Cindy Sutherland

The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (19)82.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle contraction is activated primarily by phosphorylation at Ser19 of the regulatory light chain subunits (LC20) of myosin II, catalysed by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase. Ca(2+)-independent contraction can be induced by inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase, which correlates with diphosphorylation of LC20 at Ser19 and Thr18, catalysed by integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK). LC20 diphosphorylation at Ser19 and Thr18 has been detected in mammalian vascular smooth muscle tissues in response to specific contractile stimuli (e.g. endothelin-1 stimulation of rat renal afferent arterioles) and in pathophysiological situations associated with hypercontractility (e.g. cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage). Comparison of the effects of LC 20 monophosphorylation at Ser19 and diphosphorylation at Ser19 and Thr18 on contraction and relaxation of Triton-skinned rat caudal arterial smooth muscle revealed that phosphorylation at Thr18 has no effect on steady-state force induced by Ser19 phosphorylation. On the other hand, the rates of dephosphorylation and relaxation are significantly slower following diphosphorylation at Thr18 and Ser19 compared to monophosphorylation at Ser19. We propose that this diphosphorylation mechanism underlies the prolonged contractile response of particular vascular smooth muscle tissues to specific stimuli, e.g. endothelin-1 stimulation of renal afferent arterioles, and the vasospastic behavior observed in pathological conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage and coronary arterial vasospasm. ILK and ZIPK may, therefore, be useful therapeutic targets for the treatment of such conditions.
    Journal of smooth muscle research = Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai kikanshi. 01/2014; 50:18-28.
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    ABSTRACT: During activation of smooth muscle contraction, one myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) molecule rapidly phosphorylates many smooth muscle myosin (SMM) molecules, suggesting that muscle activation rates are influenced by the kinetics of MLCK-SMM interactions. To determine the rate-limiting step underlying activation of SMM by MLCK, we measured the kinetics of calcium-calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM)-MLCK-mediated SMM phosphorylation and the corresponding initiation of SMM-based F-actin motility in an in vitro system with SMM attached to a coverslip surface. Fitting the time course of SMM phosphorylation to a kinetic model gave an initial phosphorylation rate, kpo, of ~1.17 heads s-1∙MLCK-1. Also we measured the dwell time of single QD-labeled MLCK molecules interacting with surface-attached SMM and phosphorylated SMM using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. From these data, the dissociation rate constant from phosphorylated SMM was 0.80 s-1, which was similar to kpo mentioned above and with rates measured in solution. This dissociation rate was essentially independent of the phosphorylation state of SMM. From calculations using our measured dissociation rates and Kds, and estimates of [SMM] and [MLCK] in muscle, we predict that the dissociation of MLCK from phosphorylated SMM is rate-limiting and that the rate of the phosphorylation step is faster than this dissociation rate. Also, association to SMM (11-46 s-1) would be much faster than to pSMM (<0.1-0.2 s-1). This suggests that the probability of MLCK interacting with unphosphorylated versus pSMM is 55-460 times greater. This would avoid sequestering MLCK to unproductive interactions with previously phosphorylated SMM, potentially leading to faster rates of phosphorylation in muscle.
    Biochemistry 10/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DAPK1 and ZIPK (also called DAPK3) are closely related serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate programmed cell death and phosphorylation of non-muscle and smooth muscle myosin. We have developed a fluorescence linked enzyme chemoproteomic strategy (FLECS) for the rapid identification of inhibitors for any element of the purinome and identified a selective pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone (HS38) that inhibits DAPK1 and ZIPK in an ATP-competitive manner at nanomolar concentrations. In cellular studies, HS38 decreased RLC20 phosphorylation. In ex vivo studies, HS38 decreased contractile force generated in mouse aorta, rabbit ileum, and calyculin A stimulated arterial muscle by decreasing RLC20 and MYPT1 phosphorylation. The inhibitor also promoted relaxation in Ca(2+) sensitized vessels. A close structural analog (HS43) with 5-fold lower affinity for ZIPK produced no effect on cells or tissues. These findings are consistent with a mechanism of action wherein HS38 specifically targets ZIPK in smooth muscle. The discovery of HS38 provides a lead scaffold for the development of therapeutic agents for smooth muscle related disorders and a chemical means to probe the function of DAPK1 and ZIPK across species.
    ACS Chemical Biology 09/2013; · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OsCaM61 is one of five calmodulins known to be present in Oryza sativa that relays the increase of cytosolic [Ca2+] to downstream targets. OsCaM61 bears a unique C-terminal extension with a prenylation site. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) we have studied the behavior of the CaM domain and the C-terminal extension (CTE) of OsCaM61 in the absence and presence of Ca2+. NMR dynamic data for OsCaM61 indicate that the two lobes of the CaM domain act together unlike the independent behavior of the lobes seen in mammalian CaM and soybean CaM4. Also it is demonstrated that the positively-charged nuclear localization signal (NLS) region in the tail in apo-OsCaM61is helical, while it becomes flexible in the Ca2+-saturated protein. The extra helix in apo-OsCaM61 provides additional interactions in the C-lobe and increases the structural stability of the closed apo-conformation. This leads to a decrease in the Ca2+ binding affinity of EF-hands III and IV in OsCaM61. In Ca2+-OsCaM61 the basic NLS cluster adopts an extended conformation exposing the CTE for prenylation or enabling OsCaM61 to be transferred to the nucleus. Moreover, the S172 and A173, residues in the tail, interact with different regions of the protein. These interactions affect the ability of OsCaM61 to activate different target proteins. Altogether our data show that the tail is not simply a linker between the prenyl group and the protein, but that it also provides a new regulatory mechanism that some plants have developed to fine-tune Ca2+ signalling events.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rho-associated kinase (ROK) activation plays an important role in K(+)-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle (Mita et al., Biochem J. 2002; 364: 431-40). The present study investigated a potential role for tyrosine kinase activity in K(+)-induced RhoA activation and contraction. The non-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, but not the src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2, inhibited K(+)-induced sustained contraction (IC50 = 11.3 ± 2.4 μM). Genistein (10 μM) inhibited the K+-induced increase in myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation without affecting the Ca(2+) transient. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate induced contraction that was reversed by genistein (IC50 = 6.5 ± 2.3 μM) and the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 (IC50 = 0.27 ± 0.04 μM). Vanadate also increased LC20 phosphorylation in a genistein- and Y-27632-dependent manner. K(+) stimulation induced translocation of RhoA to the membrane, which was inhibited by genistein. Phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr855 and Thr697 by K(+) stimulation in a genistein- and Y-27632-sensitive manner. Finally, K(+) stimulation induced genistein-sensitive tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins of ~55, 70 and 113 kDa. We conclude that a genistein-sensitive tyrosine kinase, activated by the membrane depolarization-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i, is involved in the RhoA/ROK activation and sustained contraction induced by K(+).
    Journal of smooth muscle research = Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai kikanshi. 01/2013; 49:26-45.
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    ABSTRACT: The protein prostate-apoptosis response (Par)-4 has been implicated in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction, based largely on studies with the A7r5 cell line. A mechanism has been proposed whereby Par-4 binding to MYPT1 (the myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase, MLCP) blocks access of zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) to Thr697 and Thr855 of MYPT1, whose phosphorylation is associated with MLCP inhibition. Phosphorylation of Par-4 at Thr155 disrupts its interaction with MYPT1, exposing the sites of phosphorylation in MYPT1 and leading to MLCP inhibition and contraction. We tested this "padlock" hypothesis in a well-characterized vascular smooth muscle system, the rat caudal artery. Par-4 was retained in Triton-skinned tissue, suggesting a tight association with the contractile machinery, and indeed Par-4 co-immunoprecipitated with MYPT1. Treatment of Triton-skinned tissue with the phosphatase inhibitor microcystin (MC) evoked phosphorylation of Par-4 at Thr155, but did not induce its dissociation from the contractile machinery. Furthermore, analysis of the time courses of MC-induced phosphorylation of MYPT1 and Par-4 revealed that MYPT1 phosphorylation at Thr697 or Thr855 preceded Par-4 phosphorylation. Par-4 phosphorylation was inhibited by the non-selective kinase inhibitor staurosporine, but not by inhibitors of ZIPK, Rho-associated kinase or protein kinase C. In addition, Par-4 phosphorylation did not occur upon addition of constitutively-active ZIPK to skinned tissue. We conclude that phosphorylation of Par-4 does not regulate contraction of this vascular smooth muscle tissue by inducing dissociation of Par-4 from MYPT1 to allow phosphorylation of MYPT1 and inhibition of MLCP.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 12/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ca(2+) sensitization of smooth muscle contraction depends upon the activities of protein kinases, including Rho-associated kinase, that phosphorylate the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit (MYPT1) at Thr(697) and/or Thr(855) (rat sequence numbering) to inhibit phosphatase activity and increase contractile force. Both Thr residues are preceded by the sequence RRS, and it has been suggested that phosphorylation at Ser(696) prevents phosphorylation at Thr(697). However, the effects of Ser(854) and dual Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855) phosphorylations on myosin phosphatase activity and contraction are unknown. We characterized a suite of MYPT1 proteins and phosphospecific antibodies for specificity toward monophosphorylation events (Ser(696), Thr(697), Ser(854), and Thr(855)), Ser phosphorylation events (Ser(696)/Ser(854)) and dual Ser/Thr phosphorylation events (Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855)). Dual phosphorylation at Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855) by cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases had no effect on myosin phosphatase activity, whereas phosphorylation at Thr(697) and Thr(855) by Rho-associated kinase inhibited phosphatase activity and prevented phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase at the neighboring Ser residues. Forskolin induced phosphorylation at Ser(696), Thr(697), Ser(854), and Thr(855) in rat caudal artery, whereas U46619 induced Thr(697) and Thr(855) phosphorylation and prevented the Ser phosphorylation induced by forskolin. Furthermore, pretreatment with forskolin prevented U46619-induced Thr phosphorylations. We conclude that cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide and RhoA signaling pathways dictates the phosphorylation status of the Ser(696)-Thr(697) and Ser(854)-Thr(855) inhibitory regions of MYPT1 in situ, thereby regulating the activity of myosin phosphatase and contraction.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2012; 287(43):36356-69. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Cindy Sutherland, Michael P Walsh
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    ABSTRACT: The principal signal to activate smooth muscle contraction is phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains of myosin (LC(20)) at Ser(19) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase. Inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase leads to Ca(2+)-independent phosphorylation at both Ser(19) and Thr(18) by integrin-linked kinase and/or zipper-interacting protein kinase. The functional effects of phosphorylation at Thr(18) on steady-state isometric force and relaxation rate were investigated in Triton-skinned rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips. Sequential phosphorylation at Ser(19) and Thr(18) was achieved by treatment with adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) in the presence of Ca(2+), which induced stoichiometric thiophosphorylation at Ser(19), followed by microcystin (phosphatase inhibitor) in the absence of Ca(2+), which induced phosphorylation at Thr(18). Phosphorylation at Thr(18) had no effect on steady-state force induced by Ser(19) thiophosphorylation. However, phosphorylation of Ser(19) or both Ser(19) and Thr(18) to comparable stoichiometries (0.5 mol of P(i)/mol of LC(20)) and similar levels of isometric force revealed differences in the rates of dephosphorylation and relaxation following removal of the stimulus: t(&frac12;) values for dephosphorylation were 83.3 and 560 s, and for relaxation were 560 and 1293 s, for monophosphorylated (Ser(19)) and diphosphorylated LC(20), respectively. We conclude that phosphorylation at Thr(18) decreases the rates of LC(20) dephosphorylation and smooth muscle relaxation compared with LC(20) phosphorylated exclusively at Ser(19). These effects of LC(20) diphosphorylation, combined with increased Ser(19) phosphorylation (Ca(2+)-independent), may underlie the hypercontractility that is observed in response to certain physiological contractile stimuli, and under pathological conditions such as cerebral and coronary arterial vasospasm, intimal hyperplasia, and hypertension.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(29):24064-76. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S100A11 is a member of the S100 family of EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins, which is expressed in smooth muscle and other tissues. Ca(2+) binding to S100A11 induces a conformational change that exposes a hydrophobic surface for interaction with target proteins. Affinity chromatography with immobilized S100A11 was used to isolate a 70-kDa protein from smooth muscle that bound to S100A11 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and was identified by mass spectrometry as annexin A6. Direct Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between S100A11 and annexin A6 was confirmed by affinity chromatography of the purified bacterially expressed proteins, by gel overlay of annexin A6 with purified S100A11, by chemical cross-linking, and by coprecipitation of S100A11 with annexin A6 bound to liposomes. The expression of S100A11 and annexin A6 in the same cell type was verified by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry of isolated vascular smooth muscle cells. The site of binding of S100A11 on annexin A6 was investigated by partial tryptic digestion and deletion mutagenesis. The unique NH(2) terminal head region of annexin A6 was not required for S100A11 binding, but binding sites were identified in both NH(2)- and COOH-terminal halves of the molecule. We hypothesize that an agonist-induced increase in cytosolic free [Ca(2+)] leads to formation of a complex of S100A11 and annexin A6, which forms a physical connection between the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton, or plays a role in the formation of signaling complexes at the level of the sarcolemma.
    AJP Cell Physiology 05/2007; 292(4):C1417-30. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CPI-17 is a cytosolic protein of 17 kDa that becomes a potent inhibitor of certain type 1 protein serine/threonine phosphatases, including smooth muscle myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP), when phosphorylated at Thr38. Several protein kinases are capable of phosphorylating CPI-17 at this site in vitro; however, in intact tissue, compelling evidence only exists for phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC). Agonist-induced activation of heterotrimeric G proteins of the Gq/11 family via seven-transmembrane domain-containing, G protein-coupled receptors results in phospholipase Cbeta-mediated hydrolysis of membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. DAG and Ca2+ together activate classical isoforms of PKC, and DAG activates novel PKC isoforms without a requirement for Ca2+. Activated PKC phosphorylates CPI-17 at Thr38, enhancing its potency of inhibition of MLCP approx 1000-fold. The myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK):MLCP activity ratio is thereby increased at the prevailing cytosolic free-Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), resulting in an increase in phosphorylation of the 20-kDa light chains of myosin II (LC20) catalyzed by Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent MLCK and contraction of the smooth muscle. Physiologically, this mechanism can account for some instances of Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction (i.e., an increase in force in response to agonist stimulation without a change in [Ca2+]i).
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2007; 365:209-23. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle contraction is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-19 of LC20 (the 20 kDa light chains of myosin II) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent MLCK (myosin light-chain kinase). Diphosphorylation of LC20 at Ser-19 and Thr-18 is observed in smooth muscle tissues and cultured cells in response to various contractile stimuli, and in pathological circumstances associated with hypercontractility. MLCP (myosin light-chain phosphatase) inhibition can lead to LC20 diphosphorylation and Ca2+-independent contraction, which is not attributable to MLCK. Two kinases have emerged as candidates for Ca2+-independent LC20 diphosphorylation: ILK (integrin-linked kinase) and ZIPK (zipper-interacting protein kinase). Triton X-100-skinned rat caudal arterial smooth muscle was used to investigate the relative importance of ILK and ZIPK in Ca2+-independent, microcystin (phosphatase inhibitor)-induced LC20 diphosphorylation and contraction. Western blotting and in-gel kinase assays revealed that both kinases were retained in this preparation. Ca2+-independent contraction of calmodulin-depleted tissue in response to microcystin was resistant to MLCK inhibitors [AV25 (a 25-amino-acid peptide derived from the autoinhibitory domain of MLCK), ML-7, ML-9 and wortmannin], protein kinase C inhibitor (GF109203X) and Rho-associated kinase inhibitors (Y-27632 and H-1152), but blocked by the non-selective kinase inhibitor staurosporine. ZIPK was inhibited by AV25 (IC50 0.63+/-0.05 microM), whereas ILK was insensitive to AV25 (at concentrations as high as 100 microM). AV25 had no effect on Ca2+-independent, microcystin-induced LC20 mono- or di-phosphorylation, with a modest effect on force. We conclude that direct inhibition of MLCP in the absence of Ca2+ unmasks ILK activity, which phosphorylates LC20 at Ser-19 and Thr-18 to induce contraction. ILK is probably the kinase responsible for myosin diphosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells and tissues.
    Biochemical Journal 01/2006; 392(Pt 3):641-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The signal transduction pathway whereby the TxA2 (thromboxane A2) mimetic U-46619 activates vascular smooth muscle contraction was investigated in de-endothelialized rat caudal artery. U-46619-evoked contraction was inhibited by the TP receptor (TxA2 receptor) antagonist SQ-29548, the ROK (Rho-associated kinase) inhibitors Y-27632 and H-1152, the MLCK (myosin light-chain kinase) inhibitors ML-7, ML-9 and wortmannin, the voltagegated Ca2+-channel blocker nicardipine, and removal of extracellular Ca2+; the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203x had no effect. U-46619 elicited Ca2+ sensitization in a-toxin-permeabilized tissue. U-46619 induced activation of the small GTPase RhoA, consistent with the involvement of ROK. Two downstream targets of ROK were investigated: CPI-17 [protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for PP1 (protein phosphatase type 1) of 17 kDa], a myosin light-chain phosphatase inhibitor, was not phosphorylated at the functional site (Thr-38); phosphorylation of MYPT1 (myosin-targeting subunit of myosin light-chain phosphatase) was significantly increased at Thr-855, but not Thr-697. U-46619-evoked contraction correlated with phosphorylation of the 20 kDa light chains of myosin. We conclude that: (i) U-46619 induces contraction via activation of the Ca2+/calmodulin/MLCK pathway and of the RhoA/ROK pathway; (ii) Thr-855 of MYPT1 is phosphorylated by ROK at rest and in response to U-46619 stimulation; (iii) Thr-697 of MYPT1 is phosphorylated by a kinase other than ROK under resting conditions, and is not increased in response to U-46619 treatment; and (iv) neither ROK nor protein kinase C phosphorylates CPI-17 in this vascular smooth muscle in response to U-46619.
    Biochemical Journal 09/2005; 389(Pt 3):763-74. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperphosphorylation of the cardiac Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR2) by protein kinase A (PKA) at serine-2808 has been proposed to be a key mechanism responsible for cardiac dysfunction in heart failure (HF). However, the sites of PKA phosphorylation in RyR2 and their phosphorylation status in HF are not well defined. Here we used various approaches to investigate the phosphorylation of RyR2 by PKA. Mutating serine-2808, which was thought to be the only PKA phosphorylation site in RyR2, did not abolish the phosphorylation of RyR2 by PKA. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping revealed two major PKA phosphopeptides, one of which corresponded to the known serine-2808 site. Another, novel, PKA phosphorylation site, serine 2030, was identified by Edman sequencing. Using phospho-specific antibodies, we showed that the novel serine-2030 site was phosphorylated in rat cardiac myocytes stimulated with isoproterenol, but not in unstimulated cells, whereas serine-2808 was considerably phosphorylated before and after isoproterenol treatment. We further showed that serine-2030 was stoichiometrically phosphorylated by PKA, but not by CaMKII, and that mutations of serine-2030 altered neither the FKBP12.6-RyR2 interaction nor the Ca2+ dependence of [3H]ryanodine binding. Moreover, the levels of phosphorylation of RyR2 at serine-2030 and serine-2808 in both failing and non-failing canine hearts were similar. Together, our data indicate that serine-2030 is a major PKA phosphorylation site in RyR2 responding to acute beta-adrenergic stimulation, and that RyR2 is not hyperphosphorylated by PKA in canine HF.
    Circulation Research 05/2005; 96(8):847-55. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of anchoring proteins target specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes to particular subcellular locations or multimeric signaling complexes, thereby achieving a high degree of substrate specificity by localizing the kinase in proximity to specific substrates. PKCepsilon is widely expressed in smooth muscle tissues, but little is known about its targeting and substrate specificity. We have used a Far-Western (overlay) approach to identify PKCepsilon-binding proteins in vascular smooth muscle of the rat aorta. Proteins of approximately 32 and 34 kDa in the Triton-insoluble fraction were found to bind PKCepsilon in a phospholipid/diacylglycerol-dependent manner. Although of similar molecular weight to RACK-1, a known PKCepsilon-binding protein, these proteins were separated from RACK-1 by SDS-PAGE and differential NaCl extraction and were not recognized by an antibody to RACK-1. The PKCepsilon-binding proteins were further purified from the Triton-insoluble fraction and identified by de novo sequencing of selected tryptic peptides by tandem mass spectrometry as variants of the linker histone H1. Their identity was confirmed by Western blotting with anti-histone H1 and the demonstration that purified histone H1 binds PKCepsilon in the presence of phospholipid and diacylglycerol but absence of Ca(2+). The interaction of PKCepsilon with histone H1 was specific since no interaction was observed with histones H2A, H2S or H3S. Bound PKCepsilon phosphorylated histone H1 in a phospholipid/diacylglycerol-dependent but Ca(2+)-independent manner. Ca(2+)-dependent PKC was also shown to interact with histone H1 but not other histones. These results suggest that histone H1 is both an anchoring protein and a substrate for activated PKCepsilon and other PKC isoenzymes and likely serves to localize activated PKCs that translocate to the nucleus in the vicinity of specific nuclear substrates including histone H1 itself. Since PKC isoenzymes have been implicated in regulation of gene expression, stable interaction with histone H1 may be an important step in this process.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology 11/2004; 82(5):538-46. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dissociation of FKBP12.6 from the cardiac Ca2+-release channel (RyR2) as a consequence of protein kinase A (PKA) hyperphosphorylation of RyR2 at a single amino acid residue, serine-2808, has been proposed as an important mechanism underlying cardiac dysfunction in heart failure. However, the issue of whether PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 can dissociate FKBP12.6 from RyR2 is controversial. To additionally address this issue, we investigated the effect of PKA phosphorylation and mutations at serine-2808 of RyR2 on recombinant or native FKBP12.6-RyR2 interaction. Site-specific antibodies, which recognize the serine-2808 phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated form of RyR2, were used to unambiguously correlate the phosphorylation state of RyR2 at serine-2808 with its ability to bind FKBP12.6. We found that FKBP12.6 can bind to both the serine-2808 phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of RyR2. The S2808D mutant thought to mimic constitutive phosphorylation also retained the ability to bind FKBP12.6. Complete phosphorylation at serine-2808 by exogenous PKA disrupted neither the recombinant nor native FKBP12.6-RyR2 complex. Furthermore, binding of site-specific antibodies to the serine-2808 phosphorylation site did not dissociate FKBP12.6 from or prevent FKBP12.6 from binding to RyR2. Taken together, our results do not support the notion that PKA phosphorylation at serine-2808 dissociates FKBP12.6 from RyR2.
    Circulation Research 04/2004; 94(4):487-95. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been implicated in Ca(2+)- independent contraction of smooth muscle via its ability to phosphorylate myosin. We investigated the possibility that this kinase might also phosphorylate and regulate the myosin light-chain phosphatase inhibitor proteins CPI-17 [protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa] and PHI-1 (phosphatase holoenzyme inhibitor-1), known substrates of PKC. Both phosphatase inhibitors were phosphorylated by ILK in an in-gel kinase assay and in solution. A Thr-->Ala mutation at Thr(38) of CPI-17 and Thr(57) of PHI-1 eliminated phosphorylation by ILK. Phosphopeptide mapping, phospho amino acid analysis and immunoblotting using phospho-specific antibodies indicated that ILK predominantly phosphorylated the site critical for potent inhibition, i.e. Thr(38) of CPI-17 or Thr(57) of PHI-1. CPI-17 and PHI-1 thiophosphorylated by ILK at Thr(38) or Thr(57) respectively inhibited myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity bound to myosin, whereas the site-specific mutants CPI-17-Thr(38)Ala and PHI-1-Thr(57)Ala, treated with ILK under identical conditions, like the untreated wild-type proteins had no effect on the phosphatase. Consistent with these effects, both thiophospho-CPI-17 and -PHI-1 induced Ca(2+) sensitization of contraction of Triton X-100-demembranated rat-tail arterial smooth muscle, whereas CPI-17-Thr(38)Ala and PHI-1-Thr(57)Ala treated with ILK in the presence of adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate failed to evoke a contractile response. We conclude that ILK may activate smooth-muscle contraction both directly, via phosphorylation of myosin, and indirectly, via phosphorylation and activation of CPI-17 and PHI-1, leading to inhibition of MLCP.
    Biochemical Journal 10/2002; 367(Pt 2):517-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays a key role in activation of smooth muscle contraction. A soybean isoform of CaM, SCaM-4 (77% identical to human CaM) fails to activate MLCK, whereas SCaM-1 (90.5% identical to human CaM) is as effective as CaM. We exploited this difference to gain insights into the structural requirements in CaM for activation of MLCK. A chimera (domain I of SCaM-4 and domains II-IV of SCaM-1) behaved like SCaM4, and analysis of site-specific mutants of SCaM-1 indicated that K30E and G40D mutations were responsible for the reduction in activation of MLCK. Competition experiments showed that SCaM-4 binds to the CaM-binding site of MLCK with high affinity. Replacement of CaM in skinned smooth muscle by exogenous CaM or SCaM-1, but not SCaM-4, restored Ca(2+)-dependent contraction. K30E/M36I/G40D SCaM-1 was a poor activator of contraction, but site-specific mutants, K30E, M36I and G40D, each restored Ca(2+)-induced contraction to CaM-depleted skinned smooth muscle, consistent with their capacity to activate MLCK. Interpretation of these results in light of the high-resolution structures of (Ca(2+))(4)-CaM, free and complexed with the CaM-binding domain of MLCK, indicates that a surface domain containing Lys(30) and Gly(40) and residues from the C-terminal domain is created upon binding to MLCK, formation of which is required for activation of MLCK. Interactions between this activation domain and a region of MLCK distinct from the known CaM-binding domain are required for removal of the autoinhibitory domain from the active site, i.e., activation of MLCK, or this domain may be required to stabilize the conformation of (Ca(2+))(4)-CaM necessary for MLCK activation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2002; 277(8):6550-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • David P Wilson, Cindy Sutherland, Michael P Walsh
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    ABSTRACT: Smooth muscle contraction is activated by phosphorylation of the 20-kDa light chains of myosin catalyzed by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). According to popular current theory, the CaM involved in MLCK regulation is Ca(2+)-free and dissociated from the kinase at resting cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). An increase in [Ca(2+)](i) saturates the four Ca(2+)-binding sites of CaM, which then binds to and activates actin-bound MLCK. The results of this study indicate that this theory requires revision. Sufficient CaM was retained after skinning (demembranation) of rat tail arterial smooth muscle in the presence of EGTA to support Ca(2+)-evoked contraction, as observed previously with other smooth muscle tissues. This tightly bound CaM was released by the CaM antagonist trifluoperazine (TFP) in the presence of Ca(2+). Following removal of the (Ca(2+))(4)-CaM-TFP(2) complex, Ca(2+) no longer induced contraction. The addition of exogenous CaM to TFP-treated tissue at a [Ca(2+)] subthreshold for contraction or even in the absence of Ca(2+) (presence of 5 mm EGTA), followed by washout of unbound CaM, restored Ca(2+)-induced contraction; this required MLCK activation, since it was blocked by the MLCK inhibitor ML-9. The data suggest, therefore, that a specific pool of cellular CaM, tightly bound to myofilaments at resting [Ca(2+)](i), or even in the absence of Ca(2+), is responsible for activation of contraction following a local increase in [Ca(2+)]. This mechanism would allow for localized changes in [Ca(2+)] in regions of the cell distant from the myofilaments to regulate distinct Ca(2+)-dependent processes without triggering a contractile response. Immobilized CaM, therefore, resembles troponin C, the Ca(2+)-binding regulatory protein of striated muscle, which is also bound to the thin filament in a Ca(2+)-independent manner.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2002; 277(3):2186-92. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calmodulin (CaM), the principal protein mediator of cellular Ca2+signals, interacts with some 80 target proteins, many of which are enzymes that are activated by CaM in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Ma mMalian genomes contain at least three differentially regulated CaM genes that encode the same protein (1). On the other hand, multiple genes encode several CaM isoforms in plants. For example, the soybean genome contains at least five CaM genes that encode four distinct isoforms (2).
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 02/2002; 173:339-54. · 1.29 Impact Factor