[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Recent research on late-life depression (LLD) pathophysiology suggests the implication of abnormalities in cerebral white matter and particularly in interhemispheric transfer. Corpus callosum (CC) is the main brain interhemispheric commissure. Hence, we investigated the association between baseline CC measures and risk of LDD.
We studied 467 non-demented individuals without LLD at baseline from a cohort of elderly community-dwelling people (the ESPRIT study). LLD was assessed at year 2, 4, 7 and 10 of the study follow-up. At baseline, T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were manually traced to measure the mid-sagittal areas of the anterior, mid and posterior CC. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models stratified by sex were used to predict LLD incidence over 10 years.
A significant interaction between gender and CC size was found (p=0.02). LLD incidence in elderly women, but not in men, was significantly associated with smaller anterior (HR 1.37 [1.05–1.79] p=0.017), mid (HR 1.43 [1.09–1.86] p=0.008), posterior (HR 1.39 [1.12–1.74] p=0.002) and total (HR 1.53 [1.16–2.00] p=0.002) CC areas at baseline in Cox models adjusted for age, education, global cognitive impairment, ischemic pathologies, left-handedness, white matter lesion, intracranial volume and past depression.
The main limitation was the retrospective assessment of major depression.
Smaller CC size is a predictive factor of incident LLD over 10 years in elderly women independently of cognitive deterioration. Our finding suggests a possible role of CC and reduced interhemispheric connectivity in LLD pathophysiology. Extensive explorations are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to CC morphometric changes in mood disorders.
Journal of Affective Disorders. 11/2014; 165:16–23.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flow diverters are increasingly used in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Our aim was to determine neurologic complication rates following Pipeline Embolization Device placement for intracranial aneurysm treatment in a real-world setting.
AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:
Endovascular treatment of large, wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with coils is associated with low rates of initial angiographic occlusion and high rates of recurrence. The Pipeline™ Embolization Device has shown high rates of complete occlusion in uncontrolled clinical series.
The study is a prospective, controlled, randomized, multicenter, phase 2 open-label trial. Intention-to-treat population includes age ≥18, unruptured saccular aneurysm located in the intra-dural area, neck diameter ≥4 and ≤10 mm, sac diameter ≥7 mm and ≤20 mm, "dome/neck" ratio is ≥1, diameter of the parent artery ≥2 mm and ≤5 mm, and no prior treatment of the aneurysm. Site can only participate if five patients have been previously treated with the Pipeline device. The primary end point of the study is complete occlusion of the aneurysm on angiogram performed 12 months after the endovascular procedure. Complete aneurysm occlusion is defined as the absence of visible blood flow, grade 1 according to the Raymond scale for the standard procedure group and grade 4 according to the grading scale of Kamran for the flow diverter group.
The trial is currently enrolling and results of the data are pending the completion of enrollment and follow-up.
This paper details the trial design of the French EVIDENCE phase 2 trial, a blinded, controlled randomized trial of wide-neck intra-dural aneurysms amenable to either traditional endovascular strategy or flow diversion with Pipeline device.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incomplete occlusion and recanalization of large and wide-neck brain aneurysms treated by endovascular therapy remains a challenge. We present preliminary clinical and angiographic results of an experimentally optimized Surpass flow diverter for treatment of intracranial aneurysms in a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, single-arm study.
AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 08/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study follows an experimental work based on the characterization of the biomechanical behavior of the aneurysmal wall and a numerical study where a significant difference in term of volume variation between ruptured and unruptured aneurysm was observed in a specific case. Our study was designed to highlight by means of numeric simulations the correlation between aneurysm sac pulsatility and the risk of rupture through the mechanical properties of the wall.
AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 05/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose—We report on workflow and process-based performance measures and their effect on clinical outcome in Solitaire FR Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularization (STAR), a multicenter, prospective, single-arm study of Solitaire FR thrombectomy in large vessel anterior circulation stroke patients.
Methods—Two hundred two patients were enrolled across 14 centers in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The following time intervals were measured: stroke onset to hospital arrival, hospital arrival to baseline imaging, baseline imaging to groin puncture, groin puncture to first stent deployment, and first stent deployment to reperfusion. Effects of time of day, general anesthesia use, and multimodal imaging on workflow were evaluated. Patient characteristics and workflow processes associated with prolonged interval times and good clinical outcome (90-day modified Rankin score, 0–2) were analyzed.
Results—Median times were onset of stroke to hospital arrival, 123 minutes (interquartile range, 163 minutes); hospital arrival to thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b/3 or final digital subtraction angiography, 133 minutes (interquartile range, 99 minutes); and baseline imaging to groin puncture, 86 minutes (interquartile range, 24 minutes). Time from baseline imaging to puncture was prolonged in patients receiving intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (32-minute mean delay) and when magnetic resonance–based imaging at baseline was used (18-minute mean delay). Extracranial carotid disease delayed puncture to first stent deployment time on average by 25 minutes. For each 1-hour increase in stroke onset to final digital subtraction angiography (or TICI 2b/3) time, odds of good clinical outcome decreased by 38%.
Conclusions—Interval times in the STAR study reflect current intra-arterial therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Improving workflow metrics can further improve clinical outcome.
Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01327989.
Stroke 05/2014; STROKEAHA.114.005050 Published online before print May 15, 2014, doi: 10.1161/ STROKEAHA.114.005050. · 6.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of aneurysm treatment is occlusion of an aneurysm without morbidity or mortality. Using well-established, traditional endovascular techniques, this is generally achievable with a high level of safety and efficacy. These techniques involve either constructive treatment of the aneurysm (coils with or without an intravascular stent) or deconstruction (coil occlusion) of the aneurysm and the parent artery. While established as safe and efficacious, the constructive treatment of large and giant aneurysms with coils has typically been associated with relatively lower rates of complete occlusion and higher rates of recurrence. Parent artery deconstruction, though immediately efficacious in achieving complete and durable occlusion, does require occlusion of a major intracranial blood vessel and is associated with risk of stroke.
Flow diversion represents a new technology that can be used to constructively treat large and giant aneurysms. Once excluded successfully, the vessel reconstruction and aneurysm occlusion appears durable. The ability to definitively reconstruct cerebral blood vessels is an attractive approach to these large and giant complex aneurysms and allows the treatment of some aneurysms which were previously not amenable to other therapies. By comparison, conventional coiling techniques have traditionally been used for endovascular treatment of large aneurysms. Large and giant aneurysms that are amenable to either flow diversion or traditional endovascular treatment will be randomized to either therapy with FDA (or appropriate regulatory body) approved devices.
The trial is currently enrolling and results of the data are pending the completion of enrollment and follow-up.
This paper details the trial design of the LARGE trial, a blinded, prospective randomized trial of large anterior circulation aneurysms amenable to either traditional endovascular treatments using coils or reconstruction with flow diverters.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms can be technically difficult when the neck is wide. The Solitaire AB stent, the only fully retrieved stent, assists in the coiling of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms.
To evaluate the mid-term angiographic follow-up of wide-necked aneurysms treated with the Solitaire AB stent.
SOLARE is a consecutive, prospective study conducted in 7 European centers. A core laboratory evaluated the postoperative and mid-term (6 month ± 15 days) angiographic results by using the Raymond classification Scale. "Recanalization" was defined as worsening, and "progressive thrombosis" was defined as improvement on the Raymond scale.
The mean width of the aneurysm sac was 7.5 mm, and the mean diameter of the aneurysm neck was 4.7 mm. Angiographic mid-term follow-up was obtained in 55 of 65 aneurysms (85.9%). Complete occlusion was achieved in 33 aneurysms (60%); neck remnant was seen in 16 aneurysms (29.1%) and aneurysm remnant in 6 aneurysms (10.9%). Of 55 aneurysms, recanalization was observed in 8 aneurysms (14.5%), and progressive thrombosis was observed in 17 aneurysms (30.9%). No bleeding or rebleeding was observed during the follow-up period.
Stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms is safe and effective with the Solitaire AB stent at 6-month follow-up. Angiographic results improve with time due to progressive thrombosis of the aneurysm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemidystonia is usually 'secondary' to structural lesions within the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic or the cerebello-thalamo-cortical loops. Globus pallidus internus Deep Brain Stimulation (GPi DBS) is a validated technique in the treatment of primary dystonia and still under assessment for secondary dystonia. Results of DBS in hemidystonia are limited and heterogeneous. Further knowledge concerning motor network organization after focal brain lesions might contribute to the understanding of this mitigated response to DBS and to the refinement of DBS indications and techniques in secondary dystonia. This study aimed to identify movement-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns in a group of hemidystonic patients in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Further analysis assessed recruitment pattern in different patient subgroups defined according to clinical and radiological criteria relevant to GPi DBS eligibility (hyperkinetic/hypokinetic and prepallidal/postpallidal). Eleven patients and nine HC underwent fMRI with a block-design alternating active and rest conditions. The motor paradigm consisted of self-paced elbow flexion-extension movements. The main results were as follows: single-subject studies revealed several activation patterns involving motor-related network regions; both ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres showed abnormal patterns of activity; compared with HC, hemidystonic patients showed decreased brain activity in ipsilesional thalamus, pallidal and temporal areas during affected arm task execution; 'hypokinetic' subgroup was commonly related to widespread bilateral overactivity. This study provides additional arguments for case-by-case assessment of DBS surgery indication and target selection in hemidystonia. Single-lead approach might be unable to modulate a highly disorganized network activity in certain patients with this clinical syndrome.
Brain Imaging and Behavior 04/2014; · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotid cavernous sinus fistulas are a potentially severe pathology. Their basic standard treatment is an occlusion of the CCF performed by retrograde venous catheterization via the inferior petrous sinus. When the inferior petrous sinuses are occluded, other alternative venous routes are possible with various subsequent difficulties and risks. We report an original and safe method for endovascular treatment using submandibular puncture of the facial vein.
We report 4 cases of patients with severe unilateral carotid cavernous sinus fistula associated with the occlusion of both inferior petrous sinuses. A submandibular surgical puncture of the ipsilateral inferior facial vein permitted the catheterization of the fistula. Complete occlusion of carotid cavernous sinus fistula was obtained by using a combination of microcoils and Onyx™.
When inferior petrous sinuses are occluded, endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous sinus fistulas is more difficult. After reviewing the other treatment options reported in the literature and their respective advantages and adverse effects, we describe an original technique based on the surgical puncture of the ipsilateral facial vein. The occlusion of the fistula is then obtained by using a combination of microcoils and Onyx™.
When the inferior petrous sinuses are occluded, an endovascular treatment for a carotid cavernous sinus fistula can be performed using an original and secure method. This method relies on a simple surgical puncture of the facial vein in the submandibular region, which then permits a retrograde catheterization of the carotid cavernous sinus fistula with no significant risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we performed biometric characterization of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of clinically normal subjects.
Fifty-one healthy volunteers underwent high-resolution computerized tomography examination of the TMJs in the position of maximal intercuspidation according to a standardized protocol. Frontal and sagittal reconstructions were then performed to obtain measurements and indexes in three planes of space.
Correlations are observed with age, gender, amplitude of mouth opening and presence of dental abrasion. The lateral stability index reflects the degree of mobility of the temporo-discal compartment of the joint. The coverage index reflects how much the mandibular condyle is inserted into the articular fossa and may be related to the risk of occurrence and severity of regressive remodeling phenomena.
This study supports the interest in examining morphological aspects of the TMJ and performing intra-articular measurements. The biometric examination of the TMJ has important applications in the domain of TMJ pathology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age and stroke severity are inversely correlated with the odds of favorable outcome after ischemic stroke. A previously proposed score for Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS Stroke Scale (SPAN) indicated that SPAN-100-positive patients (ie, age + NIHSS score = 100 or more) do not benefit from IV-tPA. If this finding holds true for endovascular therapy, this score can impact patient selection for such interventions. This study investigated whether a score combining age and NIHSS score can improve patients' selection for endovascular stroke therapy.
The SPAN index was calculated for patients in the prospective Solitaire FR Thrombectomy for Acute Revascularization study: an international single-arm multicenter cohort for anterior circulation stroke treatment by using the Solitaire FR. The proportion with favorable outcome (90-day mRS score ≤2) was compared between SPAN-100-positive versus-negative patients.
Of the 202 patients enrolled, 196 had baseline NIHSS scores. Fifteen (7.7%) patients were SPAN-100-positive. There was no difference in the rate of successful reperfusion (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction 2b or 3) between SPAN-100-positive versus -negative groups (93.3% versus 82.8%, respectively; P = .3). Stroke SPAN-100-positive patients had a significantly lower proportion of favorable clinical outcomes (26.7% versus 60.8% in SPAN-100-negative, P = .01). In a multivariable analysis, SPAN-100-positive status was associated with lower odds of favorable outcome (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P = .04). A higher baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score and a short onset to revascularization time also predicted favorable outcome in the multivariable analysis.
A significantly lower proportion of patients with a positive SPAN-100 achieved favorable outcome in this cohort. SPAN-100 was an independent predictor of favorable outcome after adjusting for time to treatment and the extent of preintervention tissue damage according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 02/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor