[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In their previous analysis of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) from an Ukrainian-American cohort that was exposed to iodine-131 ((131) I) from the Chernobyl accident, the authors identified RET/PTC rearrangements and other driver mutations in 60% of tumors.
METHODS: In this study, the remaining mutation-negative tumors from that cohort were analyzed using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to identify novel chromosomal rearrangements and to characterize their relation with radiation dose.
RESULTS: The ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6)-neurotrophin receptor 3 (NTRK3) rearrangement (ETV6-NTRK3) was identified by RNA-Seq in a tumor from a patient who received a high (131) I dose. Overall, the rearrangement was detected in 9 of 62 (14.5%) post-Chernobyl PTCs and in 3 of 151 (2%) sporadic PTCs (P = .019). The most common fusion type was between exon 4 of ETV6 and exon 14 of NTRK3. The prevalence of ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement in post-Chernobyl PTCs was associated with increasing (131) I dose, albeit at borderline significance (P = .126). The group of rearrangement-positive PTCs (ETV6-NTRK3, RET/PTC, PAX8-PPARγ) was associated with significantly higher dose response compared with the group of PTCs with point mutations (BRAF, RAS; P < .001). In vitro exposure of human thyroid cells to 1 gray of (131) I and γ-radiation resulted in the formation of ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement at a rate of 7.9 × 10(-6) cells and 3.0 × 10(-6) cells, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The authors report the occurrence of ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangements in thyroid cancer and demonstrate that this rearrangement is significantly more common in tumors associated with exposure to (131) I and has a borderline significant dose response. Moreover, ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement can be directly induced in thyroid cells by ionizing radiation in vitro and, thus, may represent a novel mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.
Cancer 03/2014; 120(6):799-807. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: There is increasing emphasis on the subclassification of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and molecular features to guide treatment. Histologic studies have suggested some morphologic features predominating in tumors. Our aim was to determine if mutated cases had distinct cytomorphology. Methods: A retrospective study was designed to retrieve all cytopathology cases of NSCLC that had mutation studies for EGFR or KRAS or fluorescence in situ hybridization studies for ALK between 2007 and 2012. All slides from available mutation-positive cases were reviewed, and cytomorphologic features were correlated to mutation status. Results: Of the cases with molecular testing, 62 (39%) of 160 were positive for mutation, including 39 (31%) positive for KRAS, 20 (14%) for EGFR, and 4 (3%) for ALK (one case positive for both EGFR and ALK). More of ALK+ and KRAS+ cases had a diagnosis of NSCLC-favor adenocarcinoma or NSCLC not otherwise specified than did EGFR+ cases (25; 51% vs 5%). Eosinophilic granular cytoplasm was seen in more ALK and KRAS cases than in EGFR cases (100; 32% vs 6%). Conclusions: Cytologic features of ALK+ and KRAS+ tumors included more nuclear pleomorphism, necrosis, and a less vacuolated cytoplasm than did EGFR+ tumors, which may explain the less definitive subclassification in ALK+ and KRAS+ tumors.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 03/2014; 141(3):420-8. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid development of targeted therapies has tremendously changed clinical management of lung carcinoma patients and set the stage for similar developments in other tumor types. Many studies have been published in the past decade in search for the most acceptable method of assessment for predictors of response to targeted therapies in lung cancer. As a result, several guidelines for molecular testing have been published in a past couple of years. Because of accumulated evidence that targetable drugs show the best efficacy and improved progression survival rates in lung cancer patients whose tumors have a specific genotype, molecular testing for predictors of therapy response has became standard of care. Presently, testing for EGFR mutations and ALK rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma has been standardized. The landscape of targetable genomic alterations in lung carcinoma is expanding, but none of other potentially targetable biomarkers have been standardized outside of clinical trials. This review will summarize current practice of molecular testing. Future methods in molecular testing of lung carcinoma will be briefly reviewed.
Advances in anatomic pathology 03/2014; 21(2):94-9. · 3.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appendiceal serrated polyps often morphologically resemble their colorectal counterparts and most pathologists employ colorectal diagnostic terminology when evaluating appendiceal serrated lesions. We analyzed 132 appendiceal lesions for mutations in the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway in an attempt to (1) determine the frequency of these mutations in appendiceal serrated lesions and (2) correlate the histopathologic features with molecular alterations. The study group of appendiceal serrated lesions (n = 46) was divided into a non-dysplastic group (28/46, subclassified as 7 hyperplastic polyps and 21 sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/P) using colorectal diagnostic terminology) and dysplastic group (18/46, subclassified as 9 SSA/Ps with cytological dysplasia, 7 traditional serrated adenomas, and 2 adenomas with prominent serrations). Appendiceal non-serrated dysplastic lesions (n = 86) comprised the control group. Of the 123 lesions analyzed, KRAS mutations were identified in 64 (52%) appendiceal lesions. No significant difference in the presence of KRAS mutations were identified between serrated non-dysplastic lesions (13/25, 52%), serrated dysplastic lesions (7/14, 50%) and the control group of non-serrated dysplastic lesions (44/84, 52%) (P = 1.0). Importantly, KRAS mutations were identified in lesions that were histologically identical to colorectal hyperplastic polyps (2/6, 33%), SSA/Ps (11/19, 58%), and SSA/Ps with cytological dysplasia (4/7, 57%). Of the 126 lesions tested, BRAF V600E mutations were identified in only 5 (4%) appendiceal lesions. Our results indicate that serrated lesions of the appendix often harbor KRAS mutations rather than BRAF mutations and suggest that the serrated pathway in the appendix is likely different than in the colon and rectum.
Human pathology 02/2014; 45(2):227-35. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of conventional and oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas is difficult. The aim of this study was to characterize their largely unknown miRNA expression profile and to compare it to well differentiated thyroid tumors as well as to identify miRNAs which could potentially serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers. A total of 14 poorly differentiated, 12 oncocytic poorly differentiated, 72 well differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 8 normal thyroid specimens were studied for expression of 768 miRNAs using Human Microarray Assays (Applied Biosystems). miRNA expression was different between poorly differentiated and oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas demonstrating individual clusters on the clustering analysis. Both tumor types showed upregulation of miR-125a-5p, -15a-3p, -182, -183-3p, -222, -222-5p and downregulation of miR-130b, -139-5p, -150, -193a-5p, -219-5p, -23b, -451, -455-3p and of miR-886-3p. In addition, the oPD demonstrated upregulation of miR-221 and miR-885-5p. The difference was also observed between miRNA expression in poorly differentiated and well differentiated tumors. The CHAID algorithm allowed to separate poorly differentiated from well differentiated thyroid carcinomas with a 73-79% accuracy using miR-23b and miR-150 as a separator. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis were significantly associated with tumor relapses (miR-23b) and with tumor specific death (miR-150). miRNA expression is different in conventional and oncocytic poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas in comparison to well differentiated thyroid cancers and can be used for discrimination between these tumor types. The newly identified deregulated miRNAs (miR-150, miR-23b) bear the potential to be used in a clinical setting delivering prognostic and diagnostic information.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genomic evidence suggests frequent phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Mutations/amplification of the gene encoding p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3CA), loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and HRAS mutations are known to activate PI3K pathway.Methods and results: PIK3CA mutations were identified by Sanger sequencing in 23 of 75 (31%) HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas, including exon 9 (p.E545K [n = 10] and p.E542K [n = 5]) or exon 20 (p.H1047Y, n = 2) mutations. Five rare and one novel (p.R537Q) PIK3CA mutations were identified. HRAS mutation (p.Q61L) was detected in 1 of 62 tested cases. PIK3CA amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was identified in 4 cases (4/21, 20%), while PTEN loss was seen in 7 (7/21, 33%) cases (chromosome 10 monosomy [n = 4], homozygous deletion [n = 3]).
Overall, genetic alterations that likely lead to PI3K pathway activation were identified in 34 of 75 cases (45%) and did not correlate with disease specific survival. These findings offer a molecular rationale for therapeutic targeting of PI3K pathway in patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.
BMC Cancer 12/2013; 13(1):602. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive squamous and adenosquamous carcinomas of the oropharynx have been well characterized, HPV-associated pure adenocarcinomas are exceptionally rare. Herein we report the clinicopathologic features of one such HPV-associated adenocarcinoma of the base of tongue (BOT). A 70 year-old male presented with a 2.8 cm base of tongue mass and lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemically, the adenocarcinoma was p63 negative and p16 positive. HPV positivity was shown by in situ hybridization. Features of salivary type tumor or metastasis from a distant primary were absent. IonTorrent™ semiconductor sequencing analysis for 739 cancer-associated mutations in 46 actionable cancer genes was performed and PIK3CA exon 9 (p.E545K) and MET exon 2 (p.E168D) mutations were identified. No PIK3CA or MET amplification was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A re-review of archival HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (n = 89, 1983-2013) showed no additional cases of adenocarcinoma. The clinical follow-up for the three previously reported cases of HPV-associated adenocarcinoma of the BOT was updated. All previously reported cases were tested and were negative for PIK3CA exon 9 and 20 and MET exon 2 mutations. These findings offer a molecular basis for potential therapeutic use of PIK3CA inhibitors in a subset of patients with HPV-associated adenocarcinoma of BOT.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 11/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, the atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) category has a 5-15% malignancy risk that increases to 85-99% when mutation testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, or PAX8/PPARγ is positive. However, negative testing does not exclude malignancy. The study objective was to identify clinical and imaging features that predict cancer in mutation-negative AUS/FLUS thyroid nodules.
All patients were reviewed (April 2007 to April 2009) who had AUS/FLUS cytology, negative prospective molecular testing of FNA, and histopathology.
Of the 230 nodules, 12 (5.2%) were malignant in 11 of 190 patients, and known clinical risk factors for thyroid cancer did not predict malignancy. On preoperative imaging, ≥1 suspicious ultrasound feature was identified in 33% of nodules and occurred regardless of histology (P = .23). Malignant mutation-negative AUS/FLUS nodules were larger than benign nodules (mean maximum diameter, 33.6 vs 24.0 mm; P = .007). On multivariate analysis, nodule size remained an independent predictor of malignancy (odds ratio, 1.043; P = .018). We observed no malignancies in 88 mutation-negative AUS/FLUS nodules <18.5 mm.
Size is an independent predictor of malignancy in mutation-negative AUS/FLUS nodules and the risk increased 4.3% with every millimeter increase in nodule size. Selected patients with small, mutation-negative AUS/FLUS thyroid nodules may be managed with ultrasound surveillance in lieu of thyroidectomy.
Surgery 10/2013; 154(4):730-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal strategy for screening patients with colorectal carcinoma for Lynch syndrome (LS) is a subject of continued debate in the literature with some advocating universal screening while others arguing for selective screening. We evaluated 1292 colorectal carcinomas for DNA mismatch repair protein abnormalities and identified 150 (11.6%) tumors demonstrating high-levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). MSI-H colorectal carcinomas were divided into sporadic (112/1292, 8.7%) and LS/probable LS-associated (38/1292, 2.9%) groups based on BRAF V600E mutation, MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, cancer history, and germline mismatch repair gene mutation. All MSI-H colorectal carcinomas were analyzed for grade, location, and tumor histology. The utility of the revised Bethesda guidelines and published predictive pathology models for MSI-H colorectal carcinomas (PREDICT and MSPath) were evaluated. Left-sided MSI-H colorectal carcinomas were more frequently associated with LS compared with right-sided MSI-H colorectal carcinomas (12/21, 57% versus 26/129, 20%, P = .0008). There was no significant difference in histology between sporadic MSI-H and LS/probable LS-associated colorectal carcinomas except for a slightly higher proportion of sporadic MSI-H tumors demonstrating tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (81% versus 61%, P = .015). Neither pathology predictive model identified all LS-associated colorectal carcinomas (PREDICT: 33/38, 87%; MSPath: 35/38, 92%). 12/117 (10%) MSI-H colorectal carcinomas identified in patients >60 years were LS/probable LS-associated. Our results demonstrate that models of predicting MSI-H fail to identify LS-associated colorectal carcinoma given their reliance on right-sided location. A significant proportion (32%) of LS-associated colorectal carcinoma is identified in patients >60 years. Finally, our results demonstrate similar morphologic features between LS-associated and sporadic MSI-H colorectal carcinomas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for high throughput sequencing analysis of large regions of the human genome. We explored the use of targeted NGS for simultaneous testing for multiple mutations in thyroid cancer.Design:A custom panel (ThyroSeq) was designed to target 12 cancer genes with 284 mutational hotspots. Sequencing was performed on Ion Torrent PGM to analyze DNA from 228 thyroid neoplastic and non-neoplastic samples including 105 frozen, 72 formalin-fixed, and 51 FNA samples representing all major types of thyroid cancer.Results:Only 5-10 ng of input DNA was sufficient for successful analysis of 99.6% of samples. The analytical accuracy for mutation detection was 100% with the sensitivity of 3-5% of mutant allele. ThyroSeq DNA assay identified mutations in 19/27 (70%) of classic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), 25/30 (83%) of follicular variant PTC, 14/18 (78%) of conventional and 7/18 (39%) of oncocytic follicular carcinomas, 3/10 (30%) of poorly differentiated carcinomas, 20/27 (74%) of anaplastic (ATC), and 11/15 (73%) medullary carcinomas. In contrast, 5/83 (6%) of benign nodules were positive for mutations. Most tumors had a single mutation whereas several ATC and PTC demonstrated two or three mutations. The most common mutations detected were BRAF and RAS followed by PIK3CA, TP53, TSHR, PTEN, GNAS, CTNNB1 and RET. BRAF mutant allele frequency was 18-48% in PTC and was lower in ATC.Conclusions:ThyroSeq NGS panel allows simultaneous testing for multiple mutations with high accuracy and sensitivity, requires a small amount of DNA and can be performed in a variety of thyroid tissue and FNA samples, and provides quantitative assessment of mutant alleles. Using this approach, point mutations were detected in 30-83% of specific types of thyroid cancer and in only 6% of benign thyroid nodules, and were shown to be present in the majority of cells within the cancer nodule.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 08/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of synchronous colorectal carcinomas can provide a unique model to examine the underlying molecular alterations in colorectal carcinoma, as synchronous tumors arise in a background of common genetic and environmental factors. We analyzed the clinicopathologic and molecular features of synchronous colorectal carcinomas compared with solitary carcinomas to correlate the histologic findings with molecular alterations and to identify the prognostic significance, if any, of synchronous colorectal carcinoma. Of the 4760 primary colorectal carcinomas resected for the years 2002 to 2012 at our institution, 58 patients (1.2%) harbored 2 invasive primary adenocarcinomas and comprise the synchronous colorectal carcinoma study group. A control group of consecutively resected solitary colorectal carcinomas from 109 patients was also analyzed. Compared with solitary colorectal carcinomas, synchronous colorectal carcinomas more frequently were identified in older patients (median age 70 vs. 60 y; P=0.001), involved the right colon (42/58, 72% vs. 47/109, 43%; P=0.0003), were more often microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) (21/58, 36% vs. 13/109, 12%; P=0.0005), and were more frequently associated with precursor sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) (13/58, 22% vs. 2/109, 2%; P=0.0001). A statistically significant difference in overall survival was identified between patients with synchronous and solitary colorectal carcinomas (5 y overall survival 92% vs. 56%, P=0.02). A unique subgroup of 13 synchronous colorectal carcinomas demonstrated tumors arising from SSAs (SSA-associated). All SSA-associated synchronous colorectal carcinomas were seen in patients above 65 years of age, and 12/13 (92%) occurred in women. Most patients (12/13, 92%) with SSA-associated synchronous colorectal carcinomas demonstrated involvement of the right colon, and tumors were frequently stage I or II (9/13, 69%) and low grade (11/13, 85%). In 12/13 (92%) SSA-associated synchronous colorectal carcinomas, both tumors exhibited loss of MLH1 and PMS2 immunohistochemical expression with concurrent BRAF V600E mutation. Nine of 13 (69%) patients with SSA-associated colorectal carcinoma harbored additional SSAs. Three of 13 (15%) patients with SSA-associated synchronous colorectal carcinoma met the World Health Organization criteria for serrated polyposis. Notably, no patient with SSA-associated synchronous colorectal carcinoma developed disease recurrence or died of disease at last follow-up. In conclusion, synchronous colorectal carcinomas are enriched with MSI-H tumors, particularly those arising from SSAs, which contributes to the overall improved survival for patients with synchronous tumors compared with patients with solitary tumors. We demonstrate that SSA-associated synchronous colorectal carcinomas have a striking predilection for elderly women, are associated with a favorable prognosis, and are MSI-H and BRAF V600E positive.
The American journal of surgical pathology 07/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in modern molecular technologies allow for the examination and measurement of cancer-related genomic changes. The number of molecular tests for evaluation of diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive markers is expected to increase. In recent years, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation has been firmly established as a biomarker in patients diagnosed with gliomas, for both clinical trials and routine clinical management. Similarly, molecular markers, such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for 1p/19q have already demonstrated clinical utility in treatment of oligodendroglial tumors, and others might soon show clinical utility. Furthermore, nonrandom associations are being discovered among MGMT, 1p/19q LOH, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, and other tumor-specific modifications that could possibly enhance our ability to predict outcome and response to therapy. While pathologists are facing new and more complicated requests for clinical genomic testing, clinicians are challenged with increasing numbers of molecular data coming from molecular pathology and genomic medicine. Both pathologists and oncologists need to understand the clinical utility of molecular tests and test results, including issues of turnaround time, and their impact on the application of targeted treatment regimens. This review summarizes the existing data that support the rationale for MGMT promoter methylation testing and possibly other molecular testing in clinically defined glioma subtypes. Various molecular testing platforms for evaluation of MGMT methylation status are also discussed.
The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 07/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is frequently multifocal, which can represent either intraglandular spread from a single primary tumor or multiple synchronous primary tumors (MSPTs). To distinguish and characterize these entities, we investigated whether multifocal PTCs contain genetically similar or different mutations and have particular histopathologic characteristics. In 60 cases of PTC with 2 to 4 discrete tumor foci, each focus was tested for BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS point mutations and RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements and analyzed for various histopathologic features. Overall, BRAF mutations were found in 43% of tumors, RAS in 27%, and RET/PTC in 2%. Four different patterns of mutation occurrence were identified: (i) 2 foci containing different mutations (30%); (ii) 1 tumor containing a mutation and another carrying no mutations (32%); (iii) both/all tumors containing the same mutation (25%); (iv) all tumors having no mutations (13%). The 30% of cases with 2 different mutations represent a group of tumors that are unequivocally MSPT. These tumors more commonly occurred in different lobes, although they could be located as close as 0.6 cm from each other. Moreover, MSPTs typically demonstrated distinct histologic variants/microscopic features, were encapsulated or had a smooth border, and showed no microscopic peritumoral dissemination. In conclusion, we demonstrate that at least 30% of multifocal PTCs represent unequivocal MSPTs that develop through distinct molecular alterations and that as many as 60% of multifocal PTCs are likely MSPTs. Histopathologically, MSPTs are typically located in different lobes, have distinct growth patterns, and do not show microscopic peritumoral dissemination.
The American journal of surgical pathology 06/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With improvements in abdominal imaging, detection of incidental pancreatic cysts are becoming increasingly common. Analysis of pancreatic cyst fluid from fine-needle aspiration is particularly important in identifying intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), which have significant implications in clinical intervention and follow-up. Previous controlled studies have shown that KRAS mutations in cyst fluid are highly specific for mucinous differentiation in pancreatic cysts; however, this has not been examined in the clinical setting. Over a 6-year study period, 618 pancreatic cyst fluids obtained by fine-needle aspiration at the time of endoscopic ultrasound were tested for KRAS mutations as part of routine evaluation for a cystic neoplasm. Of the 618 specimens, 603 (98%) from 546 patients were satisfactory for molecular analysis. Patients ranged in age from 17 to 90 years (mean, 63.9 years) and were predominantly female (68%). Pancreatic cysts were relatively evenly distributed throughout the pancreas and ranged in size from 0.6 to 11.0 cm (mean, 2.3 cm). Mutations in KRAS were detected in 232 of 603 (38%) aspirates. Although sufficient for molecular analysis, 320 of 603 (53%) specimens were either less than optimal (38%) or unsatisfactory (15%) for cytopathologic diagnosis. Surgical follow-up information was available for 142 (26%) patients and consisted of 53 KRAS-mutated and 89 KRAS-wild-type cysts. Overall, KRAS mutations had a specificity of 100%, but a sensitivity of 54% for mucinous differentiation. When stratified by cyst type, KRAS had a sensitivity of 67% and 14% for IPMNs and MCNs, respectively. In summary, KRAS mutations were highly specific for mucinous differentiation, but were inadequate in identifying MCNs. Future molecular studies and the combination of other fluid markers are required to improve the detection and classification of pancreatic mucinous neoplasms by endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 7 June 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.91.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated a consecutive series of signet ring cell colorectal carcinomas in an attempt to correlate the histopathologic pattern of infiltration with molecular alterations and prognosis. Of the 4760 primary colorectal carcinomas surgically resected between the years 2002 and 2012, 53 (1%) were composed of >50% signet ring cells. Of the 53 signet ring cell carcinomas, 40 (75%) were composed of >50% extracellular mucin with signet ring cells floating within pools of mucin and were subclassified as mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas. Thirteen (25%) carcinomas were characterized by diffusely infiltrating carcinomas with minimal to no extracellular mucin and were subclassified as mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas. All 13 mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas were either stage III or IV, whereas many cases of mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma were stage I or II (17 cases) (P=0.005). Compared with mucin-rich tumors, mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas more frequently demonstrated adverse histologic features such as lymphatic invasion (13/13, 100% vs. 22/40, 55%; P=0.002), venous invasion (6/13, 46% vs. 3/40, 8%; P=0.004), and perineural invasion (11/13, 85% vs. 9/40, 23%; P=0.0001). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) signet ring cell carcinomas demonstrated high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Twenty-two of 23 (96%) MSI-H signet ring cell carcinomas were mucin rich; only 1 MSI-H signet ring carcinoma was mucin poor (P=0.0033). Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had significantly reduced overall and recurrence-free survival compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas (P=0.0035 and 0.0001, respectively), even when adjusting for tumor stage. Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had a higher propensity for peritoneal dissemination (5/13, 38%) compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma (5/40, 12.5%), although this was not statistically significant (P=0.052). Finally, MSI-H and microsatellite-stable signet ring cell carcinomas had similar overall and recurrence-free survival (P=0.2266 and 0.1055, respectively), even when adjusting for tumor stage. In conclusion, we identified a unique subset of signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma with diffuse infiltration and minimal to no extracellular mucin (mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma), which lacks MSI-H and has a dismal prognosis with an aggressive clinical course often with peritoneal dissemination. Further, our results confirm that MSI does not affect survival in colorectal signet ring cell carcinomas.
The American journal of surgical pathology 05/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:RAS mutations are common in thyroid tumors and confer a high risk of cancer when detected in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. Specific characteristics of RAS-positive thyroid cancers are not well described.Methods:From April 2007 to April 2009, 921 consecutive patients undergoing FNA were evaluated prospectively with a panel of molecular markers. Ultrasonographic, cytological, histological, and surgical outcomes were retrospectively assessed.Results:Sixty-eight aspirates from 66 patients were positive for RAS mutations including 63 cytologically indeterminate (93%), 3 malignant (4%), and 2 benign (3%) specimens. Cancer was histologically confirmed in 52 of 63 aspirates (83%) including the following: 46 papillary thyroid cancers, 4 follicular thyroid cancers, 1 medullary cancer, and 1 anaplastic cancer. All 46 RAS-positive papillary thyroid cancers, including 1 metastatic cancer, had follicular variant histology papillary thyroid cancer; only 11 tumors demonstrated vascular/capsular invasion and 4 had infiltrative growth. Of 48 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, lymph node metastasis was uncommon and bilateral cancer was present in 48%. Only 33% of malignant nodules were suspicious by preoperative ultrasonography. At a mean follow-up of 22 months, 31 of 35 differentiated thyroid cancer patients (89%) have no evidence of recurrence, 4 patients (9%) have detectable thyroglobulin, 1 patient has bone metastases, and both patients with medullary and anaplastic cancer have died.Conclusion:Most RAS-positive thyroid cancers have indeterminate cytology, lack suspicious ultrasound features, and are histologically low-grade follicular variant histology papillary thyroid cancer. Lymph node and distant metastases are uncommon but bilateral disease is frequent. Total thyroidectomy should be considered for initial surgical management of most patients with RAS-positive FNA results. The role of prophylactic lymphadenectomy remains unclear.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 03/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) shares features of papillary (PTC) and follicular (FTC) thyroid carcinomas on a clinical, morphological, and genetic level. MiRNA deregulation was extensively studied in PTCs and FTCs; however, very limited information is available for FVPTC. The aim of this study was to assess miRNA expression in FVPTC with the most comprehensive miRNA array panel and correlate it with the clinicopathological data. Methods: Forty-four papillary thyroid carcinomas (17 FVPTC, 27 classic PTC) and 8 normal thyroid tissue samples were analyzed for expression of 748 miRNAs using Human Microarray Assays on ABI 7900 (Life Technologies). In addition, an independent set of 61 tumor and normal samples was studied for expression of novel miRNA markers detected in this study. Results: Overall, the miRNA expression profile demonstrated similar trends in expression between FVPTC and classic PTC. Fourteen miRNAs were deregulated in FVPTC with a fold change of more than 5 (up/down) including miRNAs known to be upregulated in PTC (miR-146b-3p, -146-5p, -221, -222 and miR-222-5p) and novel miRNAs (miR-375, -551b, 181-2-3p, 99b-3p). However, the levels of miRNA expression were different between these tumor types and some miRNAs were uniquely dysregulated in FVPTC allowing separation of these tumors on the unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. Upregulation of novel miR-375 was confirmed in a large independent set of follicular cell derived neoplasms and benign nodules and demonstrated specific upregulation for PTC. Two miRNAs (miR-181a-2-3p, miR-99b-3p) were associated with an adverse outcome in FVPTC patients by a Kaplan Meier (p<0.05) and multivariate Cox regression analysis (p<0.05). Conclusions: Despite high similarity in miRNA expression between FVPTC and classic PTC, several miRNAs were uniquely expressed in each tumor type supporting their histopathologic differences. Highly upregulated miRNA identified in this study (miR-375) can serve as a novel marker of papillary thyroid carcinoma and miR-181a-2-3p and miR-99b-3p can predict relapse free survival in patients with FVPTC potentially providing important diagnostic and predictive value.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 02/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine malignancy with approximately 55,000 new cases diagnosed the U.S. in 2012. However, thyroid nodules are much more prevalent, particularly with increased age, and only small fraction of those are malignant. Therefore, the major clinical challenge is to reliably detect those nodules that are malignant and need to be treated surgically from the majority of nodules that are benign and do not require surgery. The traditional diagnostic approach to this clinical situation is ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid nodule followed by cytological examination, which reliably establish the diagnosis in 70-80% of cases. However, in the rest of nodules the presence of cancer cannot be ruled out by FNA cytology, hampering appropriate surgical management and frequently resulting in unnecessary surgical interventions. New approaches to diagnosis of cancer in thyroid nodules are based on mutational and other molecular markers, which can be reliably detected in cells aspirated during the FNA procedure. These markers offer significant improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology, and are poised to make a profound effect on the management of patients with thyroid nodules. In addition to the molecular markers that have recently become available for clinical use, rapid development of novel sequencing techniques is expected to further improve the accuracy of cancer diagnosis in thyroid nodules and allow for a fully individualized approach to the management of patients with thyroid nodules.
Clinical Cancer Research 02/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor