Andreas Peter

University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (48)207.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Animal studies suggest that insulin action in the brain is involved in the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Whether this holds true in humans is unknown. Using intranasal application of insulin to the human brain, we studied impacts of brain insulin action on whole-body insulin sensitivity and mechanisms involved in this process.Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp, before and after intranasal application of insulin and placebo in randomized order in lean and obese men. After insulin spray application in lean, higher glucose infusion rate was necessary to maintain euglycemia compared to placebo. Accordingly, clamp-derived insulin sensitivity index improved after insulin spray. In obese subjects, this insulin sensitizing effect could not be detected.Change in the high frequency band of heart rate variability, an estimate of parasympathetic output, correlated positively with change in whole-body insulin sensitivity after intranasal insulin. Improvement in whole-body insulin sensitivity correlated with the change in hypothalamic activity as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.In summary, intranasal insulin improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in lean but not in obese men. Furthermore, brain-derived peripheral insulin sensitization is associated with hypothalamic activity and parasympathetic outputs. Thus, our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans.
    Diabetes 07/2014; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The common sequence variant I148M of the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) is associated with increased hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content, but not with insulin resistance, in humans. The PNPLA3 (I148M) variant was previously reported to alter the specificity of the encoded enzyme and subsequently affect lipid composition.
    Diabetologia 06/2014; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin are vasoactive peptides that regulate vascular tone and might play a role in hypertensive diseases. Recently, laboratory assays have been developed to measure stable fragments of vasopressin, endothelin and adrenomedullin. Little is known about their diagnostic and prognostic value in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we measured the plasma concentration of copeptin, mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-pro-ADM) and C-terminal pro-endothelin 1 (CT-pro-ET1) in stable ambulatory hemodialysis patients (n = 239) and investigated their associations with clinical factors and mortality. In all patients enrolled, the plasma concentrations of copeptin, MR-pro-ADM and CT-pro-ET1 were largely elevated with a median concentration of 132 pmol/L (interquartile range [IQR] 78-192) for copeptin, 1.26 nmol/L (IQR 1.02-1.80) for MR-pro-ADM and 149 pmol/L (IQR 121-181) for CT-pro-ET1. The plasma concentrations of all vasoactive peptide fragments correlated with time on dialysis and plasma β2-microglobulin concentration and were negatively correlated to residual diuresis. The plasma concentration of MR-pro-ADM was a strong predictor of all-cause (univariate hazard ratio for a 10-fold increase 9.94 [3.14;32], p<0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 34.87 [5.58;217], p = 0.0001) within a 3.8-year follow-up. The associations remained stable in models adjusted for dialysis specific factors and were attenuated in a full model adjusted for all prognostic factors. Plasma copeptin concentration was weakly associated with cardiovascular mortality (only in univariate analysis) and CT-pro-ET1 was not associated with mortality at all. In conclusion, vasoactive peptide fragments are elevated in hemodialysis patients because of accumulation and, most likely, increased release. Increased concentrations of MR-pro-ADM are predictive of mortality.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86148. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is the most frequent genetic cause of venous thrombosis in Caucasians. However, protective effects have been suggested to balance the disadvantages. We have recently observed protective effects of FVL mutation on experimental diabetic nephropathy in mice as well as an association with reduced albuminuria in two human cohorts of diabetic patients. In the present study we aimed to reevaluate these findings in an independent, larger cohort of 1905 Caucasians at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and extend possible associations to earlier disease stages of nephropathy. Carriers of FVL mutation had a significantly lower urine albumin excretion (P = 0.03) and tended to have lower plasma creatinine concentrations (P = 0.07). The difference in plasma creatinine concentrations was significant after adjustment for the influencing factors: age, gender, and lean body mass (P = 0.048). These observations at a very early "disease" stage are an important extension of previous findings and suggest that modification of glomerular dysfunction by FVL mutation is relevant during very early stages of diabetic nephropathy. This makes the underlying mechanism an interesting therapeutic target and raises the question whether FVL mutation may also exert protective effects in other glomerulopathies.
    ISRN endocrinology. 01/2014; 2014:530830.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Oxidative stress (OS) represents an important pathogenetic factor of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases. To elucidate whether the liver itself is a major source of OS, the present study was performed to assess OS and antioxidant status in an anhepatic porcine model. Methods: Six pigs underwent a total hepatectomy, five pigs were sham operated. OS and antioxidant status were evaluated by measuring plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). They were sampled at the start of the experiment, immediately after surgery, and then at 8 and 16 hours post hepatectomy. Results: Increased concentrations of MDA were observed in anhepatic pigs postoperatively (p < 0.02) and 8 hours after hepatectomy (p < 0.003) compared to controls. XO activity increased soon after hepatectomy (22.6 ± 5.4 mU/L versus 3.3 ± 2.1 mU/L in sham animals, p < 0.03) but returned to normal values in the further course. SOD levels did not change during the observational period in both groups. FRAP values rose significantly in the anhepatic animals compared to control (p < 0.015). A significant positive correlation was observed between MDA levels and FRAP levels (Spearman's ρ = 0.62; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: These findings show that hepatectomy does not completely prevent the occurrence of OS because the production and regulation of OS are also located outside the liver.
    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 01/2014; 52(1):43-49. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Over 90 % of fatal mushroom poisoning occurs after ingestion of amanitin-containing species. This study aimed to investigate markers indicating spontaneous liver regeneration in a porcine acute liver failure (ALF) model after α-amanitin intoxication. Methods German landrace pigs received either 0.15 mg/kg (n = 5) α-amanitin intravenously or 0.35 mg/kg (n = 5) intraportally. Pigs were invasively monitored and kept under general anesthesia throughout the experiment. Laboratory parameters were analyzed every 8 h. Results ALF occurred in all animals (10/10) 41 ± 3 h after intoxication. All pigs receiving 0.35 mg/kg α-amanitin and one pig receiving 0.15 mg/kg α-amanitin died 57 ± 16 h after the primary onset of ALF. Four pigs of the 0.15 mg/kg intoxication group recovered spontaneously from ALF after 56 ± 6 h. Starting at 32 h after intoxication, significantly higher values of albumin and total plasma protein could be measured in surviving animals (p < 0.05). A significant temporary increase in the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma concentration was detected 40–80 h after intoxication in recovering animals (p < 0.05). Conclusions This porcine model represents a novel tool to analyse multiple aspects of liver regeneration following α-amanitin poisoning to allow early discrimination between a fatal course and survivors. Decreased albumin and total plasma protein concentrations in the early intoxication phase indicated a lethal outcome, while an increase in the TNF-α plasma concentration was identified as the earliest prognostic plasma marker detecting liver regeneration a long time before liver function was biochemically and clinically impaired.
    Hepatology International 01/2014; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of diabetic subjects with cinnamon demonstrated an improvement in blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This work intends to elucidate the impact of cinnamon effects on the brain by using isolated astrocytes, and an obese and diabetic mouse model. Cinnamon components (eugenol, cinnamaldehyde) were added to astrocytes and liver cells to measure insulin signaling and glycogen synthesis. Ob/ob mice were supplemented with extract from cinnamomum zeylanicum for 6 weeks and cortical brain activity, locomotion and energy expenditure were evaluated. Insulin action was determined in brain and liver tissues. Treatment of primary astrocytes with eugenol promoted glycogen synthesis, whereas the effect of cinnamaldehyde was attenuated. In terms of brain function in vivo, cinnamon extract improved insulin sensitivity and brain activity in ob/ob mice, and the insulin-stimulated locomotor activity was improved. In addition, fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance were greatly improved in ob/ob mice due to cinnamon extracts, while insulin secretion was unaltered. This corresponded with lower triglyceride and increased liver glycogen content and improved insulin action in liver tissues. In vitro, Fao cells exposed to cinnamon exhibited no change in insulin action. Together, cinnamon extract improved insulin action in the brain as well as brain activity and locomotion. This specific effect may represent an important central feature of cinnamon in improving insulin action in the brain, and mediates metabolic alterations in the periphery to decrease liver fat and improve glucose homeostasis.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92358. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eating behavior, body weight regulation, peripheral glucose metabolism, and cognitive function depend on adequate insulin action in the brain, and recent studies in humans suggested that impaired insulin action in the brain emerges upon fat intake, obesity, and genetic variants. As insulin enters into the brain in a receptor-mediated fashion, we hypothesized that whole-body insulin sensitivity might affect the transport of insulin into the brain and contribute to the aversive effect of insulin resistance in the central nervous system. In this study, we aimed to determine the ratio of insulin in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum to whole-body insulin sensitivity. Healthy human subjects participated in an oral glucose tolerance test to determine whole-body insulin sensitivity and underwent lumbar puncture. Blood and CSF concentrations of insulin were significantly correlated. The CSF/serum ratio for insulin was significantly associated with whole body insulin sensitivity with reduced insulin transported into the CSF in insulin-resistant subjects. Together, our data suggest that transport of insulin into the CSF relates to peripheral insulin sensitivity and impairs insulin action in the brain. This underlines the need for sensitizing measures in insulin-resistant subjects.
    Acta Diabetologica 12/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:High intake of added sweeteners is considered to have a causal role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders. Especially, high-fructose intake is regarded as potentially harmful to cardiometabolic health. It may cause not only weight gain but also low-grade inflammation, which represents an independent risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In particular, fructose has been suggested to induce plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression in the liver and to increase circulating inflammatory cytokines. We therefore aimed to investigate, whether high-fructose diet has an impact on PAI-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), e-selectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in healthy humans.Subjects/methods:We studied 20 participants (12 males and 8 females) of the TUebingen FRuctose Or Glucose study. This is an exploratory, parallel, prospective, randomized, single-blinded, outpatient, hypercaloric, intervention study. The participants had a mean age of 30.9±2.1 years and a mean body mass index of 26.0±0.5 kg/m(2) and they received 150 g of either fructose or glucose per day for 4 weeks.Results:There were neither significant changes of PAI-1, MCP-1, e-selectin and CRP after fructose (n=10) and glucose (n=10) intervention nor treatment effects (all P>0.2). Moreover, we did not observe longitudinal associations of the inflammatory parameters with triglycerides, liver fat, visceral fat and body weight in the fructose group.Conclusions:Temporary high-fructose intake does not seem to cause inflammation in apparently healthy people in this secondary analysis of a small feeding trial.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.228.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dopamine agonist bromocriptine has been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in the United States. Bromocriptine inhibits prolactin secretion, and patients with hyperprolactinaemia display impaired insulin sensitivity. We therefore hypothesized that low prolactin levels are associated with lower glycaemia and higher insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Prolactin levels were determined from fasting serum in participants without diabetes from the cross-sectional Tübingen family study for type 2 diabetes (m/f = 562/1,121, age = 40 ± 13 years, BMI = 30 ± 9 kg/m(2)). A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed, and the area under the glucose curve (AUC0-120Glucose) and insulin sensitivity index were calculated. A subgroup (n = 494) underwent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp tests. Prolactin associated positively with insulin sensitivity (p = 0.001, adjusted for gender, age, and BMI). Age strongly interacted (p < 0.0001) with the effect of prolactin on insulin sensitivity, inverting the positive relationship to a negative one in younger participants. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and AUC0-120Glucose correlated negatively with prolactin, and an interaction with age was found as well. Higher prolactin levels are associated with improved insulin sensitivity and lower glucose in individuals without diabetes. This relationship turns to its opposite in younger persons. As prolactin is a proxy for the dopaminergic tone in the central nervous system, these associations may indicate an age-dependent influence of the brain on peripheral insulin sensitivity.
    Acta Diabetologica 07/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is thought to contribute to insulin resistance and its metabolic complications. However, some individuals with NAFL remain insulin sensitive. Mechanisms involved in the susceptibility to develop insulin resistance in humans with NAFL are largely unknown. We investigated circulating markers and mechanisms of a metabolically benign and malignant NAFL by applying a metabolomic approach.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA total of 265 metabolites were analyzed before and after a 9-month lifestyle intervention in plasma from 20 insulin-sensitive and 20 insulin-resistant subjects with NAFL. The relevant plasma metabolites were then tested for relationships with insulin sensitivity in 17 subjects without NAFL and in plasma from 29 subjects with liver tissue samples.RESULTSThe best separation of the insulin-sensitive from the insulin-resistant NAFL group was achieved by a metabolite pattern including the branched-chain amino acids leucine and isoleucine, ornithine, the acylcarnitines C3:0-, C16:0-, and C18:0-carnitine, and lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) C16:0 (area under the ROC curve, 0.77 [P = 0.00023] at baseline and 0.80 [P = 0.000019] at follow-up). Among the individual metabolites, predominantly higher levels of lyso-PC C16:0, both at baseline (P = 0.0039) and at follow-up (P = 0.001), were found in the insulin-sensitive compared with the insulin-resistant subjects. In the non-NAFL groups, no differences in lyso-PC C16:0 levels were found between the insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant subjects, and these relationships were replicated in plasma from subjects with liver tissue samples.CONCLUSIONS From a plasma metabolomic pattern, particularly lyso-PCs are able to separate metabolically benign from malignant NAFL in humans and may highlight important pathways in the pathogenesis of fatty liver-induced insulin resistance.
    Diabetes care 03/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a powerful tool that is increasingly used in clinical research. Although excellent sample quality is essential, it can easily be compromised by undetected preanalytical errors. We set out to identify critical preanalytical steps and biomarkers that reflect preanalytical inaccuracies.METHODS: We systematically investigated the effects of preanalytical variables (blood collection tubes, hemolysis, temperature and time before further processing, and number of freeze-thaw cycles) on metabolomics studies of clinical blood and plasma samples using a nontargeted LC-MS approach.RESULTS: Serum and heparinate blood collection tubes led to chemical noise in the mass spectra. Distinct, significant changes of 64 features in the EDTA-plasma metabolome were detected when blood was exposed to room temperature for 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. The resulting pattern was characterized by increases in hypoxanthine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (800% and 380%, respectively, at 2 h). In contrast, the plasma metabolome was stable for up to 4 h when EDTA blood samples were immediately placed in iced water. Hemolysis also caused numerous changes in the metabolic profile. Unexpectedly, up to 4 freeze-thaw cycles only slightly changed the EDTA-plasma metabolome, but increased the individual variability.CONCLUSIONS: Nontargeted metabolomics investigations led to the following recommendations for the preanalytical phase: test the blood collection tubes, avoid hemolysis, place whole blood immediately in ice water, use EDTA plasma, and preferably use nonrefrozen biobank samples. To exclude outliers due to preanalytical errors, inspect the biomarker signal intensities reflecting systematic as well as accidental and preanalytical inaccuracies before processing the bioinformatics data.
    Clinical Chemistry 02/2013; · 7.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) in glucose homeostasis is still incompletely understood. Small receptor agonists stimulating insulin secretion are under investigation for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, genome-wide association studies did not discover diabetes risk variants in FFAR1. We reevaluated the role of FFAR1 in insulin secretion using a specific agonist, FFAR1-knockout mice and human islets. Nondiabetic individuals were metabolically phenotyped and genotyped. In vitro experiments indicated that palmitate and a specific FFAR1-agonist, TUG-469, stimulate glucose-induced insulin secretion through FFAR1. The pro-apoptotic effect of chronic exposure of beta-cells to palmitate was independent of FFAR1. TUG-469 was protective, while inhibition of FFAR1 promoted apoptosis. In accordance with the pro-apoptotic effect of palmitate, in vivo crosssectional observations demonstrated a negative association between fasting free fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin secretion. As NEFA stimulate secretion through FFAR1, we examined the interaction of genetic variation in FFAR1 with NEFA and insulin secretion. The inverse association of NEFA and secretion was modulated by rs1573611 and became steeper for carriers of the minor allele. In conclusion, FFAR1 agonists support beta-cell function, but variation in FFAR1 influences NEFA effects on insulin secretion and could, therefore, affect therapeutic efficacy of FFAR1-agonists.
    Diabetes 02/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context:Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in response to dietary sugar is implicated in the pathophysiology of fatty liver. Saturated fatty acids are the product of DNL and exert lipotoxic effects that promote liver fat accumulation. Desaturation of fatty acids by stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) can prevent these deleterious effects. Here we investigated whether DNL and SCD1 are activated in parallel by dietary sugar and influence liver fat accumulation.Methods:In 20 healthy subjects (eight females and 12 males, aged 30.5 ± 2.0 yr, body mass index 25.9 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) who received a 4-wk lipogenic diet supplemented with 150 g/d of monosaccharides, hepatic SCD1 activity and DNL were determined using validated fatty acid ratios (16:1n-7/16:0; 16:0/18:2n-6) in very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides. Liver fat content was measured by localized (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results:At baseline, liver fat content was positively associated with the DNL (r = 0.54, P = 0.01) but not the SCD1 activity index (r = 0.16, P = 0.49). Dietary sugar supplementation increased liver fat content and DNL and SCD1 activity indices (+33, +19, and +8%, respectively). The increase of the DNL index was strongly related to the changes in liver fat content during the sugar supplementation (r = 0.75, P = 0.0001) but showed no association with changes in the SCD1 activity (P > 0.35). After the monosaccharide supplementation, the DNL index was still positively associated with liver fat content (r = 0.52, P = 0.02), whereas SCD1 activity showed a strong negative correlation with liver fat content (r = -0.63, P = 0.002).Conclusions:DNL is closely linked with hepatic steatosis under dietary conditions rich in monosaccharides. Our data suggest that the individual hepatic SCD1 activity is a determinant of liver fat accumulation under lipogenic dietary conditions.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 09/2012; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired insulin action in the brain represents an early step in the progression toward type 2 diabetes, and elevated levels of saturated free fatty acids are known to impair insulin action in prediabetic subjects. One potential mediator that links fatty acids to inflammation and insulin resistance is the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Therefore, C3H/HeJ/TLR2-KO (TLR2/4-deficient) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and insulin action in the brain as well as cortical and locomotor activity was analyzed by using telemetric implants. TLR2/4-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the brain and displayed an improvement in cortical and locomotor activity that was not observed in C3H/HeJ mice. Sleep recordings revealed a 42% increase in rapid eye movement sleep in the deficient mice during daytime, and these mice spent 41% more time awake during the night period. Treatment of control mice with a neutralizing IL-6 antibody improved insulin action in the brain as well as cortical activity and diminished osteopontin protein to levels of the TLR2/4-deficient mice. Together, our data suggest that the lack of functional TLR2/4 protects mice from a fat-mediated impairment in insulin action, brain activity, locomotion, and sleep architecture by an IL-6/osteopontin-dependent mechanism.
    The FASEB Journal 01/2012; 26(5):1799-809. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In hemodialysis patients, elevated plasma troponin concentrations are a common finding that has even increased with the advent of newly developed sensitive assays. However, the interpretation and relevance of this is still under debate. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed plasma concentrations of sensitive troponin I (TnI) and troponin T (TnT) in stable ambulatory hemodialysis patients (n = 239) and investigated their associations with clinical factors and mortality. In all of the enrolled patients, plasma TnI or TnT was detectable at a median concentration of 14 pg/ml (interquartile range: 7-29) using the Siemens TnI ultra assay and 49 pg/ml (31-74) using the Roche Elecsys high sensitive TnT assay. Markedly more patients exceeded the 99th percentile for TnT than for TnI (95% vs. 14%, p<0.0001). In a multivariate linear regression model, TnT was independently associated with age, gender, systolic dysfunction, time on dialysis, residual diuresis and systolic blood pressure, whereas TnI was independently associated with age, systolic dysfunction, pulse pressure, time on dialysis and duration of a HD session. During a follow-up period of nearly two years, TnT concentration above 38 pg/mL was associated with a 5-fold risk of death, whereas elevation of TnI had a gradual association to mortality. In hemodialysis patients, elevations of plasma troponin concentrations are explained by cardiac function and dialysis-related parameters, which contribute to cardiac strain. Both are highly predictive of increased risk of death.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47610. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has not been solved whether subjects carrying the minor alleles of the -455T>C or -482C>T single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein-C3-gene (APOC3) have an increased risk for developing fatty liver and insulin resistance. We investigated the relationships of the SNPs with hepatic APOC3 expression and hypothesized that visceral obesity may modulate the effects of these SNPs on liver fat and insulin sensitivity (IS). APOC3 mRNA expression and triglyceride content were determined in liver biopsies from 50 subjects. In a separate group (N=330) liver fat was measured by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IS was estimated during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp (N=222). APOC3 mRNA correlated positively with triglyceride content in liver biopsies (r=0.29, P=0.036). Carriers of the minor alleles (-455C and -482T) tended to have higher hepatic APOC3 mRNA expression (1.80 (0.45-3.56) vs 0.77 (0.40-1.64), P=0.09), but not higher triglyceride content (P=0.76). In 330 subjects the genotype did not correlate with liver fat (P=0.97) or IS (OGTT: P=0.41; clamp: P=0.99). However, a significant interaction of the genotype with waist circumference in determining liver fat was detected (P=0.02) in which minor allele carriers had higher liver fat only in the lowest tertile of waist circumference (P=0.01). In agreement, during a 9-month lifestyle intervention the minor allele carriers of the SNP -482C>T in the lowest tertile also had less decrease in liver fat (P=0.04). APOC3 mRNA expression is increased in fatty liver and is regulated by SNPs in APOC3. The impact of the APOC3 SNPs on fatty liver is small and depends on visceral obesity.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 08/2011; 36(6):774-82. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Chemistry 05/2011; 57(5):670-3. · 7.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucokinase (GCK) phosphorylates glucose to form glucose 6-phosphate and thereby regulates hepatic glucose disposal and activates hepatic lipogenesis. Hepatic GCK activity is regulated on the level of GCK mRNA expression and by the inhibitory glucokinase regulatory protein. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between GCK mRNA expression and markers of lipogenesis as well as liver fat content in human liver biopsies. Additionally, we investigated whether genetic variation in the liver specific GCK promoter determines liver fat content in humans. Hepatic mRNA expression and liver triglyceride content was analyzed in 50 human liver biopsies. In a second cohort of 330 individuals, liver fat was precisely measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic GCK mRNA expression is associated with triglyceride content in human liver biopsies (r = 0.50, P = 0.0002). Furthermore, hepatic GCK mRNA expression is associated with lipogenic gene expression (fatty acid synthase, r = 0.49, P = 0.0003; acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α, r = 0.44, P = 0.0015, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-β, r = 0.48, P = 0.0004) and the de novo lipogenesis index (r = 0.36, P = 0.01). In support of these findings, the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2041547 in the liver-specific GCK promoter is associated with liver fat content in prediabetic individuals (P = 0.047). In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that GCK mRNA expression is associated with markers of de novo lipogenesis and liver triglyceride content in humans. This suggests that increased GCK activity may induce fatty liver and its metabolic and hepatic consequences in humans. Thus, the widely used approach to nonspecifically activate β-cell and hepatic GCK to treat diabetes mellitus is therefore questionable and may cause serious side effects.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 04/2011; 96(7):E1126-30. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nitric oxide/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) signaling pathway regulates cell functions that play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of a dysfunction of this pathway for glucose metabolism in vivo is unknown. The expression of cGKI in tissues relevant to insulin action was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The metabolic consequences of a genetic deletion of cGKI were studied in mice that express cGKI selectively in smooth muscle but not in other cell types (cGKI-SM mice). In wild-type mice, cGKI protein was detected in hepatic stellate cells, but not in hepatocytes, skeletal muscle, fat cells, or pancreatic β-cells. Compared with control animals, cGKI-SM mice had higher energy expenditure in the light phase associated with lower body weight and fat mass and increased insulin sensitivity. Mutant mice also showed higher fasting glucose levels, whereas insulin levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test results were similar to those in control animals. Interleukin (IL)-6 signaling was strongly activated in the liver of cGKI-SM mice as demonstrated by increased levels of IL-6, phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Tyr 705), suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, and serum amyloid A2. Insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the liver was impaired in cGKI-SM mice. The fraction of Mac-2-positive macrophages in the liver was significantly higher in cGKI-SM mice than in control mice. In contrast with cGKI-SM mice, conditional knockout mice lacking cGKI only in the nervous system were normal with respect to body weight, energy expenditure, fasting glucose, IL-6, and insulin action in the liver. Genetic deletion of cGKI in non-neuronal cells results in a complex metabolic phenotype, including liver inflammation and fasting hyperglycemia. Loss of cGKI in hepatic stellate cells may affect liver metabolism via a paracrine mechanism that involves enhanced macrophage infiltration and IL-6 signaling.
    Diabetes 04/2011; 60(5):1566-76. · 7.90 Impact Factor