Xinjie Zhao

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China

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Publications (53)133.2 Total impact

  • Xinjie Zhao, Jihong Chen, Lei Ye, Guowang Xu
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    ABSTRACT: Acute graft rejection is one of the most common and serious post complications in renal transplantation. Non-invasive method is needed to specifically monitor acute graft rejection. We investigated metabolic alterations of acute graft rejection in human renal transplantation by applying a metabolomics approach. Sera from 11 acute graft rejection subjects and 16 non-acute graft rejection subjects were analyzed by a non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) metabolomics approach including both hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography separations. Discriminative metabolites of acute graft rejection after transplantation were detected including creatinine, kynurenine, uric acid, poly-unsaturated fatty acid, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, etc. The lower level of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was found in acute graft rejection group before transplantation. The results revealed comprehensive metabolic abnormalities in acute graft rejection. The findings are valuable for the clinic noninvasive diagnosis or therapy of acute graft rejection.
    Journal of Proteome Research 03/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, heterogeneous disorder, which produces in 5%-10% reproductive age women. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry is used to investigate serum metabolic characteristics of PCOS. PCOS women and healthy control can be clustered into two distinct groups based on multivariate statistical analysis. Significant increase in the levels of unsaturated free fatty acids, fatty acid amides, sulfated steroids, glycated amino acid and the decrease in levels of lysophosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines etc. were found. These metabolites showed abnormalities of lipid- and androgen-metabolism, increase of stearoyl -CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in PCOS patients. Based on the binary logistic regression model, free fatty acid (FFA) 18:1/FFA 18:0, FFA 20:3, dihydrotestosterone sulfate, glycated phenylalanine and uridine were combined as a diagnostic biomarker. The area under the curve (AUC) of combinational biomarker was 0.839 in 131 discovery phase samples, and 0.874 in 109 validation phase samples. The findings of our study offer a new insight to understand the pathogenesis mechanism, and the discriminating metabolites may provide a prospect for PCOS diagnosis.
    Journal of Proteome Research 01/2014; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sphingolipids are a family of bioactive molecules with high structural diversity and complexity. They not only serve as integral components of cellular membrane, but also play pivotal roles in signaling and other cellular events. It is desirable for the development of sensitive, robust and structural-specific analytical approaches enabling rapid determination of as many sphingolipid species as possible. Herein we present an analytical method for large-scaled profiling of sphigolipids in human serum, which consisted of an improved extraction protocol using tert-butyl methyl ether combined with mild alkaline hydrolysis, and an ultra high performance reversed-phase liquid chromatography-dynamic multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometric (RPLC-dynamic MRM-MS) method. In total 84 endogenous sphingolipid species covering six subcategories (i.e. free sphingoid base, dihydroceramide, ceramide, hexosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and sphingomyelin), were separated and quantified in a single run within 10min. A broad linear range over 2.5-4 orders of magnitude (r(2)>0.99), a limit of detection of 0.01-0.17pmol/mL, and a limit of quantitation of 0.02-0.42pmol/mL were obtained for each subcategory. Average recovery of each subcategory was within 85.6-95.6%. Median values of coefficient of variation (CV) of all detected 84 sphingolipids were 3.9% and 6.8% for intraday and interday precision, respectively. This method was exemplarily applied in a study regarding dysregulated sphingolipid homeostasis in hepatocellular carcinoma. The establishment of this method provides a useful tool for serum-based high throughput screening of sphingolipid biomarkers and mechanism investigation of sphingolipid metabolic regulation in human disease.
    Journal of chromatography. A 10/2013; · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, an ultra fast LC/IT-TOF MS (UFLC/IT-TOF MS)-based serum lipidomics method was employed to characterize the serum lipid profile of patients with chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). After data collection and processing, 96 lipids including lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, triacylglycerides, and cholesterol esters were identified and used for subsequent data analysis. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis revealed that patients with liver diseases had distinctly different serum lipid profile from that of healthy controls; while cirrhosis and HCC patients had a similar serum lipid profile, but different from that of hepatitis patients. The ANOVA analysis found 75 of the 96 identified lipids to be abnormally regulated, among which most of these lipids were downregulated in cirrhosis and HCC patients compared with those of healthy controls and hepatitis patients, while hepatitis patients induced several lipids downregulated and others upregulated compared with those of healthy controls, indicating the aberrant lipid metabolism in patients with liver diseases. This work demonstrated the utility of UFLC/IT-TOF MS-based serum lipidomics as a powerful tool to investigate the lipid metabolism of liver diseases.
    Electrophoresis 10/2013; 34(19):2848-56. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A common challenge for scientists working with animal tissue or human biopsy samples is the limitation of material and consequently, the difficulty to perform comprehensive metabolic profiling within one experiment. Here, we present a novel approach to simultaneously perform targeted and non-targeted metabolomics as well as lipidomics from one small piece of liver or muscle tissue by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS) following a methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-based extraction. Equal relative amounts of the resulting polar and non-polar fractions were pooled, evaporated and reconstituted in the appropriate solvent for UHPLC/MS analysis. This mix was comparable or superior in yield and reproducibility to a standard 80% methanol extraction for the profiling of polar and lipophilic metabolites (free carnitine, acylcarnitines and FFA). The mix was also suitable for non-targeted metabolomics, an easy measure to increase the metabolite coverage by 30% relative to using the polar fraction alone. Lipidomics was performed from an aliquot of the non-polar fraction. This novel strategy could successfully be applied to one mouse soleus muscle with a dry weight of merely 2.5mg. By enabling a simultaneous profiling of lipids and metabolites with mixed polarity while saving material for molecular, biochemical or histological analyses, our approach may open up new perspectives toward a comprehensive investigation of small, valuable tissue samples.
    Journal of chromatography. A 05/2013; · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context:Acylcarnitines are biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation and mitochondrial lipid overload but indicate also high rates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. It is unknown whether the production of acylcarnitines in primary human myotubes obtained from lean, metabolically healthy subjects reflects the fat oxidation in vivo.Objective:Our objective was to quantify the acylcarnitine production in myotubes obtained from subjects with low and high fasting respiratory quotient (RQ).Methods:Fasting RQ was determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken from 6 subjects with low fasting RQ (mean 0.79 ± 0.03) and 6 with high fasting RQ (0.90 ± 0.03), and satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Myotubes were cultivated with 125μM (13)C-labeled palmitate for 30 minutes and 4 and 24 hours. Quantitative profiling of 42 intracellular and 31 extracellular acylcarnitines was performed by stable isotope dilution-based metabolomics analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.Results:Myotubes from donors with high fasting RQ produced and released significant higher amounts of medium-chain acylcarnitines. High (13)C8 and (13)C10 acylcarnitine levels in the extracellular compartment correlated with high fasting RQ. The decreased expression of medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) in these myotubes can explain the higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. A lower intracellular [(13)C]acetylcarnitine to carnitine and lower intracellular (13)C16/(13)C18 acylcarnitine to carnitine ratio indicate reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity in these myotubes. Mitochondrial DNA content was not different.Conclusion:Acylcarnitine production and release from primary human myotubes of donors with high fasting RQ indicate a reduced fatty acid oxidation capacity and a higher rate of incomplete fatty acid oxidation. Thus, quantitative profiling of acylcarnitine production in human myotubes can be a suitable tool to identify muscular determinants of fat oxidation in vivo.
    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 04/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations of complex metabolic mechanisms and networks have become a focus of research in the post-genomic area, thereby creating an increasing demand for sophisticated analytical approaches. One such tool are lipidomics analyses that provide a detailed picture of the lipid composition of a system at a given time. Introducing stable isotopes into the studied system can additionally provide information on the synthesis, transformation and degradation of individual lipid species. Capturing the entire dynamics of lipid networks, however, is still a challenge. We developed and evaluated a novel strategy for the in-depth analysis of the dynamics of lipid metabolism with the capacity for high molecular specificity and network coverage. The general workflow consists of stable isotope-labeling experiments, ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-high resolution Orbitrap-MS lipid profiling and data processing by a software tool for global isotopomer filtering and matching. As a proof of concept, this approach was applied to the network-wide mapping of dynamic lipid metabolism in primary human skeletal muscle cells cultured for 4, 12 and 24 h with [U-13C]-palmitate. In the myocellular lipid extracts 692 isotopomers were detected that could be assigned to 203 labeled lipid species spanning 12 lipid (sub-) classes. Interestingly, some lipid classes showed high turnover rates but stable total amounts while the amount of others increased in the course of palmitate treatment. The novel strategy presented here has the potential to open new detailed insights into the dynamics of lipid metabolism that may lead to a better understanding of physiological mechanisms and metabolic perturbations.
    Analytical Chemistry 03/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is a powerful tool that is increasingly used in clinical research. Although excellent sample quality is essential, it can easily be compromised by undetected preanalytical errors. We set out to identify critical preanalytical steps and biomarkers that reflect preanalytical inaccuracies.METHODS: We systematically investigated the effects of preanalytical variables (blood collection tubes, hemolysis, temperature and time before further processing, and number of freeze-thaw cycles) on metabolomics studies of clinical blood and plasma samples using a nontargeted LC-MS approach.RESULTS: Serum and heparinate blood collection tubes led to chemical noise in the mass spectra. Distinct, significant changes of 64 features in the EDTA-plasma metabolome were detected when blood was exposed to room temperature for 2, 4, 8, and 24 h. The resulting pattern was characterized by increases in hypoxanthine and sphingosine 1-phosphate (800% and 380%, respectively, at 2 h). In contrast, the plasma metabolome was stable for up to 4 h when EDTA blood samples were immediately placed in iced water. Hemolysis also caused numerous changes in the metabolic profile. Unexpectedly, up to 4 freeze-thaw cycles only slightly changed the EDTA-plasma metabolome, but increased the individual variability.CONCLUSIONS: Nontargeted metabolomics investigations led to the following recommendations for the preanalytical phase: test the blood collection tubes, avoid hemolysis, place whole blood immediately in ice water, use EDTA plasma, and preferably use nonrefrozen biobank samples. To exclude outliers due to preanalytical errors, inspect the biomarker signal intensities reflecting systematic as well as accidental and preanalytical inaccuracies before processing the bioinformatics data.
    Clinical Chemistry 02/2013; · 7.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a non-hypothesis driven metabolomics approach plasma samples collected at six different time points (before, during and after an exercise bout) were analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS). Since independent component analysis (ICA) does not need a priori information on the investigated process and moreover can separate statistically independent source signals with non-Gaussian distribution, we aimed to elucidate the analytical power of ICA for the metabolic pattern analysis and the identification of key metabolites in this exercise study. A novel approach based on descriptive statistics was established to optimize ICA model. In the GC-TOF MS data set the number of principal components after whitening and the number of independent components of ICA were optimized and systematically selected by descriptive statistics. The elucidated dominating independent components were involved in fuel metabolism, representing one of the most affected metabolic changes occurring in exercising humans. Conclusive time dependent physiological changes of the metabolic pattern under exercise conditions were detected. We conclude that after optimization ICA can successfully elucidate key metabolite pattern as well as characteristic metabolites in metabolic processes thereby simplifying the explanation of complex biological processes. Moreover, ICA is capable to study time series in complex experiments with multi-levels and multi-factors.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 07/2012; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute graft rejection is one of the most common and serious post complications in renal transplantation, noninvasive diagnosis of acute graft rejection is essential for reducing risk of surgery and timely treatment. In this study, a non-targeted metabonomics approach based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) is used to investigate the effect of acute graft rejection in rat renal transplantation on metabolism. To collect more metabolite information both hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography were used. Using the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, we found that the change of metabonome in a sham-operated group and a non-graft rejection group had a similar trend, while that of the acute graft rejection group was clearly different. Several discriminating metabolites of the acute graft rejection were identified, including creatinine, phosphatidyl-cholines, lyso-phosphatidylcholines, carnitine C16:0, free fatty acids and indoxyl sulfate etc. These discriminating metabolites suggested that acute graft rejection in renal transplantation can lead to the accumulation of creatinine in the body, and also the abnormal metabolism of phospholipids. These findings are useful to understand the mechanisms of the rejection, it also means that a UPLC-MS metabonomic approach is a suitable tool to investigate the metabolic abnormality in the acute graft rejection in renal transplantation.
    Molecular BioSystems 03/2012; 8(3):871-8. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to find the potential biomarkers from the rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) disease model by using a non-target metabolomics method, and test their usefulness in early human HCC diagnosis. The serum metabolic profiling of the diethylnitrosamine-induced rat HCC model, which presents a stepwise histopathological progression that is similar to human HCC, was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate data analysis methods were utilized to identify the potential biomarkers. Three metabolites, taurocholic acid, lysophosphoethanolamine 16:0, and lysophosphatidylcholine 22:5, were defined as "marker metabolites," which can be used to distinguish the different stages of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. These metabolites represented the abnormal metabolism during the progress of hepatocarcinogenesis, which could also be found in patients. To test their diagnosis potential 412 sera from 262 patients with HCC, 76 patients with cirrhosis and 74 patients with chronic hepatitis B were collected and studied, it was found that 3 marker metabolites were effective for the discrimination of small liver tumor (solitary nodules of less than 2 cm in diameter) patients, achieved a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 80.1%,which is better than those of α-fetoprotein (53 and 64%, respectively). Moreover, they were also effective for the discrimination of all HCCs and chronic liver disease patients, which could achieve a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 72.3%, better than those of α-fetoprotein (61.2 and 64%). These results indicate metabolomics method has the potential of finding biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HCC.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 11/2011; 11(2):M111.010694. · 7.25 Impact Factor
  • 7th International Conference of the Metabolomics Society; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most commonly encountered cancer and fourth cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. Abundant studies have demonstrated that one of the best effective therapies for enhancing the 5-year survival rate of patients is to diagnose the disease at an early stage. Urine metabonomics is widely being utilized as an efficient platform to investigate the metabolic changes and discover the potential biomarkers of malignant diseases. In this study both ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and online affinity solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC) were used to analyze the urinary metabolites from 34 healthy volunteers, 34 benign colorectal tumor and 50 colorectal carcinoma patients to produce comprehensive metabolic profiling data. A reliable separation between the control and disease groups as well as significantly changed metabolites were obtained from orthogonal signal correction partial least squares models which were built based on the two separate data sets from UPLC-MS and affinity SPE-HPLC, respectively. 15 metabolites, showing the metabolic disorders of CRC, were identified finally. These metabolites were found to be related to glutamine metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, nucleotide biosynthesis and protein metabolism.
    Molecular BioSystems 10/2010; 6(10):1947-55. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) which precedes overt type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for decades is associated with multiple metabolic alterations in insulin sensitive tissues. In an UPLC-qTOF-mass spectrometry-driven non-targeted metabonomics approach we investigated plasma as well as spot urine of 51 non-diabetic, overnight fasted individuals aiming to separate subjects with IGT from controls thereby identify pathways affected by the pre-diabetic metabolic state. We could clearly demonstrate that normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and IGT subjects clustered in two distinct groups independent of the investigated metabonome. These findings reflect considerable differences in individual metabolite fingerprints, both in plasma and urine. Pre-diabetes associated alterations in fatty acid-, tryptophan-, uric acid-, bile acid-, and lysophosphatidylcholine-metabolism, as well as the TCA cycle were identified. Of note, individuals with IGT also showed decreased levels of gut flora-associated metabolites namely hippuric acid, methylxanthine, methyluric acid, and 3-hydroxyhippuric acid. The findings of our non-targeted UPLC-qTOF-MS metabonomics analysis in plasma and spot urine of individuals with IGT vs NGT offers novel insights into the metabolic alterations occurring in the long, asymptomatic period preceding the manifestation of T2DM thereby giving prospects for new intervention targets. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0203-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Metabolomics 09/2010; 6(3):362-374. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise is an extreme physiological challenge for skeletal muscle energy metabolism and has notable health benefits. We aimed to identify and characterize metabolites, which are components of the regulatory network mediating the beneficial metabolic adaptation to exercise. First, we investigated plasma from healthy human subjects who completed two independent running studies under moderate, predominantly aerobic conditions. Samples obtained prior to and immediately after running and then 3 and 24 h into the recovery phase were analyzed by a non-targeted (NT-) metabolomics approach applying liquid chromatography-qTOF-mass spectrometry. Under these conditions medium and long chain acylcarnitines were found to be the most discriminant plasma biomarkers of moderately intense exercise. Immediately after a 60 min (at 93% V(IAT)) or a 120 min run (at 70% V(IAT)) a pronounced, transient increase dominated by octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine was observed. The release of acylcarnitines as intermediates of partial beta-oxidation was verified in skeletal muscle cell culture experiments by probing (13)C-palmitate metabolism. Further investigations in primary human myotubes and mouse muscle tissue revealed that octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine were able to support the oxidation of palmitate, proving more effective than L-carnitine. Medium chain acylcarnitines were identified and characterized by a functional metabolomics approach as the dominating biomarkers during a moderately intense exercise bout possessing the power to support fat oxidation. This physiological production and efflux of acylcarnitines might exert beneficial biological functions in muscle tissue.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(7):e11519. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • 5th Shanghai International Symposium on Analytical Chemistry; 01/2010
  • 58th Annual Conference on Mass Spectrometry,Japan & 1st Asian and Oceanic Mass Spectrometry Conference; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Endurance exercise induces lipolysis, increases circulating concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids in the working muscle. Less is known about the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver during and post-exercise. We performed an ultra fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) based lipidomics analysis of liver tissue samples obtained from C57Bl/6J mice immediately after a 60 min treadmill run of moderate intensity, and after 3 h of recovery. The PLS-DA scores plot for 115 quantified lipid molecular species revealed a clear separation of the hepatic lipid profile of sedentary from recovering mice, but not from mice immediately after running. 21 lipid species were considered to be most responsible for the difference in the hepatic lipid profiles, including 17 triacylglycerides (TG), one lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and three phosphatidylcholines (PC). TG species were found to be more abundant in the recovery phase, while PC species were decreased. The degree of accumulation of individual TG species correlated well with the amount of theoretical energy stored whereas no increase was found for TG species containing only saturated or one monounsaturated fatty acid. Total liver TG content as assayed by an enzymatic method was increased to 163% in the recovery phase, while it was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle by the exercise bout and remained less in the recovery phase. Results from fasted and refed mice indicate that fasting-induced lipolysis was associated with a pronounced accumulation of hepatic TG, which is reversed by refeeding for 5 h. Thus food intake per se did not elevate hepatic TG. These data indicate that high availability of FFA induced by endurance exercise or fasting resulted in a transient hepatic TG accumulation, while muscle TG content was decreased during exercise presumably due to increased muscle fatty acid oxidation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13318. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A decline in body insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy individuals indicates a high risk to develop type 2 diabetes. Investigating the metabolic fingerprints of individuals with different whole body insulin sensitivity according to the formula of Matsuda, et al. (ISI(Matsuda)) by a non-targeted metabolomics approach we aimed a) to figure out an unsuspicious and altered metabolic pattern, b) to estimate a threshold related to these changes based on the ISI, and c) to identify the metabolic pathways responsible for the discrimination of the two patterns. By applying infusion ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry, we analyzed plasma of 46 non-diabetic subjects exhibiting high to low insulin sensitivities. The orthogonal partial least square model revealed a cluster of 28 individuals with alterations in their metabolic fingerprints associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity. This group could be separated from 18 subjects with an unsuspicious metabolite pattern. The orthogonal signal correction score scatter plot suggests a threshold of an ISI(Matsuda) of 15 for the discrimination of these two groups. Of note, a potential subgroup represented by eight individuals (ISI(Matsuda) value between 8.5 and 15) was identified in different models. This subgroup may indicate a metabolic transition state, since it is already located within the cluster of individuals with declined insulin sensitivity but the metabolic fingerprints still show some similarities with unaffected individuals (ISI >15). Moreover, the highest number of metabolite intensity differences between unsuspicious and altered metabolic fingerprints was detected in lipid metabolic pathways (arachidonic acid metabolism, metabolism of essential fatty acids and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids), steroid hormone biosyntheses and bile acid metabolism, based on data evaluation using the metabolic annotation interface MassTRIX. Our results suggest that altered metabolite patterns that reflect changes in insulin sensitivity respectively the ISI(Matsuda) are dominated by lipid-related pathways. Furthermore, a metabolic transition state reflected by heterogeneous metabolite fingerprints may precede severe alterations of metabolism. Our findings offer future prospects for novel insights in the pathogenesis of the pre-diabetic phase.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13317. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • The Metabolomics conference 2010; 01/2010

Publication Stats

500 Citations
133.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2013
    • Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics
      Lü-ta-shih, Liaoning, China
  • 2012
    • Xinjiang Medical University
      Ouroumtchi, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, China
  • 2006–2012
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2011
    • Second Military Medical University, Shanghai
      • International Cooperation Laboratory on Signal Transduction
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2010
    • Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung
      • Department Ökologische Chemie
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany