In-Hwan Baek

Kyungsung University, Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (17)37.07 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle size on the dissolution and oral absorption of pranlukast microsuspensions and nanosuspensions stabilized by hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Four pranlukast suspensions with different mean particle sizes (0.16, 0.89, 3.13, and 18.21μm) were prepared by various top-down processes such as jet milling, high pressure homogenization, and bead milling. The dissolution rate and oral absorption of pranlukast suspensions were significantly affected by the particle size. The in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of pranlukast suspensions were increased with decreasing mean particle size of suspensions. Especially, the AUC0→24h and Cmax values of pranlukast nanosuspension with a particle size of 0.16μm were approximately 3.5- and 6.3-fold greater, respectively, than that of pranlukast microsuspension with a particle size of 18.21μm. Therefore, the preliminary results from our study suggest that a pranlukast nanosuspension with a mean particle size of about 0.16μm may have significant potential for clinical application.
    International journal of biological macromolecules 03/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70 mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10 ± 14.32 ng/mL was attained after 1.00 ± 0.16 h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28 ± 654.57 μg and 314.68 ± 395.43 μg/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68 ± 0.95 h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005 ± 0.004 h(-1) and 0.42 ± 0.08 h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data.
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 07/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Doxifluridine (5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine, 5'-dFUR) is a fluoropyrimidine derivative that is activated preferentially in malignant cells by thymidine phosphorylase to form 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of doxifluridine and its two major metabolites, 5-FU, and 5-fluorouridine (5-FUrd), in beagle dogs following a single oral administration of 200 mg doxifluridine capsule (Furtulon(®)). After the administration of 200 mg of Furtulon to 23 beagle dogs, the plasma concentrations of doxifluridine, 5-FU, and 5-FUrd were measured simultaneously, using LC-MS/MS. The parent-metabolite compartment model with first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten kinetics described the pharmacokinetics of doxifluridine, 5-FU, and 5-FUrd. Michaelis-Menten kinetics sufficiently explained the generation and elimination processes of 5-FU and 5-FUrd. The studies described here are the first to evaluate the relationship between pharmacokinetics of doxifluridine and its metabolites in dogs, and these findings will help in understanding the toxicity mechanism of doxifluridine.
    European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 04/2013; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. The objectives of this study were to develop a pharmacokinetic model for sarpogrelate and its metabolite M-1 and to identify the effect of food on sarpogrelate and M-1 pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs. 2. A single 100 mg oral dose of sarpogrelate was administered to fasted and fed beagle dogs and the plasma concentrations of sarpogrelate and M-1 were measured simultaneously by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The resultant data were analyzed by modeling approaches using ADAPT5. 3. The plasma concentration time course of sarpogrelate and M-1 were described using a parent-metabolite compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The systemic exposure of sarpogrelate and its metabolite after the administration of a single 100 mg oral dose was significantly decreased under the fed condition compared to that under the fasting condition. Modeling approaches have sufficiently explained the food effect of sarpogrelate, i.e. an increased Vc and decreased Ka, in fed dogs. The food effect of sarpogrelate was due to its pH-dependent dissolution. 4. These findings suggest that food intake affects both the rate and extent of absorption of sarpogrelate, and that the pharmacological effect of sarpogrelate can differ significantly according to food intake.
    Xenobiotica 03/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine population-based pharmacokinetics parameters for ethanol following multiple intake and to identify the factors influencing the pharmacokinetics. Three different solutions of alcoholic liquor (ethanol 55.39 ± 0.45 g) with different dissolved oxygen concentrations were administered, and blood alcohol concentration was determined in 59 healthy subjects using a breath analyzer. Samples (n = 2955) were collected at various time points. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. The influence of individuals' demography and dissolved oxygen concentration was investigated, and Visual Predictive Check and bootstrapping were conducted for internal evaluation. The developed model was used to perform simulations to visualize the effects of covariates on individuals. A one-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics described the multiple ethanol intake data. Population pharmacokinetic estimates of V(max) and K(m) were 3.256 mmol min(-1) and 0.8183 mmol L(-1), respectively. V(d)/F was estimated to be 77.0 L, and K(a) was 0.0767 min(-1). Body weight, age, and the dissolved oxygen concentration were confirmed to be significant covariates. The mean estimates from the developed population pharmacokinetic model were very similar to those from 500 bootstrap samples, and Visual Predictive Check showed that approximately 94% of the observed data fit well within the 5th-95th percentile. A one-compartment model with nonlinear elimination kinetics for multiple ethanol intake was developed and the significant covariates were determined. The robustness of the developed model was evaluated by bootstrap and Visual Predictive Check. The final model and implanted covariates explained well the variability and underlying mechanism of ethanol PK.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 01/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Jung-Woo Chae, In-Hwan Baek, Kwang-Il Kwon
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    ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Decursin is used as a traditional Asian medicine to treat various women's diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: Herb-drug interaction has become a serious problem since herbal medicine is extensively used in the modern world. This study investigates effects of decursin, on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline, a typical substrate of cytochrome P450 1A2 enzyme, in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After decursin pretreatment for 3 days, on the fourth day rats were administered decursin and theophylline concomitantly. The blood theophylline and its major metabolites (1-methylxanthine (1-MX), 3-methylxanthine (3-MX), 1-methyluric acid (1-MU), and 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU)) levels were monitored with LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: The results indicated that the clearance, elimination rate constant (K(el)) of theophylline was significantly decreased and area under concentration-time curve (AUC), C(max), half-life was increased in decursin (25mg/kg) pretreatment when theophylline (10mg/kg) was given. In the presence of decursin, the pharmacokinetic parameters of three metabolites (1-MX, 1,3-DMU, and 1-MU) were affected and the differences were statistically significant about AUC(24)(h) parameter. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that patients who want to use CYP1A2-metabolized drugs such as caffeine and theophylline should be advised of the potential herb-drug interaction, to reduce therapeutic failure or increased toxicity of conventional drug therapy.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 09/2012; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT • Metformin, a biguanide glucose lowering agent, is commonly used to manage type 2 diabetes. • The molecular mechanisms of metformin have not been fully identified, but turnover of biomarkers such as glucose and signalling pathways or translocation of glucose transporters are closely related to the glucose-lowering effects of metformin. • The PK/PD of metformin have been investigated in healthy humans and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and modelling has been performed using an indirect response model. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS • The purpose of this investigation was to develop a population PK/PD model for metformin using a signal transduction model in healthy humans and predict the PK/PD profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. • The aim was to compare a previous model (a biophase model) with the signal transduction model, and use a more appropriate model to follow the actions of metformin. • Additionally, our developed model was appropriate to predict the time course of plasma metformin and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. • To our knowledge, this is the first published population PK/PD analysis using the signal transduction model for metformin. AIMS To develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model for metformin (500 mg) using the signal transduction model in healthy humans and to predict the PK/PD profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Following the oral administration of 500 mg metformin to healthy humans, plasma concentrations of metformin were measured using LC-MS/MS. A sequential modelling approach using NONMEM VI was used to facilitate data analysis. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to predict the antihyperglycaemic effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Forty-two healthy humans were included in the study. Population mean estimates (relative standard error, RSE) of apparent clearance, apparent volume of distribution and the absorption rate constant were 52.6 l h(-1) (4.18%), 113 l (56.6%) and 0.41 h(-1) , respectively. Covariate analyses revealed that creatinine clearance (CL(CR) ) significantly influenced metformin: CL/F= 52.6 × (CL(cr) /106.5)(0.782) . The signal transduction model was applied to describe the antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin. The population means for efficacy, potency, transit time and the Hill coefficient were estimated to be 19.8 (3.17%), 3.68 µg ml(-1) (3.89%), 0.5 h (2.89%) and 0.547 (9.05%), respectively. The developed model was used to predict the antihyperglycaemic effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The predicted plasma glucose concentration value was similar to previous values. CONCLUSIONS The population signal transduction model was developed and evaluated for metformin use in healthy volunteers. Model evaluation by non-parametric bootstrap analysis suggested that the proposed model was robust and parameter values were estimated with good precision.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 03/2012; 74(5):815-23. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angelica gigas NAKAI is used to treat dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, menopause, abdominal pain, injuries, migraine, and arthritis. The present study provided a physicochemical and toxicological characterization of compounds in A. gigas NAKAI (decursin, decursinol angelate, diketone decursin, ether decursin, epoxide decursin and oxim decursin). Diketone decursin (173.16 μg/mL) and epoxide decursin (122.12 μg/mL) exhibited >100 μg/mL kinetic solubility after applying nephelometry, suggesting a highly soluble compound. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences in the pKa ranges of the compounds by automatic titration from capillary electrophoresis (p<0.05). Diketone decursin, epoxide decursin and oxim decursin might be formulated into an oral dosage form (log P: 0-3) by an automatic titration analysis. A parallel artificial membrane permeability assay demonstrated permeability coefficients of <10 x 10⁻⁶ cm/s for all of the compounds, suggesting poor permeability. Ether decursin exhibited a toxic effect after being applied to mouse (NIH 3T3, EC₅₀: 57.9 μM) and human (HT-29, EC₅₀: 36.1 μM; Hep-G2, EC₅₀: 4.92 μM) cells. Additionally, epoxide and oxim decursin were toxic through acute oral toxicity (four and three deaths of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice) and mutation toxicity testing by applying Salmonella typhimurium cells with and without S9. Although diketone decursin exhibited less permeability, it is potentially valuable pharmacological compound that should be investigated.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2012; 35(7):1084-90. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An enteric-coated formulation of triflusal (triflusal EC), an antiplatelet agent, was developed to reduce the high incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs). The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of triflusal EC with triflusal in healthy Korean male subjects to determine bioequivalence and non-inferiority for the purposes of marketing approval. A randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover study was conducted in 38 subjects. Either triflusal EC or triflusal was administered orally as a single 900 mg loading dose (day 1) followed by eight 600 mg/day maintenance doses on days 2 - 9, with a 13-day washout period. The plasma concentrations of 2-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl benzoic acid (HTB), the predominant active metabolite of triflusal, were assessed after administration of the loading dose, using HPLC/MS/MS. The platelet aggregation response to arachidonic acid was determined using turbidimetric aggregometry. The 90% CIs, for the geometric mean ratios of the log-transformed AUC(τ) and C(max) of HTB were seen to be within the predetermined range of 0.8 - 1.25. Triflusal EC was also shown to be non-inferior in its anti-aggregatory effect. No serious AEs were reported during this study. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of the two triflusal formulations met the requirements for bioequivalence and non-inferiority, respectively. Both formulations were well tolerated.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 12/2011; 7(12):1471-9. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesized from L-arginine (Arg) by NO synthase (NOS), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are endogenous inhibitors of NO formation. Normal distribution values of Arg, ADMA, and SDMA are required to evaluate the effects of cardiovascular drugs on blood vessels, but insufficient normal reference values from rat and mouse plasma exist for new drug development and screening. To determine the means and variations in the basal endogenous materials concentration, Arg, ADMA, and SDMA in blank rat (n = 24) and mouse (n = 37) plasma samples were quantified using LC-MS/MS equipped with an electrospray ionization interface to generate positive mode ions. Accuracy and precision were within 90.42-110.91%, and 0.88-13.84%, respectively, for analyses of Arg, ADMA, and SDMA. The average plasma concentrations of Arg, ADMA, and SDMA were 175.38 +/- 13.87 microM, 0.79 +/- 0.20 microM, and 0.84 +/- 0.20 microM, respectively, in rats and 70.81 +/- 19.38 microM, 0.66 +/- 0.21 microM, and 0.42 +/- 0.10 microM, respectively, in mice. These results will provide a basis on which to evaluate cardiovascular drug effects on ARG, ADMA, and SDMA levels in new drug development.
    Arzneimittel-Forschung 01/2011; 61(6):340-6. · 0.56 Impact Factor
  • Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 07/2010; · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • In-hwan Baek, Byung-yo Lee, Kwang-il Kwon
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanol oxidation by the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system requires oxygen for alcohol metabolism, and a higher oxygen uptake increases the rate of ethanol oxidation. We investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in healthy humans (n = 49). The concentrations of dissolved oxygen were 8, 20, and 25 ppm in alcoholic drinks of 240 and 360 ml (19.5% v/v). Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by converting breath alcohol concentrations. Breath samples were collected every 30 min when the BAC was higher than 0.015%, 20 min at BAC < or =0.015%, 10 min at BAC < or =0.010%, and 5 min at BAC < or =0.006%. The high dissolved oxygen groups (20, 25 ppm) descended to 0.000% and 0.050% BAC faster than the normal dissolved oxygen groups (8 ppm; p < 0.05). In analyzing pharmacokinetic parameters, AUC(inf) and K(el) of the high oxygen groups were lower than in the normal oxygen group, while C(max) and T(max) were not significantly affected. In a Monte Carlo simulation, the lognormal distribution of mean values of AUC(inf) and t(1/2) was expected to be reduced in the high oxygen group compared to the normal oxygen group. In conclusion, elevated dissolved oxygen concentrations in alcoholic drinks accelerate the metabolism and elimination of alcohol. Thus, enhanced dissolved oxygen concentrations in alcohol may have a role to play in reducing alcohol-related side effects and accidents.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 03/2010; 34(5):834-9. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A reverse-phase HPLC method with detection by mass spectrometry is described for the simultaneous determination of doxifluridine and its two active metabolites, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 5-fluorouridine (5-FUrd), in beagle dog plasma. The optimal chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters Xterra ® C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in a mixture of 99% methanol and purified water (99:1, v/v). The developed method was validated in beagle dog plasma with a lowest limit of quantification of 0.05 µg/mL for both doxifluridine and 5-FU, and 0.2 µg/mL for 5-FUrd. Doxifluridine and its two metabolites were stable under the analysis conditions, and intra-and inter-day accuracies exceeded 92.87%, with a precision variability ≤11.34% for each analyte. Additionally, the method for quantifying doxifluridine and its two metabolites, 5-FU and 5-FUrd, in beagle dog plasma was applied successfully to the analysis of pharmacokinetic samples.-MS/MS, Beagle dog 5,6-dihydrofluorouracil urinary excretion (10%) 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine 5-FU Doxifluridine 5-FUrd Thymidine phosphorylase Uridine phosphorylase O F HN O O HO HO O O O HO HO HN O HN H N O F F HO N N Figure 1. Bioactivation pathway of doxifluridine.
    Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 01/2010; 31.
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    ABSTRACT: Several strategies for overcoming the challenge of establishing bioequivalence (BE) for highly variable drugs (HVDs; drugs having within-subject variability >0.3) have been considered in recent years. Within-subject variability of the area under the curve (AUC(4h)) and peak concentration (C(max)) of doxifluridine in the minimal group (n=24) were 0.444 and 0.491, respectively, meeting the criteria for an HVD. For the large group (n=60), within-subject variability of the AUC(4h) and C(max) were 0.431 and 0.493, respectively. The 90% confidence interval for the AUC(4h) and C(max) of the ratio of the test drug to the reference drug exceeded the acceptable BE limits (0.80-1.25) of the ABE (average bioequivalence), in both the minimal and large groups. However, the 90% CI fell within the extended BE limits (0.61-1.64) of the SABE (scaled average bioequivalence), calculated using within-subject variability. The 95% CI of the AUC(4h) and C(max) of the ratio of test to reference drug were within the extended BE limit (<1.73) of the PBE (population bioequivalence), calculated using total variance. Our results suggest that the SABE method may be useful for evaluating the BE of HVDs and for meeting the need for international guidelines for BE.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2009; 39(1-3):175-80. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of smoking on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a nicotine transdermal delivery system, administered as a single dose or multiple doses, was examined in smokers (n=12) and nonsmokers (n=12). The study was a two-period, parallel trial. In the first period, a single dose of the Nicotinell TTS 20 patch was administered, followed by a 1-week washout period. Then, in the second period, multiple doses of the Nicotinell TTS 20 patch were administered over 4 days. Regarding the pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the AUC(36 h) and AUC(tau) of smokers were about 20% and 40% greater, respectively, than those of nonsmokers. Significant differences in heart rate were observed between smokers and nonsmokers at 10, 12, 16 and 24 h, and significant differences in systolic blood pressure were seen between smokers and nonsmokers at 12, 30 and 36 h in the single-dose study. With multiple doses, significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were detected between smokers and nonsmokers only at 72.5 and 82 h. Here, it is demonstrated for the first time that the pharmacokinetic and hemodynamic effects of a nicotine patch are significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers.
    Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 01/2009; 29(9):521-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis is useful study in clinical pharmacology, also PK/PD modeling is major tools for PK/PD analysis. In this study, we sought to characterize the relationship between the cardiovascular effects and plasma concentrations of the beta blocker drugs carvedilol and atenolol using PK/PD modeling in healthy humans. One group received oral doses of atenolol (50 mg) and the other group received oral doses of carvedilol (25 mg). Subsequently, blood samples were taken, and the effects of the drugs on blood pressure were determined. Plasma concentrations of drugs were measured by HPLC, and PK/PD modeling performed by applied biophase model, plasma drug concentrations were linked to the observed systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) via an effect compartment. The model parameters were estimated using the ADAPT II program. In PK/PD analysis, it was observed the time delay between plasma concentration and effect and the time delay between SBP and DBP. The two time delays were properly explained by PD parameter "Keo" in applied biophase model. As conclusion, the biophase PK/PD model described the relationship between the plasma concentrations of the drugs and the cardiovascular effects, including the time delay between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure.
    Archives of Pharmacal Research 07/2008; 31(6):814-21. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a method for simultaneously determining naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and its major metabolite (6-beta-naltrexol) in plasma using LC/MS/MS. Three compounds, and naloxone as an internal standard, were extracted from plasma using a mixture of methyl-tertiary-butyl ether. After drying the organic layer, the residue was reconstituted in a mobile phase (0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile:0.1% formic acid buffer, 95:5, v/v) and injected onto a reversed-phase C(18) column. The isocratic mobile phase was eluted at 0.2ml/min. The ion transitions monitored in multiple reaction-monitoring modes were m/z 342-->324, 344-->326, and 328-->310 for naltrexone, 6-beta-naltrexol, and naloxone, respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay precision was less than 11.520%, and the accuracy exceeded 93.465%. The limit of quantification was 2ng/ml for naltrexone and 7.2ng/ml for 6-beta-naltrexol. And the limit of detection was 0.1ng/ml for naltrexone and 0.36ng/ml for 6-beta-naltrexol. This method was used to measure the plasma concentration of naltrexone and 6-beta-naltrexol in healthy subjects after a single oral 50mg dose of naltrexone. This analytical method is a simple, sensitive, and accurate way of determining the pharmacokinetic profiles of naltrexone and its metabolites. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using both non-compartmental analysis performed for each subject according to standard methods and compartmental analysis with a parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model that was fitted to the data, simultaneously, using the program ADAPT II. The tested parent-metabolite pharmacokinetic model successfully described the relationship between the plasma concentration of naltrexone and one of its major metabolites, 6-beta-naltrexol.
    Talanta 03/2007; 71(4):1553-9. · 3.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

16 Citations
37.07 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Kyungsung University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2007–2013
    • Chungnam National University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Chonbuk National University
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea