William F Pirl

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (75)618.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about how patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and their family caregivers (FC) perceive their prognosis. We examined prognostic understanding in patients undergoing HCT and their FC and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) and mood. We conducted a longitudinal study of patients (and FC) hospitalized for HCT. We used a questionnaire to measure participants' prognostic understanding and asked the oncologists to estimate patients' prognosis prior to HCT. We assessed QOL and mood weekly and evaluated the relationship between prognostic understanding, and QOL and mood using multivariable linear mixed models. We enrolled 90 patients undergoing (autologous (n=30), myeloablative (n=30) or reduced intensity allogeneic (n=30)) HCT. About 88.9% of patients and 87.1% of FC reported it is 'extremely' or 'very' important to know about prognosis. However, 77.6% of patients and 71.7% of FC reported a discordance and more optimistic prognostic perception compared to the oncologist (P<0.0001). Patients with a concordant prognostic understanding with their oncologists reported worse QOL (β=-9.4, P=0.01) and greater depression at baseline (β=1.7, P=0.02) and over time ((β=1.2, P<0.0001). Therefore, Interventions are needed to improve prognostic understanding, while providing patients with adequate psychological support.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 11 May 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.113.
    Bone marrow transplantation 05/2015; DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.113 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of chemotherapy in the last 14 days of life is a widely recognized indicator of poor end-of-life (EOL) care. The current study aimed to investigate predictors of this outcome, focusing on patients' self-reported psychological symptoms. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial that examined the efficacy of early palliative care integrated with standard oncology practice in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed associations between receipt of chemotherapy within 14 days of death and demographic, clinical, and quality-of-life variables in the 125 patients who received chemotherapy in the course of their illness and died during the 50-month follow-up. Twenty-five patients (20%) received chemotherapy within the last 14 days of their life. Among demographic and clinical variables, only route of chemotherapy was significantly associated with receipt of chemotherapy within 14 days of death (oral 34.1% vs. intravenous (IV) 12.3%, p < 0.05). In the subsample of participants who received IV chemotherapy as their last regimen, greater anxiety and depression and lower quality of life in emotional, social, and existential domains were associated with greater likelihood of receiving chemotherapy at the EOL. These associations were not observed in patients who received oral chemotherapy as their last regimen. Anxiety, depression, and worse psychological quality of life at early stage of treatment may be associated with the receipt of IV chemotherapy at the EOL. Further research is needed to examine how these factors might influence decision-making about the discontinuation of chemotherapy at the EOL. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/pon.3840 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of chemotherapy close to death is widely recognized as poor-quality care. Prior research has focused on predictors and outcomes of chemotherapy administration at the end of life. This study describes processes of chemotherapy discontinuation and examines their relationships with timing before death, hospice referral, and hospital death. We reviewed health records of a prospective cohort of 151 patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who participated in a trial of early palliative care. Chemotherapy treatments during final regimen were qualitatively analyzed to identify categories of discontinuation processes. We then quantitatively compared predictors and outcomes of the process categories. A total of 144 patients died, with 81 and 48 receiving intravenous (IV) and oral chemotherapies as their final regimen, respectively. Five processes were identified for IV chemotherapy: definitive decisions (19.7%), deferred decisions or breaks (22.2%), disruptions for radiation therapy (22.2%), disruptions resulting from hospitalization (27.2%), and no decisions (8.6%). The five processes occurred at significantly different times before death and, except for definitive decisions, ultimate decisions for no further chemotherapy and referral to hospice were often made months later. Among patients receiving oral chemotherapy, 83.3% (40 of 48) were switched from IV to oral delivery as their final regimen, sometimes concurrent with or even after hospice referral. Date of last chemotherapy is not a proxy for when a decision to stop treatment is made. Patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer stop their final chemotherapy regimen via different processes, which significantly vary in time before death and subsequent end-of-life care. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Oncology Practice 03/2015; 11(3). DOI:10.1200/JOP.2014.002428
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    ABSTRACT: Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Evidence regarding cancer-related fatigue (fatigue) has accumulated sufficiently such that recommendations for screening, evaluation, and/or management have been released recently by 4 leading cancer organizations. These evidence-based fatigue recommendations are available for clinicians, and some have patient versions; but barriers at the patient, clinician, and system levels hinder dissemination and implementation into practice. The underlying biologic mechanisms for this debilitating symptom have not been elucidated completely, hindering the development of mechanistically driven interventions. However, significant progress has been made toward methods for screening and comprehensively evaluating fatigue and other common symptoms using reliable and valid self-report measures. Limited data exist to support the use of any pharmacologic agent; however, several nonpharmacologic interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing fatigue in adults. Never before have evidence-based recommendations for fatigue management been disseminated by 4 premier cancer organizations (the National Comprehensive Cancer, the Oncology Nursing Society, the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer/Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology). Clinicians may ask: Are we ready for implementation into practice? The reply: A variety of approaches to screening, evaluation, and management are ready for implementation. To reduce fatigue severity and distress and its impact on functioning, intensified collaborations and close partnerships between clinicians and researchers are needed, with an emphasis on system-wide efforts to disseminate and implement these evidence-based recommendations. CA Cancer J Clin 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society, Inc.
    CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 03/2015; 65(3). DOI:10.3322/caac.21268 · 162.50 Impact Factor
  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2015; 21(2):S175. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.11.257 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sexual health concerns in cancer survivors are often unaddressed by providers. Study objectives were to assess cancer survivors' reported rates of communication with oncology providers about sexual health, preference for such communication with their oncology or primary care providers (PCPs), and factors associated with these communication rates and preferences. Sixty-six patients attending a cancer survivorship clinic were asked how often their oncologist addressed and initiated discussion about sexual functioning and whether they wanted their oncologist or PCP to ask about their sexual health. We also assessed whether various sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression, anxiety, and sexual satisfaction were associated with survivors' sexual health communication rates and preferences. 41% of patients wanted their oncologist to ask about sexual health and 58% of patients wanted their PCP to ask about sexual health. Over 90% of patients reported that their oncologist infrequently addressed sexual health concerns and that their oncologist was unlikely to initiate such discussions. Education level influenced whether patients wanted their oncologist to ask about sexual health. Age, education level, and insurance type influenced whether patients wanted their PCP to ask about sexual health. Levels of depression, anxiety, and sexual satisfaction were not associated with communication rates or preferences. Patients attending a survivorship clinic reported infrequent communication about sexual health with their oncology providers, despite wanting their providers to ask about sexual health concerns. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 12/2014; DOI:10.1002/pon.3736 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a study to investigate the impact of hospitalization for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) on the quality of life (QOL) and mood of patients and family caregivers (FC). Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation reported a steep deterioration in quality of life and substantially worsening depression during hospitalization. Baseline anxiety and depression were found to predict worse quality of life during hospitalization, underscoring the importance of assessing psychiatric morbidity prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    Cancer 11/2014; 121(6). DOI:10.1002/cncr.29149 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context Cognitive awareness of having a terminal illness is associated with critical treatment decisions and outcomes. However, little is known about the course and correlates of such perceptions in patients with metastatic lung cancer. Objectives We explored changes in perceptions of health status over time in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether awareness of having a terminal illness was associated with survival. Methods For this secondary analysis of clinical trial data, we assessed perceptions of health status at baseline, 12, 18, and 24 weeks. At each time point, patients with metastatic NSCLC completed a measure of quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Trial Outcome Index) and also reported whether they were “relatively healthy,” “seriously but not terminally ill,” or “seriously and terminally ill.” We reviewed patients' medical records to gather data on clinical characteristics. Results At baseline, 49.3% reported being relatively healthy, whereas the remainder self-identified as seriously but not terminally ill (38.2%) or seriously and terminally ill (12.5%). Over multiple assessments, 24.8% reported having a terminal illness. Adjusting for known prognostic factors, patients' time-varying perceptions of health status remained a significant predictor of survival (hazards ratio = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.07–2.09, P = 0.019). Conclusion A minority of patients with metastatic NSCLC acknowledged being terminally ill. Those reporting that they were seriously and terminally ill had shorter survival compared with those who did not consider themselves terminally ill, even after adjusting for decline in physical and functional well-being.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 10/2014; 48(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.10.016 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2015, the American College of Surgeons (ACoS) Commission on Cancer will require cancer centers to implement screening programs for psychosocial distress as a new criterion for accreditation. A joint task force from the American Psychosocial Oncology Society, the Association of Oncology Social Work, and the Oncology Nursing Society developed consensus-based recommendations to guide the implementation of this requirement. In this review, the authors provide recommendations regarding each of the 6 components necessary to meet the ACoS standard: 1) inclusion of psychosocial representation on the cancer committee, 2) timing of screening, 3) method/mode of screening, 4) tools for screening, 5) assessment and referral, and 6) documentation. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 10/2014; 120(19). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28750 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes has transitioned from research to clinical settings, research regarding its accompanying psychosocial effects has grown. Men and women being tested for hereditary cancer syndromes may experience some psychological distress while going through the process of testing or after carrier status is identified. Psychological distress appears to decrease over the course of the first year and it is typically not clinically significant. Longer term studies show mixed results with some mutation carriers continuing to experience elevated distress. Baseline distress is the greatest risk factor for both immediate (weeks-12 months) and long-term psychological distress (18 mo-8 years post genetic testing). In addition to baseline psychological distress, other risk factors can be identified to help identify individuals who may need psychosocial interventions during the genetic testing process. The challenges of providing clinical care to the growing population of individuals identified to be at increased risk for heritable cancers present opportunities for research and new models of care. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 09/2014; 121(3). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28879 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeDepressive symptoms and antidepressant use are prevalent among cancer patients. We sought to identify determinants of prescribing commonly used antidepressants.Patients and methodsThis multi-institutional study enrolled 3106 ambulatory patients with cancer of the breast, prostate, colon/rectum, or lung. Five case-finding methods were used to identify patients with depressive symptoms. Logistic models were used to examine factors that impact antidepressant use.ResultsApproximately, 47% of patients were defined as having depressive symptoms. Clinicians rated being sad/depressed as one of the top three priority problems for 10.5% of patients. Antidepressants were prescribed in 19% of all patients, 25% with depressive symptoms and 14% nondepressed patients. After adjusting for other covariates, these variable categories were significantly associated with greater use of antidepressants: depressive symptoms, family history of depression, concurrent medication use, cancer treatment status, and certain other clinical and demographic variables. The strongest individual predictors were concurrent use of more than 10 medications (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3), a family history of depression (OR = 2.2), sedative use (OR = 2.1), non-Hispanic white race (OR = 2.0), and anxiolytics use (OR = 2.0).Conclusions Depressive symptoms are found in nearly half of outpatients with cancer, and one-fourth of patients with depressive symptoms are taking an antidepressant. Patients receiving antidepressants are more often those taking multiple medications, those with a depression diathesis, and those with more extensive cancer treatment. Patients who were younger, white, and female were also more likely to be taking antidepressants.
    Psycho-Oncology 06/2014; 24(5). DOI:10.1002/pon.3606 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among patients with lung cancer, dyspnea is associated with psychological distress, fatigue, and poor coping. Respiratory symptoms are also a common trigger for panic attacks in the general population. Minimal research has addressed the prevalence of panic disorder or the association of dyspnea with the risk of panic disorder in lung cancer. We explored the frequency of panic disorder symptoms and the association of dyspnea with the risk of panic disorder symptoms among patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer. During 2006-2010, consecutive patients presenting for initial consultation at a thoracic oncology clinic completed a survey of current symptoms, including dyspnea and panic disorder symptoms. We evaluated the frequency of panic disorder symptoms. Logistic regression was used to test the association of dyspnea with the risk of panic disorder symptoms, adjusting for age, gender, disease stage, performance status, and major depression symptoms. Among 624 patients (mean age=63.7; standard deviation=12.1; 52.6% female), 48.1% reported that breathing was at least somewhat difficult and 11.2% endorsed panic disorder symptoms. Dyspnea was independently associated with higher risk of panic disorder symptoms (odds ratio=2.19, 95% confidence interval=1.11-4.31, P=0.02). Younger age and major depression symptoms also were associated with higher risk (P<0.01). Almost half of the patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer reported dyspnea, and patients with dyspnea were more than twice as likely to endorse panic disorder symptoms relative to patients without dyspnea. Results highlight the need to differentiate panic disorder symptoms among patients who report dyspnea, particularly those who are younger or experiencing major depression symptoms.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.10.021 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This guideline presents screening, assessment, and treatment approaches for the management of adult cancer survivors who are experiencing symptoms of fatigue after completion of primary treatment. A systematic search of clinical practice guideline databases, guideline developer Web sites, and published health literature identified the pan-Canadian guideline on screening, assessment, and care of cancer-related fatigue in adults with cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines In Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer-Related Fatigue and the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship. These three guidelines were appraised and selected for adaptation. It is recommended that all patients with cancer be evaluated for the presence of fatigue after completion of primary treatment and be offered specific information and strategies for fatigue management. For those who report moderate to severe fatigue, comprehensive assessment should be conducted, and medical and treatable contributing factors should be addressed. In terms of treatment strategies, evidence indicates that physical activity interventions, psychosocial interventions, and mind-body interventions may reduce cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment patients. There is limited evidence for use of psychostimulants in the management of fatigue in patients who are disease free after active treatment. Fatigue is prevalent in cancer survivors and often causes significant disruption in functioning and quality of life. Regular screening, assessment, and education and appropriate treatment of fatigue are important in managing this distressing symptom. Given the multiple factors contributing to post-treatment fatigue, interventions should be tailored to each patient's specific needs. In particular, a number of nonpharmacologic treatment approaches have demonstrated efficacy in cancer survivors.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2014; 32(17). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2013.53.4495 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia are a vulnerable population that has been relatively neglected in health disparities research. Despite having an equivalent risk of developing most cancers, patients with schizophrenia are more likely to die of cancer than the general population. Cancer care disparities are likely the result of patient-, provider-, and systems-level factors and influenced by the pervasive stigma of mental illness. Individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of health behaviors linked with cancer mortality including cigarette smoking. They also have significant medical comorbidity, are less likely to have up-to-date cancer screening, and may present at more advanced stages of illness. Patients with schizophrenia may be less likely to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, have more postoperative complications, and have less access to palliative care. However, opportunities exist for the interdisciplinary team, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists; psychiatrists; and primary care physicians, to intervene throughout the continuum of cancer care to promote survival and quality of life. This review summarizes data on overall and cancer-specific mortality for individuals with schizophrenia and reviews specific disparities across the cancer care continuum of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and end-of-life care. Using a case, the authors illustrate clinical challenges for this population including communication, informed consent, and risk of suicide, and provide suggestions for care. Finally, recommendations for research to address the disparities in cancer care for individuals with schizophrenia are discussed. Despite significant challenges, with collaboration between oncology and mental health teams, individuals with schizophrenia can receive high-quality cancer care. Cancer 2013;. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 02/2014; 120(3). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28431 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2014; 20(2):S193. DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.12.319 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) guidelines for assessing quality cancer care, we examined differences in clinician documentation of patient consent and treatment plans for oral versus intravenous chemotherapy among patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a retrospective review of the electronic health records of 175 patients diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC whose initial systemic treatment consisted of either oral or intravenous chemotherapy. Specifically, we collected data on whether oncology clinicians documented discussions of the intent of chemotherapy (eg, palliative v curative), the number of cycles or anticipated duration of the chemotherapy, and patient consent for the chemotherapy in the practitioner note. Of the 175 patients in the sample (54.3% female; mean age = 61.96 years, standard deviation = 10.81 years), 119 (68%) received intravenous chemotherapy, and 56 (32%) were prescribed oral agents for first-line chemotherapy. Compared with those who received intravenous chemotherapy, patients prescribed oral chemotherapy had lower rates of documented treatment plans, including intent (23.3% v 45.4%, P = .005) and anticipated duration of therapy (8.9% v 32.8%, P = .001). The rate of documentation of discussions regarding patient consent for chemotherapy did not differ significantly between groups (57.1% v 69.7, P = .13). Documentation of discussions regarding the goals and course of chemotherapy administration for patients with metastatic NSCLC does not meet ASCO QOPI quality standards, especially for individuals prescribed oral agents. Considering the increasing numbers of targeted oral therapies used in oncology practice, further work is needed to ensure appropriate discussion and documentation of chemotherapy plans.
    Journal of Oncology Practice 01/2014; DOI:10.1200/JOP.2013.001154
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    ABSTRACT: Patients' perception of their prognosis has an impact on their decisions about medical care. However, the relations between prognostic understanding and quality of life (QoL) and mood are unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess perceptions of prognosis and preferences for prognostic information among patients with advanced cancer and to explore the associations of prognostic understanding with QoL and mood. Fifty patients were assessed within 6 to 12 weeks of initiating chemotherapy for advanced gastrointestinal cancers. A 13-item questionnaire was used to assess patients' information preferences, perceptions of their prognosis and goal of therapy, and communication about end-of-life care. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess QoL and mood, respectively. Fifty of 62 (80%) consecutive, eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-eight of 50 patients (75%) wanted to know as many details as possible about their cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, 25 of 50 patients (50%) stated that the goal of therapy was to "cure their cancer," and only 10 of 49 patients (22%) reported having a discussion about end-of-life preferences with their oncologist. Patients who acknowledged their illness as terminal reported lower QoL (P = .005) and higher anxiety (P = .003) compared with those who did not perceive themselves as being terminally ill. Although patients desired detailed information about their illness, half incorrectly perceived their cancer as curable. Accurate prognostic understanding was associated with lower QoL and worse anxiety. Interventions to improve patients' prognostic understanding while providing adequate psychosocial support are warranted. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 01/2014; 120(2). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28369 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined race by sex differences in depression symptoms and psychosocial service use (pastors, social workers, mental health workers, support groups) among patients with lung cancer. The multiregional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study surveyed black and white adults with stages I to III lung cancer (n = 1,043) about depression symptoms, interest in help for mood, and psychosocial service use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate race/sex differences in depression symptoms (modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale ≥ 6) and psychosocial service use, independent of demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral covariates. A total of 18.2% screened positive for depression symptoms. This proportion was highest among black men (24.7%), followed by white women (20.6%), black womens (15.8%), and white men (15.0%). In adjusted analyses, white females showed greater risk for depression symptoms relative to black females (P = .01) and white males (P = .002), with no other differences among groups. Black patients were less likely than white patients to receive desired help for mood from their doctors (P = .02), regardless of sex. Among all patients, black women were most likely to have contact with pastoral care and social work. Race and sex interacted to predict risk of depression symptoms. Covariates accounted for elevated risk among black men. White women showed greater risk than black women and white men, independent of covariates. Black patients may experience greater barriers to receiving help for mood from their doctors. Race by sex differences in contact with psychosocial services highlight potential differences in the extent to which services are available, acceptable, and/or sought by patients.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2013; 32(2). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.46.6466 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To reduce workplace stress by developing a brief psychological skills training for nurses and to evaluate program feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in decreasing burnout and stress.Design: Intervention development and evaluation.Setting: Outpatient chemotherapy unit at a comprehensive cancer center.Sample: 26 infusion nurses and oncology social workers.Methods: Focus groups were conducted with nurses. Results informed the development and evaluation of training for nurses. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Perceived Stress Scale post-training.Main Research Variables: Burnout and stress.Findings: Focus groups indicated strong commitment among nurses to psychosocial care and supported the idea that relationships with patients and families were sources of reward and stress. Stressors included factors that interfered with psychosocial care such as difficult family dynamics, patient behaviors and end-of-life care issues. Psychological skills training was developed to address these stressors. Evaluations suggested that the program was feasible and acceptable to nurses. At two months, participants showed reductions in emotional exhaustion (p = 0.02) and stress (p = 0.04).Conclusions: Psychological skills training for managing difficult encounters showed feasibility, acceptability, and potential benefit in reducing emotional exhaustion and stress.Implications for Nursing: Brief training that targets sources of clinical stress may be useful for nurses in outpatient chemotherapy units.Knowledge Translation: Specific stressors in relationships with patients and families present challenges to nurses' therapeutic use of self. Targeted psychological skills training may help nurses problem-solve difficult encounters while taking care of themselves. System-level strategies are needed to support and promote training participation.
    Oncology Nursing Forum 07/2013; 40(4):E327-E336. DOI:10.1188/13.ONF.E327-E336 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Early, integrated palliative care delivered in the ambulatory setting has been associated with improved quality of life, lower rates of depression, and even prolonged survival. We outline an expert practice that provides a step-wise approach to cultivating prognostic awareness in patients cared for by a palliative care clinician early in the course of the patient's disease. This approach can be used by both novice and more experienced palliative care clinicians.
    Journal of palliative medicine 06/2013; DOI:10.1089/jpm.2012.0547 · 2.06 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
618.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2000–2015
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Center for Psychiatric Oncology and Behavioral Sciences
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2014
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Boston Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2011
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States