[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FOLFIRINOX is a standard chemotherapeutic regimen for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who have a good performance status. In this study, we present the case of a 64yearold male who developed dysarthria following FOLFIRINOX treatment, and review all four cases of dysarthria encountered among the nine patients who received this treatment in our hospital. In all cases, dysarthria occurred during the infusion of irinotecan in the first course of treatment, persisted for several hours, and then resolved rapidly without any sequelae. Physical and neurological examinations at the onset of dysarthria revealed no other abnormalities. Imaging studies revealed no abnormal findings. Atropine was prophylactically administered in the second and subsequent courses of treatment and effectively prevented or alleviated dysarthria. This acute neurological symptom is surprising and uncommon in traditional cancer chemotherapy, and medical oncologists may initially suspect the onset of stroke or cerebrovascular disease. However, consistent with our experience, all reported cases resolved completely, with no need for dose reduction or treatment interruption.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a very troublesome, difficult to manage and a nearly universal complication of chronic opioid use to control pain associated with advanced illness. Some studies have reported that OIC is so intolerable in some patients that they skip their opioid medications and bear pain instead of OIC. Laxatives have commonly been used as a prophylaxis and treatment of OIC but they are frequently ineffective because the commonly available laxatives do not target the underlying mechanism of OIC, which is the blockade of peripheral mu-receptors. Recently, there have been a number of advances in the treatment of OIC, which any physician involved with opioid-prescribing discipline should be aware of. This review will update the new options and strategies available for treating OIC along with the relevant clinical trials. Finally, this review also provides a recommendation on the preferred way to approach a patient with OIC in the modern era as well as highlight on the importance of doctor-patient communication in this setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Granular cell tumors are uncommon, usually benign tumors of Schwann cell origin. The malignant variant is extremely rare, representing <2% of all granular cell tumors. Therefore, standard systemic chemotherapy for this disease does not exist. The present study reports the case of a 40-year-old female with a malignant granular cell tumor that originally arose in the right orbit and subsequently relapsed. The patient was started on pazopanib monotherapy following treatment with two investigational drugs, a smoothened inhibitor and then a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, as part of a clinical trial. Although additional radiotherapy for local control was necessary, the lung metastases remained stable during the pazopanib monotherapy, which lasted for 7 months, following which a clinically stable disease state was determined. This case suggests that pazopanib can be a treatment option for the stabilization of disease progression in metastatic malignant granular cell tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Calvert formula was derived from the study among patients with glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) of 33-135 ml/min, and it remains unclear whether the formula can be used to calculate optimal and safe dosages of carboplatin in patients with severe renal insufficiency. We evaluated the utility of this formula in patients with severe renal insufficiency.
For pharmacokinetic analysis, we studied nine adult Japanese patients with advanced cancer who had an estimated GFR of lower than 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2), as calculated by the Japanese equation for estimating GFR, or who were receiving hemodialysis. The dose of carboplatin was calculated with the Calvert formula, in which GFR was measured by inulin clearance or was assumed to be 0 in patients requiring hemodialysis. Hemodialysis was started 23 h after the end of carboplatin infusion.
Although there was a significant correlation between the estimated and measured carboplatin clearance, the estimated clearance was consistently higher than the measured clearance [mean prediction error ± standard deviation = 41.0 ± 26.3 %] in all seven patients with renal insufficiency (GFR, median 21.4, range 7.8-31.4 ml/min) and in the two hemodialysis patients. Actual areas under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (mg/ml min) were 5.4, 5.7, 6.2, and 9.0 for the four patients with a target AUC (mg/ml min) of 5; 5.7, 6.2, and 7.1 for the three patients with a target AUC (mg/ml min) of 4; and 5.1 and 8.7 for the two hemodialysis patients with a target AUC (mg/ml min) of 5. The measured clearance of carboplatin ranged from 23.0 to 51.3 ml/min in the seven patients not receiving hemodialysis. The pre-hemodialysis carboplatin clearance in the hemodialysis patients was 20.5 and 11.1 ml/min, respectively.
For adult patients with severe renal insufficiency, the Calvert formula causes carboplatin overdosing by overestimating the carboplatin clearance.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 05/2015; 76(1). DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2769-9 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of low-dose chemotherapy with methotrexate (MTX) and vinblastine (VBL) for patients with desmoid tumors refractory to meloxicam treatment, focusing in particular on the relationship between the efficacy of this chemotherapy and catenin β-1 (CTNNB1) mutation status.
Since March 2003, patients pathologically diagnosed with extraperitoneal desmoid tumors have been prospectively treated with meloxicam, a COX-2 inhibitor, at our institution. Patients with inoperable tumors who were resistant to meloxicam treatment underwent MTX and VBL therapy every other week. The responses of all patients were evaluated, and factors that were correlated with efficacy were analyzed, including CTNNB1 mutation status.
Sixty-eight patients were prospectively treated with meloxicam. MTX + VBL therapy was administered in 15 patients. Six patients showed a partial response. Only one patient presented disease progression. A few patients showed grade 3-4 treatment-related toxicity with the administration of MTX and VBL every other week. Intriguingly, CTNNB1 status did not affect the efficacy of this treatment.
MTX and VBL treatment every other week is well tolerated and achieved a favorable response in patients resistant to meloxicam treatment, regardless of CTNNB1 mutation status.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10147-015-0829-0 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) evaluation is significant for drug dosing of carboplatin, anticancer drug excreted mainly from kidney. Serum cystatin-C (sCys-C) is a GFR marker with little affected by body muscle mass volume. And GFR equations based on serum creatinine (eGFRcreat) and sCys-C (eGFRcys) were developed; however, accuracy of eGFRcys has not been elucidated fully among patients with cancer. Therefore, we analyzed the performance of GFR equations among patients with cancer whose GFR values were measured by inulin clearance (Cin).
Study design was a cross-sectional study. Subjects were 41 patients with cancer whose GFR values were measured by Cin for drug dosing studies of carboplatin or S-1 in Nagoya University Hospital from 2007 to 2010 and 29 non-cancer patients. Correlation with Cin and slope of regression line were evaluated in eGFRcreat and eGFRcys. Single and multiple regression analyses were analyzed to identify associating factors with eGFRcreat/Cin or eGFRcys/Cin.
Age, body weight, body mass index (BMI) and sCr were different between cancer patients and non-cancer patients, but sCys-C and Cin were consistent in 2 groups. The slope of the regression line for Cin vs. eGFRcys with zero intercept in cancer patients was 1.10 (95 % CI: 1.02-1.17), which was significantly different from 1.0. In multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI and urinary creatinine excretion were significantly associated with eGFRcreat/Cin, and cancer was only associating factor with eGFRcys/Cin.
eGFRcys should not be used for evaluation of renal function in patients with cancer because it underestimates GFR.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10157-015-1115-1 · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Asians, the risk of irinotecan-induced severe toxicities is related in part to UGT1A1*6 (UGT, UDP glucuronosyltransferase) and UGT1A1*28, variant alleles that reduce the elimination of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan. We prospectively studied the relation between the UGT1A1 genotype and the safety of irinotecan-based regimens in Japanese patients with advanced colorectal cancer, and then constructed a nomogram for predicting the risk of severe neutropenia in the first treatment cycle.
Safety data were obtained from 1312 patients monitored during the first 3 cycles of irinotecan-based regimen in a prospective observational study. In development of the nomogram, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to test the associations of candidate factors to severe neutropenia in the first cycle. The final nomogram based on the results of multivariable analysis was constructed and validated internally using a bootstrapping technique and externally in an independent data set (n=350).
The UGT1A1 genotype was confirmed to be associated with increased risks of irinotecan-induced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia and diarrhoea. The final nomogram included type of regimen, administered dose of irinotecan, gender, age, UGT1A1 genotype, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, pre-treatment absolute neutrophil count, and total bilirubin level. The model was validated both internally (bootstrap-adjusted concordance index, 0.69) and externally (concordance index, 0.70).
Our nomogram can be used before treatment to accurately predict the probability of irinotecan-induced severe neutropenia in the first cycle of therapy. Additional studies should evaluate the effect of nomogram-guided dosing on efficacy in patients receiving irinotecan.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 16 April 2015. doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.122 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2015; 112(10). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2015.122 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunitinib is a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that acts against receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. Common toxicities of sunitinib treatment include hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, vomiting, and diarrhea, and the proportion of grade 3 or 4 adverse events relating to sunitinib treatment range from 1 to 13% for all categories. It is reported that increased exposure to sunitinib is associated with improved clinical outcomes but also carries an increased risk of adverse effects.
A 73-year-old Japanese woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received sunitinib at a dose of 50 mg once daily suffered a high-grade fever on day 11 of treatment. Sunitinib treatment was discontinued on day 12; however, severe thrombocytopenia and transaminase elevation occurred and persisted more than a week. Additionally, severe hypoxia due to pleural effusion and pulmonary edema developed despite immediate discontinuation of sunitinib. On day 14, three days after the discontinuation of sunitinib, the plasma concentrations of sunitinib and its major active metabolite N-desethyl sunitinib (SU12662) were extremely high (131.9 ng/mL and 28.4 ng/mL, respectively). By day 25, all toxicities had resolved, and a CT scan revealed marked tumor shrinkage. Genotyping of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are potentially relevant to the pharmacokinetics of sunitinib was performed. The patient's genotype of ABCG2 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2) 421C > A was homozygous for the variant allele (AA), which was reported to be associated with high exposure to sunitinib. Therefore, we speculated that the extremely high plasma concentrations of sunitinib and SU12662 caused by the ABCG2 421 AA genotype might have resulted in severe toxicities to the patient.
The minor allele frequencies of ABCG2 421C > A are approximately three-fold higher in Asians than in Caucasians. Our report suggests that pharmacogenetic factors should be considered when severe and rapid-onset adverse drug reactions occur in Asian patients, including Japanese treated with sunitinib.
BMC Cancer 12/2014; 14(1):964. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-964 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant ascites due to peritoneal metastasis is one of the major problems caused by advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Although drainage of a large amount of ascitic fluid improves symptoms such as abdominal fullness, it may lead to protein loss and renal dysfunction. Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) may help avoid such complications due to paracentesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of CART. We performed a total of 51 sessions of CART in 5 patients, 4 of whom had gastric cancer and 1 appendiceal cancer. We retrospectively evaluated laboratory data immediately prior to CART, on the following day, 1 week later and 2 weeks later. We also measured the amount of total protein and albumin in collected and concentrated ascites. The mean amount of collected ascites was 4,007 ml. All the patients exhibited improvement of symptoms such as abdominal fullness. Four patients developed fever (>38°C) immediately after reinfusion of the concentrated ascites and 3 of these patients required corticosteroid administration. The mean total protein and albumin in the collected ascites were 122 and 64 g, respectively, and those in the concentrated ascites 75 and 39 g, respectively. The serum levels of total protein, albumin and creatinine after CART were almost identical to those prior to CART. Blood hemoglobin concentration was significantly decreased 1 day after CART and returned to baseline levels in 1-2 weeks. CART does not cause renal dysfunction and does not decrease serum albumin; therefore, repeated CART is safe and may be used to improve the symptoms of malignant ascites from gastrointestinal cancer.
Molecular and Clinical Oncology 11/2014; 2(6):1103-1106. DOI:10.3892/mco.2014.335
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastric carcinosarcoma is a very rare tumor for which there is no standard regimen of chemotherapy. We report a case of a 61-year-old woman having gastric carcinosarcoma with liver and lymph node metastases. She underwent distal gastrectomy due to uncontrollable bleeding from the tumor. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed adenocarcinoma and a sarcomatous component with spindle-shaped tumor cells accompanied by a cartilage formation. She was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma of the stomach with distant metastases, and underwent chemotherapy with S-1 plus cisplatin. Since the liver metastasis shrank once, the treatment was considered to be effective. After the metastatic lesions progressed, she underwent treatment with doxorubicin plus ifosfamide for second-line chemotherapy, and docetaxel subsequently for third-line chemotherapy. The metastatic lesions progressed rapidly and she died 9 months after diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 75-year-old woman was diagnosed with esophageal cancer with difficulty in swallowing. She had a past history of rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, interstitial pneumonia, angina pectoris (with coronary artery bypass surgery) and arrhythmia (with pacemaker implantation). She refused surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy were not performed because of the high risk accompanied with multiple comorbidities. She received proton therapy at another hospital and the primary lesion shrank. Bone metastasis in the thoracic vertebrae was diagnosed 10 months after diagnosis of esophageal cancer. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and zoledronic acid were administered for back pain. Oxycodone was also administered but discontinued due to nausea. After strontium-89 ((89)Sr) chloride administration, her back pain was relieved. (89)Sr was administered five times every 3 months, and the pain did not worsen until her death due to pneumonia 2 years after diagnosis of esophageal cancer. (89)Sr was effective for pain from bone metastasis of esophageal cancer, and its repeated administration was safe.
Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2014; 7(5):387-391. DOI:10.1007/s12328-014-0515-1
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Genetic risk factors for febrile neutropenia (FN), the major adverse event of perioperative chemotherapy for early breast cancer, remain unclear.
This study retrospectively explored pharmacogenetic associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the uridine glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7, rs7668258), glutathione-S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1, rs1695), and microcephalin 1 (MCPH1, rs2916733) genes with chemotherapy-related adverse events in 102 Japanese women who received epirubicin and cyclophosphamide as perioperative chemotherapy for early breast cancer.
The allele frequencies for all of the SNPs were in concordance with the Hap-Map data of Japanese individuals. Among the 24 patients who had FN at least once during all courses of chemotherapy, 23 had the A/A genotype, and 1 had the A/G genotype of the GSTP1 polymorphism (rs1695, P = 0.001); 23 of the 70 patients with the A/A genotype had FN, as compared with only 1 of the 32 patients with the A/G and G/G genotypes. The genotype distributions of the UGT2B7 and MCPH1 polymorphisms did not differ between the patients who had FN or grade 3/4 neutropenia and those who did not.
Among Japanese women who received epirubicin and cyclophosphamide as perioperative chemotherapy for early breast cancer, those with the A/A genotype of the GSTP1 polymorphism (rs1695) were more likely to have FN.
Breast Cancer 07/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12282-014-0547-x · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeIn Japan, biological safety cabinets are commonly used by medical staff to prepare antineoplastic agents. At the Division of Chemotherapy for Outpatients, Nagoya University Hospital, a class II B2 biological safety cabinet is used. The temperature inside this biological safety cabinet decreases in winter. In this study, we investigated the effect of low outside air temperature on the biological safety cabinet temperature, time required to admix antineoplastic agents, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement.
/st>Studies were conducted from 1 January to 31 March 2008 (winter). The outside air temperature near the biological safety cabinet intake nozzle was compared with the biological safety cabinet temperature. The correlation between the outside air temperature and the biological safety cabinet temperature, time for cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine solubilization, and accuracy of epirubicin weight measurement were investigated at low and high biological safety cabinet temperatures.
/st>The biological safety cabinet temperature correlated with the outside air temperature of 5-20 (p < 0.0001). Compared to cyclophosphamide and gemcitabine solubilization in the biological safety cabinet at 25, solubilization at 10 was significantly delayed (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Measurement of epirubicin weight by using a syringe lacked accuracy because of epirubicin's high viscosity at low temperatures (p < 0.01).
/st>These results suggest that the biological safety cabinet temperature decreases when cool winter air is drawn into the biological safety cabinet, affecting the solubilization of antineoplastic agents. We suggest that a decrease in biological safety cabinet temperature may increase the time required to admix antineoplastic agents, thereby increasing the time for which outpatients must wait for chemotherapy.
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice 04/2014; 21(4). DOI:10.1177/1078155214530176