approximately 150 mum) from both HC-Sed and HC-Ex pigs displayed impaired adenosine-mediated dilatation that was attributable to the elimination of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 1 mM)-sensitive Kv channel activation compared with NC counterparts. Arteriolar smooth muscle whole cell Kv currents were significantly reduced in HC-Sed compared with NC-Sed, although HC-Ex and NC-Ex did not differ. Forskolin-mediated dilatation was attenuated by 4-AP (1 mM) and in a concentration-dependent manner by tetraethylammonium (TEA; 0.1-1 mM) in NC-Sed but not HC-Sed. Further, TEA-sensitive Kv currents were diminished in cells of HC-Sed compared with NC-Sed pigs. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed similar expression levels of Kv3.1 and 3.3 in arterioles of NC-Sed and HC-Sed swine with undetectable expression of Kv1.1, 3.2, and 3.4. Taken together, these results suggest that hypercholesterolemia-mediated attenuation of adenosine-induced vasodilatation in coronary arterioles is not corrected by exercise training and is likely attributable to an impairment in the pathway coupling adenylyl cyclase with a highly TEA-sensitive Kv channel isoform(s).
    Journal of Applied Physiology 11/2008; 105(6):1761-71. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    Craig A Emter, Douglas K Bowles
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 06/2008; 40(5):806-7. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Limb differences in endothelial function exist between arm and leg vasculatures of humans. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that forelimb and hindlimb vasorelaxation are similar in the absence of limb differences in blood pressure. Conduit arteries (brachials/femorals) and second order arterioles were harvested from 22 miniature Yucatan swine. In vitro assessment of vasorelaxation was determined by administering increasing doses of bradykinin (BK), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways was assessed in conduit arteries but not resistance arterioles through L-NAME (300 microM) and INDO (5 microM) incubation, respectively. The relaxation responses to BK and ACh were similar in brachial and femoral arteries. SNP relaxation response was greater in the brachial compared to femoral arteries. There were also no significant differences in the relaxation responses of second order arterioles of the forelimb and hindlimb to BK, ACh, and SNP. Incubation of conduit arterial rings in L-NAME produced a greater reduction in BK and ACh relaxation in the brachial (approximately 25%) compared to femoral (approximately 13%) arterial rings. The current results of this investigation suggest that the forelimb and hindlimb vasculatures of swine have relatively similar vasorelaxation responses to both endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology 11/2007; 148(2):292-300. · 2.17 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

308 Citations
120.00 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2013
    • University of Missouri
      • • Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      Columbia, Missouri, United States
  • 2008
    • Texas A&M University
      • Michael E. DeBakey Institute for Comparative Cardiovascular Science and Biomedical Devices
      College Station, TX, United States