William F Pirl

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (68)422.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sexual health concerns in cancer survivors are often unaddressed by providers. Study objectives were to assess cancer survivors' reported rates of communication with oncology providers about sexual health, preference for such communication with their oncology or primary care providers (PCPs), and factors associated with these communication rates and preferences. Sixty-six patients attending a cancer survivorship clinic were asked how often their oncologist addressed and initiated discussion about sexual functioning and whether they wanted their oncologist or PCP to ask about their sexual health. We also assessed whether various sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression, anxiety, and sexual satisfaction were associated with survivors' sexual health communication rates and preferences. 41% of patients wanted their oncologist to ask about sexual health and 58% of patients wanted their PCP to ask about sexual health. Over 90% of patients reported that their oncologist infrequently addressed sexual health concerns and that their oncologist was unlikely to initiate such discussions. Education level influenced whether patients wanted their oncologist to ask about sexual health. Age, education level, and insurance type influenced whether patients wanted their PCP to ask about sexual health. Levels of depression, anxiety, and sexual satisfaction were not associated with communication rates or preferences. Patients attending a survivorship clinic reported infrequent communication about sexual health with their oncology providers, despite wanting their providers to ask about sexual health concerns. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Psycho-Oncology 12/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND We conducted a study to investigate the impact of hospitalization for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) on the quality of life (QOL) and mood of patients and family caregivers (FC).METHODS We conducted a longitudinal study of patients who were hospitalized for HCT and their FC. We assessed QOL (using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplantation) and mood (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) at baseline (6 days before HCT), day +1, and day +8 of HCT. We administered the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Short Form-36 to examine FC QOL (Physical Component Scale and Mental Component Scale). To identify predictors of changes in QOL, we used multivariable linear mixed models.RESULTSWe enrolled 97% of eligible patients undergoing autologous (30 patients), myeloablative (30 patients), or reduced intensity (30 patients) allogeneic HCT. Patients' QOL markedly declined (mean Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplantation score, 109.6 to 96.0; P<.0001) throughout hospitalization. The percentage of patients with depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression score of >7) more than doubled from baseline to day +8 (15.6% to 37.8%; P<.0001), whereas the percentage of patients with anxiety remained stable (22.2%; P = .8). These results remained consistent when data were stratified by HCT type. Baseline depression (β, −2.24; F, 42.2 [P<.0001]) and anxiety (β, −0.63; F, 4.4 [P =.03]) were found to independently predict worse QOL throughout hospitalization. FC QOL declined during the patient's hospitalization (physical component scale: 83.1 to 79.6 [P =.03] and mental component scale: 71.6 to 67.4 [P =.04]).CONCLUSIONS Patients undergoing HCT reported a steep deterioration in QOL and substantially worsening depression during hospitalization. Baseline anxiety and depression predicted worse QOL during hospitalization, underscoring the importance of assessing pre-HCT psychiatric morbidity. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 11/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context Cognitive awareness of having a terminal illness is associated with critical treatment decisions and outcomes. However, little is known about the course and correlates of such perceptions in patients with metastatic lung cancer. Objectives We explored changes in perceptions of health status over time in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and whether awareness of having a terminal illness was associated with survival. Methods For this secondary analysis of clinical trial data, we assessed perceptions of health status at baseline, 12, 18, and 24 weeks. At each time point, patients with metastatic NSCLC completed a measure of quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Trial Outcome Index) and also reported whether they were “relatively healthy,” “seriously but not terminally ill,” or “seriously and terminally ill.” We reviewed patients' medical records to gather data on clinical characteristics. Results At baseline, 49.3% reported being relatively healthy, whereas the remainder self-identified as seriously but not terminally ill (38.2%) or seriously and terminally ill (12.5%). Over multiple assessments, 24.8% reported having a terminal illness. Adjusting for known prognostic factors, patients' time-varying perceptions of health status remained a significant predictor of survival (hazards ratio = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.07–2.09, P = 0.019). Conclusion A minority of patients with metastatic NSCLC acknowledged being terminally ill. Those reporting that they were seriously and terminally ill had shorter survival compared with those who did not consider themselves terminally ill, even after adjusting for decline in physical and functional well-being.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 10/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes has transitioned from research to clinical settings, research regarding its accompanying psychosocial effects has grown. Men and women being tested for hereditary cancer syndromes may experience some psychological distress while going through the process of testing or after carrier status is identified. Psychological distress appears to decrease over the course of the first year and it is typically not clinically significant. Longer term studies show mixed results with some mutation carriers continuing to experience elevated distress. Baseline distress is the greatest risk factor for both immediate (weeks-12 months) and long-term psychological distress (18 mo-8 years post genetic testing). In addition to baseline psychological distress, other risk factors can be identified to help identify individuals who may need psychosocial interventions during the genetic testing process. The challenges of providing clinical care to the growing population of individuals identified to be at increased risk for heritable cancers present opportunities for research and new models of care. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 09/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are prevalent among cancer patients. We sought to identify determinants of prescribing commonly used antidepressants.
    Psycho-Oncology 06/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among patients with lung cancer, dyspnea is associated with psychological distress, fatigue, and poor coping. Respiratory symptoms are also a common trigger for panic attacks in the general population. Minimal research has addressed the prevalence of panic disorder or the association of dyspnea with the risk of panic disorder in lung cancer. We explored the frequency of panic disorder symptoms and the association of dyspnea with the risk of panic disorder symptoms among patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer. During 2006-2010, consecutive patients presenting for initial consultation at a thoracic oncology clinic completed a survey of current symptoms, including dyspnea and panic disorder symptoms. We evaluated the frequency of panic disorder symptoms. Logistic regression was used to test the association of dyspnea with the risk of panic disorder symptoms, adjusting for age, gender, disease stage, performance status, and major depression symptoms. Among 624 patients (mean age=63.7; standard deviation=12.1; 52.6% female), 48.1% reported that breathing was at least somewhat difficult and 11.2% endorsed panic disorder symptoms. Dyspnea was independently associated with higher risk of panic disorder symptoms (odds ratio=2.19, 95% confidence interval=1.11-4.31, P=0.02). Younger age and major depression symptoms also were associated with higher risk (P<0.01). Almost half of the patients with newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer reported dyspnea, and patients with dyspnea were more than twice as likely to endorse panic disorder symptoms relative to patients without dyspnea. Results highlight the need to differentiate panic disorder symptoms among patients who report dyspnea, particularly those who are younger or experiencing major depression symptoms.
    Journal of pain and symptom management 04/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This guideline presents screening, assessment, and treatment approaches for the management of adult cancer survivors who are experiencing symptoms of fatigue after completion of primary treatment. A systematic search of clinical practice guideline databases, guideline developer Web sites, and published health literature identified the pan-Canadian guideline on screening, assessment, and care of cancer-related fatigue in adults with cancer, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Clinical Practice Guidelines In Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Cancer-Related Fatigue and the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship. These three guidelines were appraised and selected for adaptation. It is recommended that all patients with cancer be evaluated for the presence of fatigue after completion of primary treatment and be offered specific information and strategies for fatigue management. For those who report moderate to severe fatigue, comprehensive assessment should be conducted, and medical and treatable contributing factors should be addressed. In terms of treatment strategies, evidence indicates that physical activity interventions, psychosocial interventions, and mind-body interventions may reduce cancer-related fatigue in post-treatment patients. There is limited evidence for use of psychostimulants in the management of fatigue in patients who are disease free after active treatment. Fatigue is prevalent in cancer survivors and often causes significant disruption in functioning and quality of life. Regular screening, assessment, and education and appropriate treatment of fatigue are important in managing this distressing symptom. Given the multiple factors contributing to post-treatment fatigue, interventions should be tailored to each patient's specific needs. In particular, a number of nonpharmacologic treatment approaches have demonstrated efficacy in cancer survivors.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2014; · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2015, the American College of Surgeons (ACoS) Commission on Cancer will require cancer centers to implement screening programs for psychosocial distress as a new criterion for accreditation. A joint task force from the American Psychosocial Oncology Society, the Association of Oncology Social Work, and the Oncology Nursing Society developed consensus-based recommendations to guide the implementation of this requirement. In this review, the authors provide recommendations regarding each of the 6 components necessary to meet the ACoS standard: 1) inclusion of psychosocial representation on the cancer committee, 2) timing of screening, 3) method/mode of screening, 4) tools for screening, 5) assessment and referral, and 6) documentation. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the ASCO Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) guidelines for assessing quality cancer care, we examined differences in clinician documentation of patient consent and treatment plans for oral versus intravenous chemotherapy among patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a retrospective review of the electronic health records of 175 patients diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC whose initial systemic treatment consisted of either oral or intravenous chemotherapy. Specifically, we collected data on whether oncology clinicians documented discussions of the intent of chemotherapy (eg, palliative v curative), the number of cycles or anticipated duration of the chemotherapy, and patient consent for the chemotherapy in the practitioner note. Of the 175 patients in the sample (54.3% female; mean age = 61.96 years, standard deviation = 10.81 years), 119 (68%) received intravenous chemotherapy, and 56 (32%) were prescribed oral agents for first-line chemotherapy. Compared with those who received intravenous chemotherapy, patients prescribed oral chemotherapy had lower rates of documented treatment plans, including intent (23.3% v 45.4%, P = .005) and anticipated duration of therapy (8.9% v 32.8%, P = .001). The rate of documentation of discussions regarding patient consent for chemotherapy did not differ significantly between groups (57.1% v 69.7, P = .13). Documentation of discussions regarding the goals and course of chemotherapy administration for patients with metastatic NSCLC does not meet ASCO QOPI quality standards, especially for individuals prescribed oral agents. Considering the increasing numbers of targeted oral therapies used in oncology practice, further work is needed to ensure appropriate discussion and documentation of chemotherapy plans.
    Journal of Oncology Practice 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined race by sex differences in depression symptoms and psychosocial service use (pastors, social workers, mental health workers, support groups) among patients with lung cancer. The multiregional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance study surveyed black and white adults with stages I to III lung cancer (n = 1,043) about depression symptoms, interest in help for mood, and psychosocial service use. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate race/sex differences in depression symptoms (modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale ≥ 6) and psychosocial service use, independent of demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral covariates. A total of 18.2% screened positive for depression symptoms. This proportion was highest among black men (24.7%), followed by white women (20.6%), black womens (15.8%), and white men (15.0%). In adjusted analyses, white females showed greater risk for depression symptoms relative to black females (P = .01) and white males (P = .002), with no other differences among groups. Black patients were less likely than white patients to receive desired help for mood from their doctors (P = .02), regardless of sex. Among all patients, black women were most likely to have contact with pastoral care and social work. Race and sex interacted to predict risk of depression symptoms. Covariates accounted for elevated risk among black men. White women showed greater risk than black women and white men, independent of covariates. Black patients may experience greater barriers to receiving help for mood from their doctors. Race by sex differences in contact with psychosocial services highlight potential differences in the extent to which services are available, acceptable, and/or sought by patients.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia are a vulnerable population that has been relatively neglected in health disparities research. Despite having an equivalent risk of developing most cancers, patients with schizophrenia are more likely to die of cancer than the general population. Cancer care disparities are likely the result of patient-, provider-, and systems-level factors and influenced by the pervasive stigma of mental illness. Individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of health behaviors linked with cancer mortality including cigarette smoking. They also have significant medical comorbidity, are less likely to have up-to-date cancer screening, and may present at more advanced stages of illness. Patients with schizophrenia may be less likely to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, have more postoperative complications, and have less access to palliative care. However, opportunities exist for the interdisciplinary team, including medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists; psychiatrists; and primary care physicians, to intervene throughout the continuum of cancer care to promote survival and quality of life. This review summarizes data on overall and cancer-specific mortality for individuals with schizophrenia and reviews specific disparities across the cancer care continuum of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and end-of-life care. Using a case, the authors illustrate clinical challenges for this population including communication, informed consent, and risk of suicide, and provide suggestions for care. Finally, recommendations for research to address the disparities in cancer care for individuals with schizophrenia are discussed. Despite significant challenges, with collaboration between oncology and mental health teams, individuals with schizophrenia can receive high-quality cancer care. Cancer 2013;. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 10/2013; 120(3). · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients' perception of their prognosis has an impact on their decisions about medical care. However, the relations between prognostic understanding and quality of life (QoL) and mood are unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess perceptions of prognosis and preferences for prognostic information among patients with advanced cancer and to explore the associations of prognostic understanding with QoL and mood. Fifty patients were assessed within 6 to 12 weeks of initiating chemotherapy for advanced gastrointestinal cancers. A 13-item questionnaire was used to assess patients' information preferences, perceptions of their prognosis and goal of therapy, and communication about end-of-life care. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess QoL and mood, respectively. Fifty of 62 (80%) consecutive, eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-eight of 50 patients (75%) wanted to know as many details as possible about their cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, 25 of 50 patients (50%) stated that the goal of therapy was to "cure their cancer," and only 10 of 49 patients (22%) reported having a discussion about end-of-life preferences with their oncologist. Patients who acknowledged their illness as terminal reported lower QoL (P = .005) and higher anxiety (P = .003) compared with those who did not perceive themselves as being terminally ill. Although patients desired detailed information about their illness, half incorrectly perceived their cancer as curable. Accurate prognostic understanding was associated with lower QoL and worse anxiety. Interventions to improve patients' prognostic understanding while providing adequate psychosocial support are warranted. Cancer 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 10/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To reduce workplace stress by developing a brief psychological skills training for nurses and to evaluate program feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in decreasing burnout and stress.Design: Intervention development and evaluation.Setting: Outpatient chemotherapy unit at a comprehensive cancer center.Sample: 26 infusion nurses and oncology social workers.Methods: Focus groups were conducted with nurses. Results informed the development and evaluation of training for nurses. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Perceived Stress Scale post-training.Main Research Variables: Burnout and stress.Findings: Focus groups indicated strong commitment among nurses to psychosocial care and supported the idea that relationships with patients and families were sources of reward and stress. Stressors included factors that interfered with psychosocial care such as difficult family dynamics, patient behaviors and end-of-life care issues. Psychological skills training was developed to address these stressors. Evaluations suggested that the program was feasible and acceptable to nurses. At two months, participants showed reductions in emotional exhaustion (p = 0.02) and stress (p = 0.04).Conclusions: Psychological skills training for managing difficult encounters showed feasibility, acceptability, and potential benefit in reducing emotional exhaustion and stress.Implications for Nursing: Brief training that targets sources of clinical stress may be useful for nurses in outpatient chemotherapy units.Knowledge Translation: Specific stressors in relationships with patients and families present challenges to nurses' therapeutic use of self. Targeted psychological skills training may help nurses problem-solve difficult encounters while taking care of themselves. System-level strategies are needed to support and promote training participation.
    Oncology Nursing Forum 07/2013; 40(4):E327-E336. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Early, integrated palliative care delivered in the ambulatory setting has been associated with improved quality of life, lower rates of depression, and even prolonged survival. We outline an expert practice that provides a step-wise approach to cultivating prognostic awareness in patients cared for by a palliative care clinician early in the course of the patient's disease. This approach can be used by both novice and more experienced palliative care clinicians.
    Journal of palliative medicine 06/2013; · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the United States, Black men are at higher risk than White men for lung cancer mortality whereas rates are comparable between Black and White women. This article draws from empirical work in lung cancer, mental health, and health disparities to highlight that race and depression may overlap in predicting lower treatment access and utilization and poorer quality of life among patients. Racial barriers to depression identification and treatment in the general population may compound these risks. Prospective data are needed to examine whether depression plays a role in racial disparities in lung cancer outcomes.
    Journal of Psychosocial Oncology 03/2013; 31(2):123-35. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Uncontrolled pain remains prevalent in patients with advanced cancer and has been associated with worse quality of life and greater health care utilization. Poor adherence to analgesics may represent a modifiable barrier to pain management. Objective: This pilot study aimed to establish feasibility/utility of evaluating self-reported adherence to long-acting (LA) opioids in patients with advanced lung cancer, and to explore rates and correlates of adherence. Methods: Consecutive patients attending an ambulatory thoracic oncology clinic with a diagnosis of advanced lung cancer and a current LA opioid regimen were approached to complete a brief questionnaire during their clinic visit. Participants reported LA opioid adherence during the past 4 weeks (0%-100%) and knowledge of their LA opioid regimen, and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) depression screen. Demographic and clinical information were confirmed via electronic health record review. Results: Fifty-four eligible patients were approached to reach our target sample (n=50; enrollment=92.6%). Self-reported adherence to LA opioids was 85.4% (standard deviation [SD]=21.0). Twenty-eight percent reported a frequency of medication use that did not match the prescribed daily frequency. Lower adherence was associated with inaccurate frequency (p=0.004), positive depression screen (p=0.005), and older age (p=0.04). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of integrating self-report assessments of LA opioid adherence into a thoracic oncology clinic. Patients reported high adherence, but more than one-quarter did not accurately report the prescribed frequency of daily doses. Understanding of LA opioid regimens may be a critical indicator of adherence in patients with advanced cancer.
    Journal of palliative medicine 02/2013; · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Although depression appears to be associated with worse survival from cancer, the underlying mechanisms of this association are unknown. Tumor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotype is a known predictor of survival in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and appears to be associated with depression. We hypothesized that tumor EGFR genotype may account for a relationship between depression and survival in this population. We investigated this possible relationship in a cohort of patients with metastatic NSCLC, in which we had previously demonstrated an association between depression and worse survival. Method: A cohort of 151 patients with newly diagnosed metastatic NSCLC were enrolled and followed in a randomized controlled trial of early palliative care. At enrollment, 150 had depression assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and categorical scoring for major depressive syndrome (MDS) was used for analyses. Patients with tumor tissue available underwent EGFR genotyping. Associations with survival were tested using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Twenty-one patients (14.0%) met criteria for MDS. Forty-four patients (29.3%) had EGFR genotyping, and 17 (38.6%) of these harbored EGFR mutations. Patients with EGFR mutations had significantly lower PHQ-9 scores (p = 0.03), and none met criteria for depression. EGFR mutations were significantly associated with superior survival (p = 0.02). When both depression and EGFR genotype were simultaneously entered into the model, only EGFR mutations remained significantly associated with survival (p = 0.02), and the effect of depression was attenuated. Significance of results: Depression is associated with worse survival in metastatic NSCLC, and this relationship may be at least partially explained by tumor EGFR genotype. Further study into whether depression could be associated with specific biologic properties of cancer that vary by genotype is warranted.
    Palliative and Supportive Care 02/2013; · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Early ambulatory palliative care (PC) is an emerging practice, and its key elements have not been defined. We conducted a qualitative analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial that demonstrated improved quality of life, mood, and survival in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who received early PC integrated with standard oncologic care vs standard oncologic care alone. Our objectives were to (1) identify key elements of early PC clinic visits, (2) explore the timing of key elements, and (3) compare the content of PC and oncologic visit notes at the critical time points of clinical deterioration and radiographic disease progression. METHODS We randomly selected 20 patients who received early PC and survived within 4 periods: less than 3 months (n = 5), 3 to 6 months (n = 5), 6 to 12 months (n = 5), and 12 to 24 months (n = 5). We performed content analysis on PC and oncologic visit notes from the electronic health records of these patients. RESULTS Addressing symptoms and coping were the most prevalent components of the PC clinic visits. Initial visits focused on building relationships and rapport with patients and their families and on illness understanding, including prognostic awareness. Discussions about resuscitation preferences and hospice predominantly occurred during later visits. Comparing PC and oncologic care visits around critical time points, both included discussions about symptoms and illness status; however, PC visits emphasized psychosocial elements, such as coping, whereas oncologic care visits focused on cancer treatment and management of medical complications. CONCLUSIONS Early PC clinic visits emphasize managing symptoms, strengthening coping, and cultivating illness understanding and prognostic awareness in a responsive and time-sensitive model. During critical clinical time points, PC and oncologic care visits have distinct features that suggest a key role for PC involvement and enable oncologists to focus on cancer treatment and managing medical complications.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 01/2013; · 13.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with advanced cancer experience a significant burden of physical symptoms and psychological distress at the end of life, and many elect to receive aggressive cancer-directed therapy. The goal of palliative care is to relieve suffering and promote quality of life (QOL) for patients and families. Traditionally, both the public and medical community have conceptualized the need for patients to make a choice between pursuing curative therapy or receiving palliative care. However, practice guidelines from the World Health Organization and leadership from the oncology and palliative care communities advocate a different model of palliative care that is introduced from the point of diagnosis of life-threatening illness. Early palliative care has been shown to provide benefits in QOL, mood, and health care utilization. Additionally, preliminary research has suggested that in contrast to fears about palliative care hastening death, referral to palliative care earlier in the course of illness may have the potential to lengthen survival, particularly in patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer. This review summarizes the literature on potential survival benefits of palliative care and presents a model of how early integrated palliative care could potentially influence survival in patients with advanced cancer.
    Chronic Respiratory Disease 01/2013; 10(1):35-47. · 2.31 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
422.76 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Center for Psychiatric Oncology and Behavioral Sciences
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • Boston Medical Center
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2009–2012
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006–2009
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001
    • Hennepin County Medical Center
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States