Raphael D Rose

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (36)164.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity.PurposeThe current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders.Method Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions.ResultsSeverity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties.Conclusions These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Patients with anxiety disorders suffer marked functional impairment in their activities of daily living. Many studies have documented that improvements in anxiety symptom severity predict functioning improvements. However, no studies have investigated how improvements in functioning simultaneously predict symptom reduction. We hypothesized that symptom levels at a given time point will predict functioning at the subsequent time point, and simultaneously that functioning at a given time point will predict symptom levels at a subsequent time point. Method. Patients were recruited from primary-care centers for the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) study and were randomized to receive either computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or medication management (ITV) or usual care (UC). A cross-lagged panel design examined the relationship between functional impairment and anxiety and depression symptom severity at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Results. Prospective prediction of functioning from symptoms and symptoms from functioning were both important in modeling these associations. Anxiety and depression predicted functioning as strongly as functioning predicted anxiety and depression. There were some differences in these associations between UC and ITV. Where differences emerged, the UC group was best modeled with prospective paths predicting functioning from symptoms, whereas symptoms and functioning were both important predictors in the ITV group. Conclusions. Treatment outcome is best captured by measures of functional impairment as well as symptom severity. Implications for treatment are discussed, as well as future directions of research.
    Psychological medicine. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In the current study, we compared measures of treatment outcome and engagement for Latino and non-Latino White patients receiving a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program delivered in primary care. Method: Participants were 18-65 years old and recruited from 17 clinics at 4 different sites to participate in a randomized controlled trial for anxiety disorders, which compared the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention (consisting of CBT, medication, or both) with usual care. Of those participants who were randomized to the intervention arm and selected CBT (either alone or in combination with medication), 85 were Latino and 251 were non-Latino White; the majority of the Latino participants received the CBT intervention in English (n = 77). Blinded assessments of clinical improvement and functioning were administered at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. Measures of engagement, including attendance, homework adherence, understanding of CBT principles, and commitment to treatment, were assessed weekly during the CBT intervention. Results: Findings from propensity-weighted linear and logistic regression models revealed no statistically significant differences between Latinos and non-Latino Whites on symptom measures of clinical improvement and functioning at almost all time points. There were significant differences on 2 of 7 engagement outcomes, namely, number of sessions attended and patients' understanding of CBT principles. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CBT can be an effective treatment approach for Latinos who are primarily English speaking and likely more acculturated, although continued attention should be directed toward engaging Latinos in such interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 03/2014; · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectancy (OE) have been well researched as predictors of outcome, few studies have investigated changes in these variables across treatments. We evaluated changes in OE and SE throughout treatment as predictors of outcomes in a large sample with panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder. We hypothesized that increases in SE and OE would predict reductions in anxiety and depression as well as improvement in functioning. Methods Participants (mean age = 43.3 years, SD = 13.2, 71.1% female, 55.5% white) were recruited from primary care centers throughout the United States and were randomized to receive either Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) treatment – composed of cognitive behavioral therapy, psychotropic medication, or both – or usual care. SE and OE ratings were collected at each session for participants in the CALM treatment (n = 482) and were entered into a structural equation model as predictors of changes in Brief Symptom Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and Sheehan Disability Scale outcomes at 6, 12, and 18 months after baseline. ResultsThe best-fitting models predict symptom levels from OE and SE and not vice versa. The slopes and intercept of OE significantly predicted change in each outcome variable except PHQ-8. The slope and intercept of SE significantly predicted change in each outcome variable. Conclusion Over and above absolute level, increases in SE and OE were significant predictors of decreases in symptoms and increases in functioning. Implications for treatment are discussed, as well as future directions of research.
    Depression and Anxiety 03/2014; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of youth at risk for anxiety and unipolar mood disorders (UMDs) can improve public health by targeting those who may warrant early or preventive intervention. This study examined whether endorsing core features of anxiety and UMDs predicted onset of later anxiety and UMDs across the next 7-9 years, and whether having subthreshold or subclinical manifestations of these disorders similarly predicted onset. Data from this study come from the Youth Emotion Project (YEP), a two-site investigation of common and specific risk factors for emotional disorders. Endorsement of core features of a disorder and subclinical or subthreshold anxiety and UMD diagnoses were determined using data from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) at the baseline assessment. Participants completed annual SCIDs over the course of the next 7-9 years (depending on cohort). Endorsement of panic attacks, obsessions and/or compulsions, and depression and/or anhedonia predicted onset of panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder, respectively. When including all anxiety disorders in a model, only the presence of panic attacks uniquely predicted anxiety disorder onset. The presence of subclinical or subthreshold panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social phobia at baseline predicted the full onset of these disorders over the follow-up period. Experiencing some symptoms of anxiety and UMDs in the absence of meeting diagnostic criteria is indicative of risk for later onsets of clinically significant DSM manifestations of these disorders. These individuals should be identified and targeted for prevention programs.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2014; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study tested whether perceived social support serves as a mediator of anxiety and depressive symptom change following evidence-based anxiety treatment in the primary care setting. Gender, age, and race were tested as moderators. Data were obtained from 1004 adult patients (age M = 43, SD = 13; 71% female; 56% White, 20% Hispanic, 12% Black) who participated in a randomized effectiveness trial (coordinated anxiety learning and management [CALM] study) comparing evidence-based intervention (cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacology) to usual care in the primary care setting. Patients were assessed with a battery of questionnaires at baseline, as well as at 6, 12, and 18 months following baseline. Measures utilized in the mediation analyses included the Abbreviated Medical Outcomes (MOS) Social Support Survey, the Brief Symptom Index (BSI)-Somatic and Anxiety subscales, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). There was a mediating effect over time of perceived social support on symptom change following treatment, with stronger effects for 18-month depression than anxiety. None of the mediating pathways were moderated by gender, age, or race. Perceived social support may be central to anxiety and depressive symptom changes over time with evidence-based intervention in the primary care setting. These findings possibly have important implications for development of anxiety interventions.
    Depression and Anxiety 12/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the effects of medical comorbidity on anxiety treatment outcomes.Methods Data were analyzed from 1004 primary care patients enrolled in a trial of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety. Linear-mixed models accounting for baseline characteristics were used to evaluate the effects of overall medical comorbidity (two or more chronic medical conditions [CMCs] versus fewer than two CMCs) and specific CMCs (migraine, asthma, and gastrointestinal disease) on anxiety treatment outcomes at 6, 12, and 18 months.ResultsAt baseline, patients with two or more CMCs (n = 582; 58.0%) reported more severe anxiety symptoms (10.5 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 10.1-10.9] versus 9.5 [95% CI = 9.0-10.0], p = .003) and anxiety-related disability (17.6 [95% CI = 17.0-18.2] versus 16.0 [95% CI = 15.3-16.7], p = .001). However, their clinical improvement was comparable to that of patients with one or zero CMCs (predicted change in anxiety symptoms = -3.9 versus -4.1 at 6 months, -4.6 versus -4.4 at 12 months, -4.9 versus -5.0 at 18 months; predicted change in anxiety-related disability = -6.4 versus -6.9 at 6 months, -6.9 versus -7.3 at 12 months, -7.3 versus -7.5 at 18 months). The only specific CMC with a detrimental effect was migraine, which was associated with less improvement in anxiety symptoms at 18 months (predicted change = -4.1 versus -5.3).Conclusions Effectiveness of the anxiety intervention was not significantly affected by the presence of multiple CMCs; however, patients with migraine displayed less improvement at long-term follow-up.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.com Identifier: NCT00347269.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 07/2013; · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study explored treatment dose and patient engagement as predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. Method: Measures of high versus low treatment dose and high versus low patient engagement in CBT were compared as predictors of 12- and 18-month outcomes for patients being treated for anxiety disorders with CBT (with or without concurrent pharmacotherapy) in primary care settings as part of a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention. Measures of dose (attendance, exposure completion) and engagement in CBT (homework adherence, commitment) were collected throughout treatment, and blinded follow-up phone assessments of outcome measures (12-item Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire 8, Sheehan Disability Scale) were completed at 12 and 18 months. Propensity score weighting controlled for baseline differences in demographics and symptom severity between patients with high and low dose and engagement. These analyses included the 439 patients who selected CBT as treatment modality. Results: Completing exposures, having high attendance, and being more adherent to completing homework predicted better outcomes across all measures at 12 and 18 months, and high CBT commitment predicted better outcomes on all measures at 18 months. Conclusions: This study found that higher treatment dose and patient engagement in CBT for anxiety disorders were stable and robust predictors of greater reductions in anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and functional disability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 06/2013; · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of an anxiety disorder is associated with greater frequency of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Given the high personal and societal costs of suicidal behaviors, suicide prevention is a priority. Understanding factors present within individuals with anxiety disorders that increase suicide risk may inform prevention efforts. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and behaviors, as well as factors associated with suicide risk in patients with anxiety disorders in primary care. Data from a large scale randomized controlled study were analyzed to assess prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, as well as factors associated with suicide risk. Results revealed that suicidal ideation and behaviors were relatively common in this group. When examining mental and physical health factors jointly, presence of depression, mental health-related impairment, and social support each uniquely accounted for variance in suicide risk score. Methodological limitations include cross-sectional data collection and lack of information on comorbid personality disorders. Moreover, patients included were from a clinical trial with exclusion criteria that may limit generalizability. Results highlight the complex determinants of suicidal behavior and the need for more nuanced suicide assessment in this population, including evaluation of comorbidity and general functioning.
    Psychiatry research. 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The need for clinicians to use evidence-based practices (such as cognitive behavior therapy [CBT]) is now well recognized. However, a gap exists between the need for empirically based treatments and their availability. This is due, in part, to a shortage of clinicians formally trained on CBT. To address this problem, we developed a Web-based therapist CBT training program, to increase accessibility to this training. The program uses a two-step approach: an interactive multimedia online tutorial for didactic training on CBT concepts, followed by live remote observation through a videoconference of trainees conducting CBT, with immediate feedback in real time during critical moments to enhance learning through iterative guidance and practice. Thirty-nine clinicians from around the county completed the online didactic training and 22 completed the live remote training. Results found a significant increase in knowledge of CBT concepts and a significant increase in clinical skills, as judged by a blind rater. User satisfaction was high for both the online tutorial and the videoconference training. Utilization of CBT by trainees increased after training. Results support the acceptability and effectiveness of this Web-based approach to training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychotherapy Theory Research Practice Training 02/2013; · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The authors examined the effects of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety disorders in primary care on lower-income participants relative to those with higher incomes. They hypothesized that lower-income individuals would show less improvement or improve at a lower rate, given that they would experience greater economic stress over the treatment course. An alternative hypothesis was that lower-income participants would improve at a higher rate because the intervention facilitates access to evidence-based treatment, which typically is less available to persons with lower incomes. METHOD Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with lower (N=287) and higher (N=717) income were compared using t tests and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. For the longitudinal analysis of intervention effects by income group, the outcome measures were jointly modeled at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months by study site, income, time, intervention, time and intervention, income and time, income and intervention, and time, intervention, and income. RESULTS Although lower-income participants were more ill and had greater disability at baseline than those with higher incomes, the two income groups were similar in clinical response. The lower-income participants experienced a comparable degree of clinical improvement, despite receiving fewer treatment sessions, less relapse prevention, and less continuous care. CONCLUSIONS These findings contribute to the ongoing discussion as to whether or not, and to what extent, quality improvement interventions work equally well across income groups or require tailoring for specific vulnerable populations.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 02/2013; 170(2):218-25. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study explores the relationships between therapist variables (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] competence, and CBT adherence) and clinical outcomes of computer-assisted CBT for anxiety disorders delivered by novice therapists in a primary care setting. METHODS: Participants were recruited for a randomized controlled trial of evidence-based treatment, including computer-assisted CBT, versus treatment as usual. Therapists (anxiety clinical specialists; ACSs) were nonexpert clinicians, many of whom had no prior experience in delivering psychotherapy (and in particular, very little experience with CBT). Trained raters reviewed randomly selected treatment sessions from 176 participants and rated therapists on measures of CBT competence and CBT adherence. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups on measures of anxiety, depression, and functioning, and an average Reliable Change Index was calculated as a composite measure of outcome. CBT competence and CBT adherence were entered as predictors of outcome, after controlling for baseline covariates. RESULTS: Higher CBT competence was associated with better clinical outcomes whereas CBT adherence was not. Also, CBT competence was inversely correlated with years of clinical experience and trended (not significantly, though) down as the study progressed. CBT adherence was inversely correlated with therapist tenure in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Therapist competence was related to improved clinical outcomes when CBT for anxiety disorders was delivered by novice clinicians with technology assistance. The results highlight the value of the initial training for novice therapists as well as booster training to limit declines in therapist adherence.
    Depression and Anxiety 12/2012; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Co-occurring depression is common in patients seeking treatment for anxiety; however, the literature on the effects of depression on anxiety treatment outcomes is inconclusive. The current study evaluated prescriptive and prognostic effects of depression on anxiety treatment outcomes in a large primary care sample. Data were analyzed from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial that compared coordinated anxiety learning and management (CALM) to usual care. The study enrolled 1,004 patients between June 2006 and April 2008. Patients were referred by their primary care provider and met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and/or social anxiety disorder. They were treated for approximately 3 to 12 months with CALM (computer-assisted cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication management, or their combination) or usual care. Outcomes were evaluated by blinded assessment at 6, 12, and 18 months. Effects of baseline major depressive disorder (MDD) on anxiety symptoms, anxiety-related disability, and response/remission rates were evaluated using statistical models accounting for baseline anxiety and patient demographics. MDD did not moderate the effects of CALM (relative to usual care) on anxiety symptoms, anxiety-related disability, or response/remission rates. Greater improvements in anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related disability were observed in depressed patients, regardless of treatment assignment (P values < .005). However, cross-sectionally depressed patients displayed higher anxiety symptom and anxiety-related disability scores at baseline and all subsequent assessments (P values < .001). Depressed patients also displayed lower remission rates at each follow-up (P values < .001). CALM had comparable advantages over usual care for patients with and without MDD. Depressed patients displayed more severe anxiety symptoms and anxiety-related disability at baseline, but their clinical improvement was substantial and larger in magnitude than that observed in the nondepressed patients. Results support the use of empirically supported interventions for anxiety disorders in patients with co-occurring depression. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00347269.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 12/2012; 73(12):1509-16. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid. A possible explanation is that they share four symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The present study addressed the symptom overlap of people meeting DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for GAD, MDD, or both to investigate whether comorbidity might be explained by overlapping diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Participants (N = 1,218) were enrolled in the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management study (a randomized effectiveness clinical trial in primary care). Hypotheses were (1) the comorbid GAD/MDD group endorses the overlapping symptoms more than the nonoverlapping symptoms, and (2) the comorbid GAD/MDD group endorses the overlapping symptoms more than GAD only or MDD only groups, whereas differences would not occur for nonoverlapping symptoms. RESULTS: The overlapping GAD/MDD symptoms were endorsed more by the comorbid group than the MDD group but not the GAD group when covarying for total symptom endorsement. Similarly, the comorbid group endorsed the overlapping symptoms more than the nonoverlapping symptoms and did not endorse the nonoverlapping symptoms more than the GAD or MDD groups when covarying for total symptom endorsement. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that comorbidity of GAD and MDD is strongly influenced by diagnostic overlap. Results are discussed in terms of errors of diagnostic criteria, as well as models of shared psychopathology that account for diagnostic criteria overlap.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2012; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Stress is a common and costly behavioral health issue. Technology-based behavioral health programs (e.g., computer or web-based programs) are effective for treating anxiety or depression. These programs increase availability of evidence-based interventions to individuals who are not able or willing to receive such in-person treatments. Stress management training has empirical support, but little data exists on its efficacy with stressed but healthy individuals, and there are no prior studies employing a self-guided, multimedia intervention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a self-guided, multimedia stress management and resilience training program (SMART-OP) with a stressed but healthy sample. METHODS: Participants (N = 66) were randomized to SMART-OP or an attention control (AC) group that received marketed videos and published material on stress management. Participants were evaluated on self-report measures and Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) performance. Analyses were based on study completers (N = 59). RESULTS: SMART-OP group reported significantly less stress, more perceived control over stress, and rated SMART-OP as significantly more useful than AC. During the TSST, the data suggests the SMART-OP group showed greater within-task α-amylase recovery at post-assessment. CONCLUSIONS: SMART-OP is highly usable and is a more effective and useful stress management training program than an educational comparison.
    Behaviour Research and Therapy 11/2012; 51(2):106-112. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33% minority) with 1 or more DSM-IV anxiety disorders began treatment following randomization to CBT or ACT; both treatments included behavioral exposure. Assessments at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up measured anxiety-specific (principal disorder Clinical Severity Ratings [CSRs], Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Fear Questionnaire avoidance) and non-anxiety-specific (Quality of Life Index [QOLI], Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-16 [AAQ]) outcomes. Treatment adherence, therapist competency ratings, treatment credibility, and co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders were investigated. Results: CBT and ACT improved similarly across all outcomes from pre- to post-treatment. During follow-up, ACT showed steeper linear CSR improvements than CBT (p < .05, d = 1.26), and at 12-month follow-up, ACT showed lower CSRs than CBT among completers (p < .05, d = 1.10). At 12-month follow-up, ACT reported higher AAQ than CBT (p = .08, d = 0.42; completers: p < .05, d = 0.56), whereas CBT reported higher QOLI than ACT (p < .05, d = 0.42). Attrition and comorbidity improvements were similar; ACT used more non-study psychotherapy at 6-month follow-up. Therapist adherence and competency were good; treatment credibility was higher in CBT. Conclusions: Overall improvement was similar between ACT and CBT, indicating that ACT is a highly viable treatment for anxiety disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 05/2012; 80(5):750-65. · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate two abbreviated versions of the PTSD Checklist (PCL), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, as an index of change related to treatment. Data for this study were from 181 primary care patients diagnosed with PTSD who enrolled in a large randomized trial. These individuals received a collaborative care intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and/or medication) or usual care and were followed 6 and 12 months later to assess their symptoms and functioning. The sensitivity of the PCL versions (i.e., full, two-item, six-item), correlations between the PCL versions and other measures, and use of each as indicators of reliable and clinically significant change were evaluated. All versions had high sensitivity (.92-.99). Correlations among the three versions were high, but the six-item version corresponded more closely to the full version. Both shortened versions were adequate indicators of reliable and clinically significant change. Whereas prior research has shown the two-item or six-item versions of the PCL to be good PTSD screening instruments for primary care settings, the six-item version appears to be the better alternative for tracking treatment-related change.
    General hospital psychiatry 03/2012; 34(4):332-8. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine a large sample of patients with anxiety and the association between types of complementary and alternative treatments that were used, demographic variables, diagnostic categories, and treatment outcomes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal survey during the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) study that assessed this intervention against the Usual Care in a sample of patients with anxiety recruited from primary care. Interviewer-administered questionnaires via a centralized telephone survey by blinded assessment raters. The interviews were done at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months of the study. A total of 1004 adults ages 18-75 who met DSM-IV criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. We assessed medication/herbal use, the use of any alternative therapies, and combined Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use. We found an extensive (43%) use of a variety of CAM treatments that is consistent with previous study results in populations with anxiety. Only a few significant demographic or interventional characteristics of CAM users were found. Users most often had a diagnosis of GAD, were older, more educated, and had two or more chronic medical conditions. CAM users who had a 50% or more drop in anxiety scores over 18 months were less likely to report continued use of alternative therapies. The study confirms the importance of awareness of CAM use in this population for possible interference with traditional first-line treatments of these disorders, but also for finding the best integrative use for patients who require multiple treatment modalities.
    Psychosomatics 02/2012; 53(3):266-72. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have reported concurrent relationships between depressive symptoms and various personality, cognitive, and personality-cognitive vulnerabilities, but the degree of overlap among these vulnerabilities is unclear. Moreover, whereas most investigations of these vulnerabilities have focused on depression, their possible relationships with anxiety have not been adequately examined. The present study included 550 high school juniors and examined the cross-sectional relationships among neuroticism, negative inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, sociotropy, and autonomy, with a wide range of anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as the incremental validity of these different putative vulnerabilities when examined simultaneously. Correlational analyses revealed that all five vulnerabilities were significantly related to symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Whereas neuroticism accounted for significant unique variance in all symptom outcomes, individual cognitive and personality-cognitive vulnerabilities accounted for small and only sometimes statistically significant variance across outcomes. Importantly, however, for most outcomes the majority of symptom variance was accounted for by shared aspects of the vulnerabilities rather than unique aspects. Implications of these results for understanding cognitive and personality-cognitive vulnerabilities to depression and anxiety are discussed.
    Cognitive Therapy and Research 08/2011; 35(4):381-393. · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although considerable evidence shows that affective symptoms and personality traits demonstrate moderate to high relative stabilities during adolescence and early adulthood, there has been little work done to examine differential stability among these constructs or to study the manner in which the stability of these constructs is expressed. The present study used a three-year longitudinal design in an adolescent/young adult sample to examine the stability of depression symptoms, social phobia symptoms, specific phobia symptoms, neuroticism, and extraversion. When considering one-, two-, and three-year durations, anxiety and personality stabilities were generally similar and typically greater than the stability of depression. Comparison of various representations of a latent variable trait-state-occasion (TSO) model revealed that whereas the full TSO model was the best representation for depression, a trait stability model was the most parsimonious of the best-fitting models for the anxiety and personality constructs. Over three years, the percentages of variance explained by the trait component for the anxiety and personality constructs (73-84%) were significantly greater than that explained by the trait component for depression (46%). These findings indicate that symptoms of depression are more episodic in nature, whereas symptoms of anxiety are more similar to personality variables in their expression of stability.
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology 05/2011; 120(4):832-43. · 4.86 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

471 Citations
164.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioural Sciences
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Little Rock, Arkansas, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Department of Psychology and Neuroscience
      Boulder, CO, United States
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States