Robert J Wilkinson

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (221)1617.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk of tuberculosis and a safe and effective vaccine would assist control measures. We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a candidate tuberculosis vaccine, modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A), in adults infected with HIV-1. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of MVA85A in adults infected with HIV-1, at two clinical sites, in Cape Town, South Africa and Dakar, Senegal. Eligible participants were aged 18-50 years, had no evidence of active tuberculosis, and had baseline CD4 counts greater than 350 cells per μL if they had never received antiretroviral therapy or greater than 300 cells per μL (and with undetectable viral load before randomisation) if they were receiving antiretroviral therapy; participants with latent tuberculosis infection were eligible if they had completed at least 5 months of isoniazid preventive therapy, unless they had completed treatment for tuberculosis disease within 3 years before randomisation. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) in blocks of four by randomly generated sequence to receive two intradermal injections of either MVA85A or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by antiretroviral therapy status and study site. Participants, nurses, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to group allocation. The second (booster) injection of MVA85A or placebo was given 6-12 months after the first vaccination. The primary study outcome was safety in all vaccinated participants (the safety analysis population). Safety was assessed throughout the trial as defined in the protocol. Secondary outcomes were immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease, assessed in the per-protocol population. Immunogenicity was assessed in a subset of participants at day 7 and day 28 after the first and second vaccination, and M tuberculosis infection and disease were assessed at the end of the study. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01151189. Between Aug 4, 2011, and April 24, 2013, 650 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; 649 were included in the safety analysis (324 in the MVA85A group and 325 in the placebo group) and 645 in the per-protocol analysis (320 and 325). 513 (71%) participants had CD4 counts greater than 300 cells per μL and were receiving antiretroviral therapy; 136 (21%) had CD4 counts above 350 cells per μL and had never received antiretroviral therapy. 277 (43%) had received isoniazid prophylaxis before enrolment. Solicited adverse events were more frequent in participants who received MVA85A (288 [89%]) than in those given placebo (235 [72%]). 34 serious adverse events were reported, 17 (5%) in each group. MVA85A induced a significant increase in antigen 85A-specific T-cell response, which peaked 7 days after both vaccinations and was primarily monofunctional. The number of participants with negative QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube findings at baseline who converted to positive by the end of the study was 38 (20%) of 186 in the MVA85A group and 40 (23%) of 173 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 11·7% (95% CI -41·3 to 44·9). In the per-protocol population, six (2%) cases of tuberculosis disease occurred in the MVA85A group and nine (3%) occurred in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 32·8% (95% CI -111·5 to 80·3). MVA85A was well tolerated and immunogenic in adults infected with HIV-1. However, we detected no efficacy against M tuberculosis infection or disease, although the study was underpowered to detect an effect against disease. Potential reasons for the absence of detectable efficacy in this trial include insufficient induction of a vaccine-induced immune response or the wrong type of vaccine-induced immune response, or both. European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (IP.2007.32080.002), Aeras, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Oxford-Emergent Tuberculosis Consortium. Copyright © 2015 Ndiaye et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 02/2015; 3(3). DOI:10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00037-5
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    ABSTRACT: Background Many low and middle-income countries are experiencing colliding epidemics of chronic infectious (ID) and non-communicable diseases (NCD). As a result, the prevalence of multiple morbidities (MM) is rising.Methods We conducted a study to describe the epidemiology of MM in a primary care clinic in Khayelitsha. Adults with at least one of HIV, tuberculosis (TB), diabetes (DM), and hypertension (HPT) were identified between Sept 2012-May 2013 on electronic databases. Using unique patient identifiers, drugs prescribed across all facilities in the province were linked to each patient and each drug class assigned a condition.ResultsThese 4 diseases accounted for 45% of all prescription visits. Among 14364 chronic disease patients, HPT was the most common morbidity (65%). 22.6% of patients had MM, with an increasing prevalence with age; and a high prevalence among younger antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients (26% and 30% in 18-35 yr and 36¿45 year age groups respectively). Among these younger ART patients with MM, HPT and DM prevalence was higher than in those not on ART.Conclusions We highlight the co-existence of multiple ID and NCD. This presents both challenges (increasing complexity and the impact on health services, providers and patients), and opportunities for chronic diseases screening in a population linked to care. It also necessitates re-thinking of models of health care delivery and requires policy interventions to integrate and coordinate management of co-morbid chronic diseases.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2015; 15(1):20. DOI:10.1186/s12879-015-0750-1 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of maternal HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection on cellular responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization. A mother-infant cohort study. Samples were collected from mother-infant pairs at delivery. Infants were BCG-vaccinated at 6 weeks of age and a repeat blood sample was collected from infants at 16 weeks of age. BCG-specific T-cell proliferation and intracellular cytokine expression were measured by flow cytometry. Secreted cytokines and chemokines in cell culture supernatants were analysed using a Multiplex assay. One hundred and nine (47 HIV-exposed and 62 HIV-unexposed) mother-infants pairs were recruited after delivery and followed longitudinally. At birth, proportions of mycobacteria-specific proliferating T cells were not associated with either in-utero HIV exposure or maternal Mtb sensitization. However, in-utero HIV exposure affected infant-specific T-cell subsets [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) single positive proliferating CD4 T cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), TNF-α dual-positive CD4 T cells]. Levels of TNF-α protein in cell culture supernatants were also significantly higher in HIV-exposed infants born to Mtb-sensitized mothers. In the presence of maternal Mtb sensitization, frequencies of maternal and newborn BCG-specific proliferating CD4 T cells were positively correlated. Following BCG vaccination, there was no demonstrable effect of HIV exposure or maternal Mtb infection on infant BCG-specific T-cell proliferative responses or concentrations of secreted cytokines and chemokines. Effects of maternal HIV and Mtb infection on infant immune profiles at birth are transient only, and HIV-exposed, noninfected infants have the same potential to respond to and be protected by BCG vaccination as HIV-unexposed infants.
    AIDS (London, England) 01/2015; 29(2):155-65. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000536 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) frequently complicates combined antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis therapy in HIV-1-coinfected tuberculosis patients. The immunopathological mechanisms underlying TB-IRIS are incompletely defined, and improved understanding is required to derive new treatments and to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. We performed longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses of human PBMCs from paradoxical TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls (HIV-TB-coinfected patients commencing antiretroviral therapy who did not develop TB-IRIS). Freshly isolated PBMC stimulated with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (hkH37Rv) were used for IFN-γ ELISPOT and RNA extraction. Stored RNA was used for microarray and RT-PCR, whereas corresponding stored culture supernatants were used for ELISA. Stored PBMC were used for perforin and granzyme B ELISPOT and flow cytometry. There were significantly increased IFN-γ responses to hkH37Rv in TB-IRIS, compared with non-IRIS PBMC (p = 0.035). Microarray analysis of hkH37Rv-stimulated PBMC indicated that perforin 1 was the most significantly upregulated gene, with granzyme B among the top five (log2 fold difference 3.587 and 2.828, respectively), in TB-IRIS. Downstream experiments using RT-PCR, ELISA, and ELISPOT confirmed the increased expression and secretion of perforin and granzyme B. Moreover, granzyme B secretion reduced in PBMC from TB-IRIS patients during corticosteroid treatment. Invariant NKT cell (CD3(+)Vα24(+)) proportions were higher in TB-IRIS patients (p = 0.004) and were a source of perforin. Our data implicate the granule exocytosis pathway in TB-IRIS pathophysiology. Further understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this condition will facilitate development of specific diagnostic and improved therapeutic options. Copyright © 2015 The Authors.
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    ABSTRACT: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is improving worldwide. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common complication of ART initiation. In this review, we provide an overview of clinical and epidemiological features of HIV-associated IRIS, current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, available therapy, and preventive strategies. The spectrum of HIV-associated IRIS is described, with a particular focus on three important pathogen-associated forms: tuberculosis-associated IRIS, cryptococcal IRIS, and Kaposi's sarcoma IRIS. While the clinical features and epidemiology are well described, there are major gaps in our understanding of pathophysiology and as a result therapeutic and preventative strategies are suboptimal. Timing of ART initiation is critical to reduce IRIS-associated morbidity. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of IRIS will hopefully enable improved diagnostic modalities and better targeted treatments to be developed.
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    11/2014; 2(12). DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70321-3
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    Anastasia Koch, Robert John Wilkinson
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    ABSTRACT: Sequencing of serial isolates of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis highlights how drug resistance develops within a single patient and reveals unexpected levels of pathogen diversity.
    Genome Biology 11/2014; 15(11):520. DOI:10.1186/s13059-014-0520-1 · 10.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection at greatest risk of reactivation is an important component of TB control and elimination strategies. Biomarkers evaluating the effectiveness of treatment of latent TB infection have not yet been identified. This information would enhance control efforts and assist the evaluation of new treatment regimes. We designed a two-group, two-arm, randomised clinical study of tuberculin skin test-positive participants: 26 with documented contact with TB patients and 34 with non-documented contact. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to the immediate- or deferred-isoniazid treatment arms. Assays of in vitro interferon (IFN)-γ secretion in response to recombinant Rv1737 and overlapping synthetic peptide pools from various groups of immunodominant proteins were performed. During isoniazid therapy, a significant increase from baseline in the proportion of IFN-γ responders to the 10-kDa culture filtrate protein, Rv2031, Rv0849, Rv1986, Rv2659c, Rv2693c and the recombinant Rv1737 protein was observed (p⩽0.05). The peptide pool of Rv0849 and Rv1737 recombinant proteins induced the highest percentage of IFN-γ responders after isoniazid therapy. The in vitro IFN-γ responses to these proteins might represent useful markers to evaluate changes associated with treatment of latent TB infection.
    European Respiratory Journal 10/2014; 45(2). DOI:10.1183/09031936.00123314 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response occurring in a subset of TB-HIV co-infected patients initiating anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Here, we examined monocyte activation by prospectively quantitating pro-inflammatory plasma markers and monocyte subsets in TB-HIV co-infected patients from a South Indian cohort at baseline and following ART initiation at the time of IRIS, or at equivalent time points in non-IRIS controls. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers of innate and myeloid cell activation were increased in plasma of IRIS patients pre-ART and at the time of IRIS; this association was confirmed in a second cohort in South Africa. Increased expression of these markers correlated with elevated antigen load as measured by higher sputum culture grade and shorter duration of anti-TB therapy. Phenotypic analysis revealed the frequency of CD14++CD16- monocytes was an independent predictor of TB-IRIS, and was closely associated with plasma levels of CRP, TNF, IL-6 and tissue factor during IRIS. In addition, production of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes was higher in IRIS patients compared to controls pre-ART. These data point to a major role of mycobacterial antigen load and myeloid cell hyperactivation in the pathogenesis of TB-IRIS, and implicate monocytes and monocyte-derived cytokines as potential targets for TB-IRIS prevention or treatment.
    PLoS Pathogens 10/2014; 10:e1004433. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004433 · 8.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. The immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) remains incompletely understood, and we know of only 1 disease site-specific study of the underlying immunology; we recently showed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positivity and increased neutrophils in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are associated with TBM-IRIS. In this study we investigated inflammatory mediators at the disease site in patients with TBM-IRIS. Methods. We performed lumbar puncture at 3–5 time points in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with TBM (n = 34), including at TBM diagnosis, at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (day 14), 14 days after ART initiation, at presentation of TBM-IRIS, and 14 days thereafter. We determined the concentrations of 40 mediators in CSF (33 paired with blood) with Luminex or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Findings were compared between patients who developed TBM-IRIS (n = 16) and those who did not (TBM-non-IRIS; n = 18). Results. At TBM diagnosis and 2 weeks after ART initiation, TBM-IRIS was associated with severe, compartmentalized inflammation in the CSF, with elevated concentrations of cytokines, chemokines, neutrophil-associated mediators, and matrix metalloproteinases, compared with TBM-non-IRIS. Patients with TBM-non-IRIS whose CSF cultures were positive for M. tuberculosis at TBM diagnosis (n = 6) showed inflammatory responses similar to those seen in patients with TBM-IRIS at both time points. However, at 2 weeks after ART initiation, S100A8/A9 was significantly increased in patients with TBM-IRIS, compared with patients with TBM-non-IRIS whose cultures were positive at baseline. Conclusions. A high baseline M. tuberculosis antigen load drives an inflammatory response that manifests clinically as TBM-IRIS in most, but not all, patients with TBM. Neutrophils and their mediators, especially S100A8/A9, are closely associated with the central nervous system inflammation that characterizes TBM-IRIS.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 08/2014; 59(11). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu641 · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    Anna K Coussens, Adrian R Martineau, Robert J Wilkinson
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    ABSTRACT: TUBERCULOSIS (TB) DISEASE ACTIVATION IS NOW BELIEVED TO ARISE DUE TO A LACK OF INFLAMMATORY HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL AT EITHER END OF THE SPECTRUM OF INFLAMMATION: either due to immunosuppression (decreased antimicrobial activity) or due to immune activation (excess/aberrant inflammation). Vitamin D metabolites can increase antimicrobial activity in innate immune cells, which, in the context of HIV-1 coinfection, have insufficient T cell-mediated help to combat Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Moreover, maintaining vitamin D sufficiency prior to MTB infection enhances the innate antimicrobial response to T cell-mediated interferon-γ. Conversely, vitamin D can act to inhibit expression and secretion of a broad range of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes driving immunopathology during active TB and antiretroviral- (ARV-) mediated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Adjunct vitamin D therapy during treatment of active TB may therefore reduce lung pathology and TB morbidity, accelerate resolution of cavitation and thereby decrease the chance of transmission, improve lung function following therapy, prevent relapse, and prevent IRIS in those initiating ARVs. Future clinical trials of vitamin D for TB prevention and treatment must be designed to detect the most appropriate primary endpoint, which in some cases should be anti-inflammatory and not antimicrobial.
    07/2014; 2014:903680. DOI:10.1155/2014/903680
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    H Esmail, C E Barry, D B Young, R J Wilkinson
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    ABSTRACT: The global health community has set itself the task of eliminating tuberculosis (TB) as a public health problem by 2050. Although progress has been made in global TB control, the current decline in incidence of 2% yr(-1) is far from the rate needed to achieve this. If we are to succeed in this endeavour, new strategies to reduce the reservoir of latently infected persons (from which new cases arise) would be advantageous. However, ascertainment of the extent and risk posed by this group is poor. The current diagnostics tests (tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays) poorly predict who will develop active disease and the therapeutic options available are not optimal for the scale of the intervention that may be required. In this article, we outline a basis for our current understanding of latent TB and highlight areas where innovation leading to development of novel diagnostic tests, drug regimens and vaccines may assist progress. We argue that the pool of individuals at high risk of progression may be significantly smaller than the 2.33 billion thought to be immune sensitized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that identifying and targeting this group will be an important strategy in the road to elimination.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 06/2014; 369(1645):20130437. DOI:10.1098/rstb.2013.0437 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of tuberculosis, but tuberculosis is more common in people with HIV than in people without HIV. We aimed to assess the effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on the risk of tuberculosis in people infected with HIV-1 concurrently receiving antiretroviral therapy.
    The Lancet 05/2014; 384(9944). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60162-8 · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Improved diagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children are needed. We hypothesized that transcriptional signatures of host blood could be used to distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children who either were or were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods The study population comprised prospective cohorts of children who were undergoing evaluation for suspected tuberculosis in South Africa (655 children), Malawi (701 children), and Kenya (1599 children). Patients were assigned to groups according to whether the diagnosis was culture-confirmed tuberculosis, culture-negative tuberculosis, diseases other than tuberculosis, or latent tuberculosis infection. Diagnostic signatures distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases and from latent tuberculosis infection were identified from genomewide analysis of RNA expression in host blood. ResultsWe identified a 51-transcript signature distinguishing tuberculosis from other diseases in the South African and Malawian children (the discovery cohort). In the Kenyan children (the validation cohort), a risk score based on the signature for tuberculosis and for diseases other than tuberculosis showed a sensitivity of 82.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.6 to 94.3) and a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI, 74.6 to 92.7) for the diagnosis of culture-confirmed tuberculosis. Among patients with cultures negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis who were treated for tuberculosis (those with highly probable, probable, or possible cases of tuberculosis), the estimated sensitivity was 62.5 to 82.3%, 42.1 to 80.8%, and 35.3 to 79.6%, respectively, for different estimates of actual tuberculosis in the groups. In comparison, the sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for molecular detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in cases of culture-confirmed tuberculosis was 54.3% (95% CI, 37.1 to 68.6), and the sensitivity in highly probable, probable, or possible cases was an estimated 25.0 to 35.7%, 5.3 to 13.3%, and 0%, respectively; the specificity of the assay was 100%. ConclusionsRNA expression signatures provided data that helped distinguish tuberculosis from other diseases in African children with and those without HIV infection. (Funded by the European Union Action for Diseases of Poverty Program and others).
    New England Journal of Medicine 05/2014; 370(18):1712-1723. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1303657 · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • Pneumologie 02/2014; 68(S 01). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1367929
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    ABSTRACT: In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) neuropathic symptoms may develop within weeks of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This timing coincides with the occurrence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal association of plasma cytokine and soluble receptor concentrations with incident neuropathic symptoms within 12 weeks of starting programme-based cART in a nested case-control study. One hundred and twenty adults without neuropathic symptoms and about to initiate cART were followed longitudinally for 24 weeks after cART initiation. Subjects were examined for peripheral neuropathy at baseline (pre-cART) and 2-, 4-, 12- and 24 weeks thereafter. Individuals developing neuropathic symptoms within 12 weeks of starting cART were matched in a nested case-control design with those remaining symptom-free for at least 24 weeks. Plasma was collected at each visit. Cytokines and soluble receptors were quantified using multiplex immunometric assays. Incident neuropathic symptoms occurred in 32 (27%) individuals within 12 weeks of starting cART for the first time. Cytokine concentrations increased at 2 weeks, irrespective of symptom-status, returning to baseline concentrations at 12 weeks. Compared to the control group, the symptomatic group had higher baseline levels of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-antagonist. The symptomatic group also showed greater increases in soluble interleukin-2 receptor-alpha and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-II levels at week 2 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor levels at week 12. Ratios of pro-inflammatory- vs anti-inflammatory cytokines were higher for TNF-alpha/IL-4 (p = 0.022) and interferon-gamma/IL-10 (p = 0.044) in those developing symptoms. After 24 weeks of cART, the symptomatic group showed higher CD4+ counts (p = 0.002). The initiation of cART in previously treatment naive individuals was associated with a cytokine 'burst' between 2- and 4 weeks compared with pre-cART levels. Individuals developing neuropathic symptoms within 12 weeks of starting cART showed evidence of altered cytokine concentrations even prior to initiating cART, most notably higher circulating IL-1R-antagonist levels, and altered ratios of "pain-associated" cytokine and soluble receptors shortly after cART initiation.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 14(1):71. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-71 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Robert John Wilkinson
    The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 02/2014; 2(2):85-7. DOI:10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70295-9
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    ABSTRACT: The HIV-TB associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) can complicate combined treatments for HIV-1 and TB. Little is known about tissue damage in TB-IRIS. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade components of the extracellular matrix and consequently may play a role in such immunopathology. Here we investigated the involvement of MMPs in TB-IRIS. We determined MMP transcript abundance and secreted protein in M. tuberculosis-stimulated PBMCs from 22 TB-IRIS patients and 22 non-IRIS controls. We also measured MMP protein levels in corresponding serum and the effect of prednisone - which reduces the duration of symptoms in IRIS patients - or placebo treatment on MMP transcript and circulating MMP protein levels. PBMCs from TB-IRIS had increased MMP-1, -3, -7, and -10 transcript levels when compared with those of controls at either 6 or 24 hours. Similarly, MMP-1, -3, -7, and -10 protein secretion in stimulated cultures was higher in TB-IRIS than in controls. Serum MMP-7 concentration was elevated in TB-IRIS and 2 weeks of corticosteroid therapy decreased this level, although not significantly. TB-IRIS is associated with a distinct pattern of MMP gene and protein activation. Modulation of dysregulated MMP activity may represent a novel therapeutic approach to alleviate TB-IRIS in HIV-TB patients undergoing treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.1002/eji.201343593 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS) develops in 9 %-47 % of persons with HIV infection and a CNS opportunistic infection who start antiretroviral therapy and is associated with a mortality rate of 13 %-75 %. These rates vary according to the causative pathogen. Common CNS-IRIS events occur in relation to Cryptococcus, tuberculosis (TB), and JC virus, but several other mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses have been associated with IRIS. IRIS symptoms often mimic the original infection, and diagnosis necessitates consideration of treatment failure, microbial resistance, and an additional neurological infection. These diagnostic challenges often delay IRIS diagnosis and treatment. Corticosteroids have been used to treat CNS-IRIS, with variable responses; the best supportive evidence exists for the treatment of TB-IRIS. Pathogenic mechanisms vary: Cryptococcal IRIS is characterized by a paucity of cerebrospinal inflammation prior to antiretroviral therapy, whereas higher levels of inflammatory markers at baseline predispose to TB meningitis IRIS. This review focuses on advances in the understanding of CNS-IRIS over the past 2 years.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11908-013-0378-5
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    ABSTRACT: Effusive constrictive pericarditis (ECP) is visceral constriction in conjunction with compressive pericardial effusion. The prevalence of proven tuberculous ECP is unknown. Whilst ECP is distinguished from effusive disease on hemodynamic grounds, it is unknown whether effusive-constrictive physiology has a distinct cytokine profile. We conducted a prospective study of prevalence and cytokine profile of effusive-constrictive disease in patients with tuberculous pericardial effusion. From July 2006 through July 2009, the prevalence of ECP and serum and pericardial levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined in adults with tuberculous pericardial effusion. The diagnosis of ECP was made by combined pericardiocentesis and cardiac catheterization. Of 91 patients evaluated, 68 had tuberculous pericarditis. The 36/68 patients (52.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.2-65.4) with ECP were younger (29 versus 37 years, P=0.02), had a higher pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure (17.0 versus 10.0 mmHg, P<0.0001), serum concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) (38.5 versus 0.2 pg/ml, P<0.001) and transforming growth factor-beta (121.5 versus 29.1 pg/ml, P=0.02), pericardial concentration of IL-10 (84.7 versus 20.4 pg/ml, P=0.006) and interferon-gamma (2,568.0 versus 906.6 pg/ml, P=0.03) than effusive non-constrictive cases. In multivariable regression analysis, right atrial pressure > 15 mmHg (odds ratio [OR] = 48, 95%CI: 8.7-265; P<0.0001) and IL-10 > 200 pg/ml (OR=10, 95%CI: 1.1, 93; P=0.04) were independently associated with ECP. Effusive-constrictive disease occurs in half of cases of tuberculous pericardial effusion, and is characterized by greater elevation in the pre-pericardiocentesis right atrial pressure and pericardial and serum IL-10 levels compared to patients with effusive non-constrictive tuberculous pericarditis.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77532. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077532 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,617.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2015
    • Imperial College London
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • St. Mary’s Hospital for Children
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2013–2014
    • Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative IDM
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2006–2014
    • University of Cape Town
      • Institute of Infectious Disease & Molecular Medicine (IIDMM)
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2009–2013
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      • • Division of Immunoregulation
      • • Division of Mycobacterial Research
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2010
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • North West London Hospitals NHS Trust
      Harrow, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1999–2004
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–1997
    • MRC Clinical Sciences Centre
      London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom