Kenneth Egstrup

Odense University Hospital, Odense, South Denmark, Denmark

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Publications (85)456.67 Total impact

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    Dataset: 3
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension and coronary heart disease are common in aortic stenosis (AS) and may impair prognosis for similar AS severity. Different changes in the electrocardiogram may be reflective of the separate impacts of AS, hypertension, and coronary heart disease, which could lead to enhanced risk stratification in AS. The aim of this study was therefore to examine if combining prognostically relevant electrocardiographic (ECG) findings improves prediction of cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic AS. All patients with baseline electrocardiograms in the SEAS study were included. The primary end point was cardiovascular death. Backward elimination (p >0.01) identified heart rate, Q waves, and Cornell voltage-duration product as independently associated with cardiovascular death. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression models were used to evaluate if these 3 ECG variables improved prediction of cardiovascular death. In 1,473 patients followed for a mean of 4.3 years (6,362 patient-years of follow-up), 70 cardiovascular deaths (5%) occurred. In multivariate analysis, heart rate (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5 per 11.2 minute(-1) [1 SD], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 1.8), sum of Q-wave amplitude (HR 1.3 per 2.0 mm [1 SD], 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6), and Cornell voltage-duration product (HR 1.4 per 763 mm × ms [1 SD], 95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) remained independently associated with cardiovascular death. Combining the prognostic information contained in each of the 3 ECG variables improved integrated discrimination for prediction of cardiovascular death by 2.5%, net reclassification by 14.3%, and area under the curve by 0.06 (all p ≤0.04) beyond other important risk factors. ECG findings add incremental predictive information for cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic patients with AS.
    The American journal of cardiology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data on risk stratification of stroke in aortic stenosis. This study examined predictors of stroke in aortic stenosis, the prognostic implications of stroke, and how aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting influenced the predicted outcomes.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality. New technological developments in computed tomography (CT), including dual energy, iterative reconstructions and high definition scanning, could significantly improve the non-invasive identification of atherosclerosis plaques. Here, a new method for optimising cardiac coronary CT with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology is presented. Materials and methods Twenty human hearts obtained from autopsies were used. A contrast agent that solidifies after cooling was injected into the coronary arteries. CT scanning was performed on the heart alone as well as with the heart in a chest phantom. We used eight different CT protocols and the newest CT technique to image every heart. The OCT and CT images were compared with their corresponding histological sections. A procedure for ensuring the correct alignment of the images was also developed. Results We have succeeded in developing a new method for post-mortem coronary CT angiography in which an autopsy heart is placed in a chest phantom to simulate clinical CT. Conclusion The new method permits comparison of CT with OCT and histopathology. This method can also be used for evaluating coronary artery disease, including characterising plaques, and will eventually allow for the detection of rupture-prone plaques, which we will assess in a future study. Clinical testing is our ultimate goal.
    Journal of Forensic Radiology and Imaging. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are <1.0 cm(2) for AVA and <0.6 cm(2)/m(2) for AVAindex. To investigate the influence of indexation on the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis and on the predictive accuracy regarding clinical outcome. Echocardiographic and anthropometric data from a retrospective cohort of 2843 patients with aortic stenosis (jet velocity >2.5 m/s) and from 1525 patients prospectively followed in the simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis (SEAS) trial were analysed. The prevalence of severe stenosis increased with the AVAindex criterion compared to AVA from 71% to 80% in the retrospective cohort, and from 29% to 44% in SEAS (both p<0.001). Overall, the predictive accuracy for aortic valve events was virtually identical for AVA and AVAindex in the SEAS population (mean follow-up of 46 months; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.67 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.70) vs 0.68 (CI 0.65 to 0.71) (NS). However, 213 patients additionally categorised as severe by AVAindex experienced significantly less valve related events than those fulfilling only the AVA criterion (p<0.001). Indexing AVA by BSA (AVAindex) significantly increases the prevalence of patients with criteria for severe stenosis by including patients with a milder degree of the disease without improving the predictive accuracy for aortic valve related events.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 08/2013; · 5.01 Impact Factor
  • J Lambrechtsen, K Egstrup
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether a simple pre-treatment regimen of sinus node inhibition by ivabradine taken at home for only 1 day resulted in a lower pre-scanning heart rate (HR) and reduced the need for intravenous beta-blockers (BB) prior to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). The pre-treatment regimen for coronary CTA changed from using no medication at home (group 1 patients) to the use of 5 mg ivabradine twice a day (group 2 patients), to using 7.5 mg ivabradine twice a day (group 3 patients). The target HR was the same for groups 1 and 2, but lower for group 3. HRs and the use of intravenous BB before coronary CTA was performed were compared between the study groups. The mean HR immediately before the planned CTA procedure was significantly lower throughout groups 1-3 with values of 70 ± 12.9, 64.9 ± 9.8, and 63.2 ± 10.6 beats/min in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p < 0.001). This resulted in a significantly diminished use of intravenous BB in group 2 (mean 5.1 ± 5.8 mg) compared to group 1 (mean 9 ± 7.6 mg; p = 0.002). The target HR of 65 beats/min was achieved in 37%, 47%, and 61% of groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the administration of ivabradine tablets at home for only 1 day to patients scheduled for coronary CTA resulted in a significantly lower in-clinic HR and a significantly lower mean use of intravenous BB.
    Clinical radiology 06/2013; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein that inhibits nuclear factor-κB's regulatory effects on inflammation, skeletal, and vascular systems, and is a potential biomarker of atherosclerosis and seems to be involved in vascular calcifications. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between OPG, left ventricular function, and microvascular function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: After successful revascularization, noninvasive assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) was performed in the distal part of the left anterior descending artery in 183 patients with first AMI. We performed low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography to assess viability and finally we assessed the ventriculoarterial coupling (VAC). Plasma OPG was determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Plasma OPG concentrations were higher in patients with impaired microcirculation (CFR<2) than in patients without [median (first; third quartile), 1.939 (1.366; 2.724) vs. 1.451 (0.925; 2.164) ng/l; P=0.001]. OPG was associated with CFR both in linear regression single-variable analysis (P=0.001) and in multivariable analysis adjusting for possible confounders (P=0.024).Eighty-seven patients had resting wall motion abnormalities and 28 patients fulfilled the criteria for viability. In the group with low OPG 20 patients had viability, and in patients with high OPG only eight patients had viability (P=0.03).Both the E/A ratio (1.22±0.65 vs. 1.06±0.39; P=0.04) and the E/e' ratio (10.4±3.1 vs. 12.2±4.6; P=0.002) indicated worse diastolic function in patients with increased levels of OPG.Overall, an increase in the VAC point was observed in the population (1.11±0.6). The VAC point was higher in patients with increased OPG compared with low OPG (1.01±0.51 vs. 1.2±0.67; P=0.03). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show an association between OPG levels and CFR, decreased diastolic function, and increased VAC in the setting of AMI. Our results indicate a relationship between OPG and the degree of microvascular dysfunction.
    Coronary artery disease 06/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) size is known to increase with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. We hypothesized that LA volume was predictive of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiovascular events in a large cohort of patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic valve stenosis. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 1,758 patients in the Simvastatin and Ezetemibe in Aortic Stenosis study. LA volume was measured in the apical four-chamber view in 1,503 patients (85%). The relation of LA volume to AVR or a combined endpoint of cardiovascular events (AVR, congestive heart failure due to aortic stenosis or death from cardiovascular causes) was evaluated. RESULTS: AVR was performed in 415 (28%) patients, whereas 505 (34%) reached the combined endpoint. A significant but weak association of increased LA volume and risk of the combined endpoint was found (log-rank test: P = 0.02), but this relation did not reach any significance in a multivariate model adjusting for age, gender, aortic valve area index, LV ejection fraction, LV hypertrophy, hypertension, and mitral regurgitation. LA volume was not predictive of AVR (log-rank test: P = 0.3). CONCLUSION: In asymptomatic patients with mild to moderate Aortic valve stenosis (AS), LA volume was not predictive of the combined endpoint of Aortic valve replacement, development of heart failure or cardiac death. AVA and presence of LV hypertrophy were the only predictors of events in multivariate analysis.
    Echocardiography 04/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) size and function change with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressures. It remains unclear whether these variations in LA parameters can predict new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: Data were obtained in asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate AS (2.5≤ transaortic Doppler velocity ≤4.0m/s), preserved LV ejection fraction (EF), no previous AF, and were enrolled in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study. Peak-aortic velocity, LA(max) volume & LA(min) volume were measured by echocardiography. LA conduit (LA(con)) volume was defined as LV stroke volume-LA stroke volume. LA function was expressed as LA-EF (LA(max)-LA(min) volume/LA(max)). RESULTS: In the 1159 patients included, new-onset AF occurred in 71 patients (6.1%) within a mean follow-up of 4.2±0.9years. Mean age was 66±9.7years, aortic valve area index 0.6±0.2cm(2)/m(2), LV mass 99.2±29.7g/m(2), LA(max) volume 34.6±12.0mL/m(2), LA(min) volume 17.9±9.3mL/m(2), LA-EF 50±15% and LA(con) volume 45±21mL/m(2). Baseline LA(min) volume predicted new-onset AF in Cox multivariable analysis (HR:2.3 [95%CI:1.3-4.4], P<0.01), and added prognostic information on AF development beyond conventional risk factors (likelihood ratio, P<0.01). In comparison of c-indexes LA(min) volume was superior to all other LA measurements. Net reclassification index improved by 15.9% when adding LA(min) volume to a model with classic risk factors for AF (P=0.01). CONCLUSION: LA(min) volume independently predicted new-onset AF in patients with asymptomatic AS and was superior to LA-EF, LA(con) and LA(max) volumes and conventional risk factors.
    International journal of cardiology 02/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We investigated the correlation between left ventricular global and regional longitudinal systolic strain (GLS and LRS) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Furthermore, we investigated if LRS and GLS imaging is superior to conventional measures of left ventricle (LV) function. Methods: In a consecutive population of first time AMI patients, who underwent successful revascularization, we performed comprehensive TTE. GLS and LRS were obtained from the three standard apical views. Assessment of CFR by TTE was performed in a modified apical view using color Doppler guidance. Results: The study population consisted of 183 patients (51 females) with a median age of 63 [54;70] years. Eighty-nine (49%) patients had a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and 94 (51%) patients had a ST elevation myocardial infarction. The GLS was -15.2 [-19.3;-10.1]% in the total population of 183 patients. Total wall motion score index (WMSI) in the population was 1.19 [1;1.5]. Eighty-five patients suffered from culprit lesion in left anterior descending artery (LAD). The CFR in these patients was 1.86 [1.36;2.35] and the GLS was -14.3 [-18.9; -9.8]%. A significant difference was observed in the LRS in LAD territory in culprit LAD infarction patients with a CFR ≤ 2 (-9.6 [-13.77;-6.44]) compared with the LRS in LAD territory in culprit LAD infarction patients with a CFR > 2 (-19.33 [-21.1;-16.5]), P < 0.0001. We found no significant difference between WMSI in LAD territory in culprit LAD infarction patients with a CFR ≤ 2 (1.56 [1.06;2.23]) compared with WMSI in LAD territory in culprit LAD infarction patients with a CFR > 2 (1.37 [1.03;2.11]); P = 0.18. The same pattern was observed in both circumflex coronary artery (CX) and right coronary artery (RCA) territories. In the total population, we found a strong correlation between CFR and GLS (r = -0.85, P < 0.0001). This was also seen in the multivariate regression model adjusting for possible confounders including WMSI (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, we have shown a close association between myocardial deformation in patients with a recent AMI and the degree of diminished microcirculation. We found that both GLS and LRS correlated with CFR. We conclude that GLS and LRS are significantly better tools to assess impaired CFR and LV function after a recent AMI, than conventional echocardiographic measurements.
    Echocardiography 08/2012; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: In patients with chronic pressure overload due to hypertension or aortic valve stenosis (AS), higher left atrial systolic force (LASF) is associated with a high-risk cardiovascular (CV) phenotype. We tested LASF as prognostic marker in patients with AS. Methods: We used baseline and outcome data from 1,566 patients recruited in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in AS (SEAS) study evaluating the effect of placebo-controlled simvastatin and ezetimibe treatment on CV events. The primary outcome was a composite of major CV events, including CV death, aortic valve replacement, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure caused by progression of AS, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous coronary intervention, and nonhemorrhagic stroke. LASF was calculated by Manning's method. High LASF was defined as >95th percentile (50 Kdynes/cm(2) ) of the distribution within the study population. Results: During 4.3 years of follow-up, a major CV event occurred in 38 of 78 patients with high LASF (49%) and in 513 of 1,488 (34%) with normal LASF (P = 0.01). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high LASF predicted higher rate of major CV events (Hazard ratio 1.43 [95% confidence interval 1.01-2.03] independent of aortic valve area and LV mass index. A simple risk score including absence or presence of these three variables allowed risk stratification into low, intermediate, high and very high risk for major CV events during follow-up (22%, 28%, 38%, and 53%, respectively). Conclusions: Higher LASF provides additional prognostic information in patients with asymptomatic mild-to-moderate AS.
    Echocardiography 06/2012; 29(9):1038-1044. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Resistant hypertension is presumed to be common in patients with type-II-diabetes mellitus (type-II-DM) and arterial stiffness has been proposed to play a major role in the development hereof. Our objective with this study was to examine differences in vascular characteristics in patients with controlled (CH), uncontrolled (UH) and resistant hypertension (RH) and type-II-DM and to assess whether increased arterial stiffness could explain the prevalence of resistant hypertension.Methods and resultsVascular characteristics were examined using ambulatory blood pressure measurements, applanation tonometry and cardiac ultrasound. We estimated carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity using Sphygmocor. Characteristic impedance, arterial resistance, arterial compliance and augmentation index was estimated from analysis of pressure- and flow-curves. Finally ambulatory arterial stiffness index was estimated using ambulatory blood pressure measurements. We included 114 patients in the study of whom 39 had RH. When compared to patients with CH, patients with RH had increased pulse wave velocity (10.8 m/s [8.78; 12.23] versus 8.55 m/s [7.55; 10.6], P = 0.002) and reduced total arterial compliance (0.81 ml/mmHg [0.55; 0.95] versus 0.93 ml/mmHg [0.68; 1.36], P = 0.03) however differences were non-significant when adjusted for blood pressure (P = 0.2 and P = 0.2) Following statistical adjustment patients with UH had increased total arterial resistance though as compared to patients with CH (1.63 mmHg/ml*s−1 [1.37; 1.92] versus 1.38 mmHg/ml*s−1 [1.2; 1.71]) (P = 0.03).Conclusion In the present study patients with RH and type-II-DM do not have increased intrinsic arterial stiffness when compared to patients with CH, thus we conclude that increased intrinsic arterial stiffness is not the cause of resistant hypertension in the present study.
    Artery Research 06/2012; 6(2):71–77.
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid-lowering drugs, particularly statins, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that may prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). This effect has not been investigated on new-onset AF in asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS). Asymptomatic patients with mild-to-moderate AS (n = 1,421) were randomized (1:1) to double-blind simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg combination or placebo and followed up for a mean of 4.3 years. The primary end point was the time to new-onset AF adjudicated by 12-lead electrocardiogram at a core laboratory reading center. Secondary outcomes were the correlates of new-onset AF with nonfatal nonhemorrhagic stroke and a combined end point of AS-related events. During the course of the study, new-onset AF was detected in 85 (6%) patients (14.2/1,000 person-years of follow-up). At baseline, patients who developed AF were, compared with those remaining in sinus rhythm, older and had a higher left ventricular mass index a smaller aortic valve area index. Treatment with simvastatin and ezetimibe was not associated with less new-onset AF (odds ratio 0.89 [95% CI 0.57-1.97], P = .717). In contrast, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.07 [95% CI 1.05-1.10], P < .001) and left ventricular mass index (HR 1.01 [95% CI 1.01-1.02], P < .001) were independent predictors of new-onset AF. The occurrence of new-onset AF was independently associated with 2-fold higher risk of AS-related outcomes (HR 1.65 [95% CI 1.02-2.66], P = .04) and 4-fold higher risk of nonfatal nonhemorrhagic stroke (HR 4.04 [95% CI 1.18-13.82], P = .03). Simvastatin and ezetimibe were not associated with less new-onset AF. Older age and greater left ventricular mass index were independent predictors of AF development. New-onset AF was associated with a worsening of prognosis.
    American heart journal 04/2012; 163(4):690-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been proposed for population screening. It remains unknown whether such a strategy would result in unnecessary concern among participants. Therefore, we set out to assess whether CAC screening affects the psychological well-being of screening participants. A random sample of 1825 middle-aged subjects (men and women, 50 or 60 y old) were invited for health screening. The European HeartScore was calculated, and a CAC score was measured using a cardiac computed tomography scanner. Therapeutic interventions as a result of the observations were at the discretion of the individual general practitioner. Before screening and at 6-month follow-up a depression test (Major Depression Inventory) was conducted, and the use of psychoactive medication was recorded. A total of 1257 (69%) subjects agreed to participate. Because of known cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, 88 persons were excluded. Of the remaining 1169, 47% were men, and one half were 50 years old. At 6-month follow-up, significant reductions were observed in the Major Depression Inventory score from 5.3 to 3.9 (P<0.0001) and in the prescription rates of psychoactive medication from 7.1% (83 of 1169) to 6.2% (72 of 1169) (P=0.003). The results were independent of sex, age, HeartScore, CAC Score, and changes in other medication. A population screening program including CAC score appears to have no detrimental impact on mental distress and does not increase the use of psychoactive medication.
    Journal of thoracic imaging 02/2012; 27(3):202-6. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prognostic information for asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (AS) from prospective studies is scarce and there is no risk score available to assess mortality. To develop an easily calculable score, from which clinicians could stratify patients into high and lower risk of mortality, using data from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. A search for significant prognostic factors (p<0.01) among SEAS patients was made by a combined judgemental and statistical elimination procedure to derive a set of three factors (age, gender and smoking) that were forced into the model, and four additional factors captured by the data: left-ventricular mass index, bilirubin, heart rate and natural logarithm of C reactive protein. Calibration was done by comparing observed with calculated number of deaths by tenths of calculated risk using coefficients from the simvastatin + ezetimibe group on placebo group patients. Discrimination was good with ROC area of 0.76 for all patients. Estimated probabilities of death were categorised into thirds. An optimised split point of estimated 5-year risk was about 15% (close to the upper 14% tertile split point), with risk 4 times as high in the upper compared to the two lower thirds. The SEAS score performed better than another established high risk score developed for other purposes. A new seven factor model for risk stratification of patients with mild to moderate asymptomatic AS identified a high risk group for total mortality with good discrimination properties., NCT 00092677.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 12/2011; 98(5):377-83. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic impact of ECG left ventricular strain and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in asymptomatic aortic stenosis is not well described. Data were obtained in asymptomatic patients randomized to simvastatin/ezetimibe combination versus placebo in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study. Primary end point was the first of myocardial infarction, nonhemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, aortic valve replacement, or cardiovascular death. The predictive value of ECG left ventricular strain (defined as T-wave inversion in leads V(4) through V(6)) and LVH, assessed by Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria (R(V5-6)+S(V1) ≥35 mV) and Cornell voltage-duration criteria {[RaVL+S(V3)+(6 mV in women)]×QRS duration ≥2440 mV · ms}, was evaluated by adjustment for other prognostic covariates. A total of 1533 patients were followed for 4.3±0.8 years (6592 patient-years of follow-up), and 627 cardiovascular events occurred. ECG strain was present in 340 patients (23.6%), with LVH by Sokolow-Lyon voltage in 260 (17.1%) and by Cornell voltage-duration product in 220 (14.6%). In multivariable analyses, ECG left ventricular strain was associated with 3.1-fold higher risk of in-study myocardial infarction (95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.8; P=0.004). Similarly, ECG LVH by both criteria predicted, compared with no ECG LVH, 5.8-fold higher risk of heart failure (95% confidence interval, 2.0-16.8), 2.0-fold higher risk of aortic valve replacement (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.1; both P=0.001), and 2.5-fold higher risk of a combined end point of myocardial infarction, heart failure, or cardiovascular death (95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.9; P=0.008). ECG left ventricular strain and LVH were independently predictive of poor prognosis in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Unique identifier: NCT00092677.
    Circulation 12/2011; 125(2):346-53. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    Artery; 12/2011
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    Artery 11; 12/2011
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between the risk factor for living in the city centre as a surrogate for air pollution and the presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a population of asymptomatic Danish subjects. A random sample of 1825 men and women of either 50 or 60 years of age were invited to take part in a screening project designed to assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Noncontrast cardiac computed tomography was performed on all subjects, and their Agatston scores were calculated to evaluate the presence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. The relationship between CAC and several demographic and clinical parameters was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 1225 individuals participated in the study, of whom 250 (20%) were living in the centres of major Danish cities. Gender and age showed the greatest association with the presence of CAC: the odds ratio (OR) for men compared with women was 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-4.2; P < 0.0001], and the OR for subjects aged 60 versus those aged 50 years was 2.2 (95% CI 1.7-2.8; P < 0.0001). Other variables independently associated with the presence of CAC were diabetes and smoking with ORs of 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.5; P = 0.03) and 1.9 (95% CI 1.4-2.5, P < 0.0001), respectively. The adjusted OR for subjects living in city centres compared to those living outside was 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4; P = 0.0003). Both conventional risk factors for CVD and living in a city centre are independently associated with the presence of CAC in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 11/2011; 271(5):444-50. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the Sphygmocor device it is recommended that the radial pressure wave is calibrated for brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However it has been suggested that brachial-to-radial pressure amplification causes underestimation of central blood pressures (BPs) using this calibration. In the present study we examined if different calibrations had an impact on estimates of central BPs and on the clinical interpretation of our results. On the basis of ambulatory BP measurements, patients were categorized into patients with controlled, uncontrolled or resistant hypertension. We first calibrated the radial pressure wave as recommended and afterwards recalibrated the same pressure wave using brachial DBP and calculated mean arterial pressure. Recalibration of the pressure wave generated significantly higher estimates of central SBP (P=0.0003 and P<0.0001 at baseline and P=0.0001 and P=0.0002 after 6 months). Using recommended calibration we found a significant change in central SBP in both treatment groups (P=0.05 and P=0.01), however, after recalibrating significance was lost in patients with resistant hypertension (P=0.15). We conclude that calibration with DBP and mean arterial pressure produces higher estimates of central BPs than recommended calibration. The present study also shows that this difference between the two calibration methods can produce more than a systematic error and has an impact on interpretation of clinical results.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 3 November 2011; doi:10.1038/jhh.2011.97.
    Journal of human hypertension 11/2011; · 2.80 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
456.67 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • Odense University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology - B
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 2013
    • Aarhus University
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
    • Rigshospitalet
      • Department of Cardiology
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Southern Denmark
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 2011–2012
    • Children's Heart Center
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Bergen
      • Institute of Medicine
      Bergen, Hordaland Fylke, Norway
  • 2000–2008
    • Center for Rehabilitation of Traumatized Refugees
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 2007
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Department of Cardiology
      Oslo, Oslo, Norway
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark