Harushi Udagawa

Toranomon Hospital, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (132)166 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous gastric perforation in the absence of chemotherapy is extremely rare. The authors encountered a case of spontaneous perforation of primary gastric lymphoma. A 58-year-old man visited the authors' hospital with acute severe epigastralgia. A large amount of free gas and a fluid collection around the stomach were noted on an abdominal computed tomography scan. The results of imaging studies indicated a perforated gastric ulcer, and a distal gastrectomy was performed. There was a large perforation about 50 mm in diameter in the anterior wall of the middle part of the stomach body. Microscopically, the full thickness of the gastric wall was diffusely infiltrated by a population of large atypical lymphoid cells. The lymphoid nature of these cells was indicated by the strongly positive immunohistochemical staining for CD20 and CD10. This confirmed the diagnosis of a germinal center B-cell-like type of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone were administered after the operation. Gastrectomy should be considered if a giant ulcer with necrotic matter on the ulcer floor is seen on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of the possibility of gastric perforation. If upper gastrointestinal endoscopy shows a finding similar to the abovementioned one during chemotherapy, dose reduction of chemotherapy or gastrectomy should be considered.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2015; 13(1). DOI:10.1186/s12957-015-0458-0
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    ABSTRACT: Although laparoscopic radical gastrectomy has several advantages over conventional surgery, postoperative liver dysfunction is an unwanted complication. The major cause is considered to be use of mechanical liver retraction. To prevent liver damage after laparoscopic gastrectomy, we modified the liver retraction method: the retractor was used only after lymph node dissection along the greater curvature had been completed, and it was released before reconstruction and intermittent repositioning to avoid discoloration of the liver parenchyma. This study sought to determine whether postoperative liver dysfunction could be prevented by making these simple modifications. In this retrospective study involving 114 laparoscopic gastrectomy patients, postoperative serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin levels were compared between laparoscopic gastrectomy patients who had undergone the modified procedure and those who had not. Discoloration of the liver was classified into three groups just before the retractor was released at the end of surgery. Aspartate aminotransferase and ALT levels on postoperative days 1 and 2 and the proportion of patients with elevated aspartate aminotransferase or ALT levels on postoperative day 1 were significantly lower after the modifications. ALT level on postoperative day 1 was significantly higher in the subgroup with broad liver discoloration. Reducing the duration of liver retraction and moving the position of the retractor or releasing it intermittently before discoloration of the liver parenchyma may be effective for preventing postoperative liver damage. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
    Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery 06/2015; DOI:10.1111/ases.12200
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    ABSTRACT: Inguinal hernias account for 75 % of abdominal wall hernias, with a lifetime risk of 27 % in men and 3 % in women. Major complications are recurrence, chronic pain, and surgical site infection, but their frequency is low. Few studies have reported a calcified mesh causing neuropathy by chronic compression of the femoral nerve after mesh & plug inguinal hernia repair. This is the first report of laparoscopic plug removal for femoral colic due to femoral nerve irritation cause by a calcified plug after mesh & plug inguinal hernia repair. In July 2013, a 53-year-old man presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of colic pain in the left lower limb while walking. The patient had undergone left inguinal hernia repair about 10 years earlier and reported no chronic pain after the operation. Physical examination revealed a colic pain exacerbated by left thigh movement, especially during flexion, but the patient was pain-free at rest and had no sensory loss. Axial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the inward-projecting plug was extremely close to the femoral nerve. Because of the radicular symptoms and the absence of orthopedic and urological disease, we strongly suspected that the neuralgia was associated with the previous hernia operation and advised exploratory laparotomy, which revealed the plug bulging inward into the abdominal cavity. Moreover, the tip of the plug was firmly calcified and compressing the femoral nerve, which lay just beneath the plug, especially during hip flexion. We explanted the plug and his pain resolved after the operation. The patient remains pain free after 20 months of follow up. In this study, laparoscopic hernioplasty proved useful for plug removal because laparoscopic instruments can easily grasp perilesional tissue, and laparoscopic approach has the benefit of isolating the plug for removal while preserving the onlay patch, and helpful for restoring peritoneal defects. Laparoscopic plug removal effectively resolved colic pain in the left thigh due to compression of the femoral nerve by a calcified plug.
    BMC Surgery 05/2015; 15(1):64. DOI:10.1186/s12893-015-0046-9
  • Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery 05/2015; 8(2). DOI:10.1111/ases.12185
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    ABSTRACT: We herein report a case of bronchial bleeding after radical esophagectomy that was treated with lobectomy. A 65-year-old male who underwent subtotal esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal carcinoma was referred to our hospital because of sudden hemoptysis. After the esophagectomy, bilateral vocal cord paralysis was observed, and the patient suffered from repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Bronchoscopy revealed hemosputum in the right middle lobe bronchus, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed tortuous arteries arising from the right inferior phrenic artery and left subclavian artery toward the right middle lobe bronchus. Although bronchial arterial embolization was performed twice to control the recurrent hemoptysis, the procedures were unsuccessful. Right middle lobectomy was therefore performed via video-assisted thoracic surgery. Engorged bronchial arterys with medial hypertrophy and overgrowth of the small branches were noted near the bronchus in the resected specimen. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged on postoperative day 14.
    03/2015; 21(11):3394-401. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3394
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    ABSTRACT: We herein report a case of bronchial bleeding after radical esophagectomy that was treated with lobectomy. A 65-year-old male who underwent subtotal esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal carcinoma was referred to our hospital because of sudden hemoptysis. After the esophagectomy, bilateral vocal cord paralysis was observed, and the patient suffered from repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Bronchoscopy revealed hemosputum in the right middle lobe bronchus, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed tortuous arteries arising from the right inferior phrenic artery and left subclavian artery toward the right middle lobe bronchus. Although bronchial arterial embolization was performed twice to control the recurrent hemoptysis, the procedures were unsuccessful. Right middle lobectomy was therefore performed via video-assisted thoracic surgery. Engorged bronchial arterys with medial hypertrophy and overgrowth of the small branches were noted near the bronchus in the resected specimen. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged on postoperative day 14.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2015; 21(11):3394-3401.
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2015; 220(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2015.02.037
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    ABSTRACT: Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is rapidly and increasingly being used worldwide because it is a less invasive alternative to open esophagectomy. However, few prospective multicenter studies have evaluated its safety profile. This study aimed to evaluate the safety profile of thoracoscopic esophagectomy using perioperative data from the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study (JCOG0502). JCOG0502 is a four-arm prospective study comparing esophagectomy with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer, with randomized and patient preference arms. Patients with clinical stage T1bN0M0 esophageal cancer were enrolled until patient accrual was completed. Open or thoracoscopic esophagectomy was selected at the surgeon's discretion. Perioperative complications were defined as adverse events of ≥grade 2 as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 3.0. A total of 379 patients were enrolled between December 2006 and February 2013. Of the 210 patients who underwent surgery, 109 patients underwent open esophagectomy, and 101 patients underwent thoracoscopic esophagectomy. Although thoracoscopic esophagectomy decreased the incidence of postoperative atelectasis (open: 22.0 %, thoracoscopy: 10.9 %; P = 0.041), reoperation was more frequent in the thoracoscopy group (open: 1.8 %, thoracoscopy: 9.9 %; P = 0.016). The incidence of overall complications did not differ between the two groups (open: 44.0 %, thoracoscopy: 44.6 %; P = 1.00). There was one in-hospital death in each group (open: 0.9 %, thoracoscopy: 1.0 %; P = 1.00). Thoracoscopic esophagectomy is a safe procedure with morbidity and mortality comparable with those of open esophagectomy. However, it is associated with a higher frequency of reoperation.
    Surgical Endoscopy 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00464-015-4102-4
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The current literature wound suggest that patients with gastric cancer who have a previous history of ligation of the splenic artery undergo total gastrectomy. However, an analysis of the risk factors for postoperative complications in elderly patients showed a higher rate of morbidities for total gastrectomy compared to subtotal gastrectomy. Case Report: We herein report a rare case of successful distal gastrectomy in a 78-year-old female diagnosed with gastric cancer with a previous history of distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy, because an adequate blood flow was provided by the fundic branches from the left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA). Preoperative computed tomography demonstrated a ligated splenic artery and left gastric artery with developed fundic branches from the left inferior phrenic artery. The intraoperative findings showed a sufficient blood flow to the proximal stomach after ligation of all main gastric arteries, thus suggesting that the gastric remnant could be supplied by the fundic branches from the LIPA. The patient’s postoperative course was un-eventful. Conclusion: This case suggests that a distal gastrectomy is a possible treatment modality even after distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 11/2014; 61(135):34-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The current literature would suggest that patients with gastric cancer who have a previous history of ligation of the splenic artery undergo total gastrectomy. However, an analysis of the risk factors for postoperative complications in elderly patients showed a higher rate of morbidities for total gastrectomy compared to subtotal gastrectomy. Case Report: We herein report a rare case of successful distal gastrectomy in a 78-year-old female diagnosed with gastric cancer with a previous history of distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy, because an adequate blood flow was provided by the fundic branches from the left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA). Preoperative computed tomography demonstrated a ligated splenic artery and left gastric artery with developed fundic branches from the LIPA. The intraoperative findings showed a sufficient blood flow to the proximal stomach after ligation of all main gastric arteries, thus suggesting that the gastric remnant could be supplied by the fundic branches from the LIPA. The patient’s postoperative course was un- eventful. Conclusion: This case suggests that a distal gastrectomy is a possible treatment modality even after distal pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy.
    Hepato-gastroenterology 11/2014; 61(135):34-36. DOI:10.5754/hge14603
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    ABSTRACT: Objective In the present TNM classification, involvement of supraclavicular nodes is defined as distant metastases. However, the therapeutic value of supraclavicular node dissection remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival benefit of dissection of metastases to the supraclavicular lymph nodes in patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma, based on a large nationwide registry of esophageal cancer maintained by the Japanese Esophageal Society. Methods The study group comprised 1309 patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated in 2001, 2002, and 2003, who underwent esophagectomy with three-field dissection for curative intent, and in whom the locations of pathological metastatic lymph nodes and outcome evaluations were available. Results Of 1309 patients, 559 patients (42.7%) had no nodal metastases, 560 (42.8%) had at least one positive node, but were supraclavicular node-negative, and 190 (14.5%) had supraclavicular node metastases. The 5-year survival was 73.7% for N0 patients, 40.4% for node-positive patients without supraclavicular node disease, and 24.1% for patients with supraclavicular node metastasis. In a multivariate analysis, male sex (P < 0.001), deeper T category (P < 0.001), and more positive nodes (P < 0.001) retained statistical significance as adverse prognostic factors for overall survival. Supraclavicular node metastasis was not significant (P=0.062). Conclusions The survival benefit of dissection of metastases to the supraclavicular lymph nodes was indicated in patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma. Supraclavicular nodes appear to be regional nodes similar to other regional nodes.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 10/2014; 148(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.02.008
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the vascular and lymphatic distribution of the pyloric antrum in the stomach. We focused on the infrapyloric region containing the infrapyloric artery (IPA) and lymph nodes.
    Gastric Cancer 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10120-014-0424-5
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    ABSTRACT: The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on approaches to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of esophageal cancer in Europe, South Africa, Kenya, Australia, and China; the molecular classification of esophageal cancers (including cancers at the gastroesophageal junction); the Japanese classification; the scope of the Human Variome Project; and the topographic–anatomic subclassification of adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2014; 1325(1). DOI:10.1111/nyas.12522
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    ABSTRACT: The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on the evolution of Barrett's dysplasia to early cancer; the early detection of esophageal cancer in China; new technologies of treatment for dysplasia; the prognostic value of molecular markers expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; the follow-up schedule after ablation of high-grade dysplasia; intramucosal cancers; and tubular widespread endoscopic esophageal submucosal dissection with high-dose steroid stricture prevention.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2014; 1325(1). DOI:10.1111/nyas.12527
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    ABSTRACT: Thermal injuries of the esophagus are rare causes of benign esophageal stricture, and all published cases were successfully treated with conservative management. A 28-year-old Japanese man with a thermal esophageal injury caused by drinking a cup of hot coffee six months earlier was referred to our hospital. The hot coffee was consumed in a single gulp at a party. Although the patient had been treated conservatively at another hospital, his symptoms of dysphagia gradually worsened after discharge. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a pinhole like area of stricture located 19 cm distally from the incisors to the esophagogastric junction, as well as circumferential stenosis with notable wall thickness at the same site. The patient underwent a thoracoscopic esophageal resection with reconstruction using ileocolon interposition. The pathological findings revealed wall thickening along the entire length of the esophagus, with massive fibrosis extending to the muscularis propria and adventitia at almost all levels. Treatment with balloon dilation for long areas of stricture is generally difficult, and stent placement in patients with benign esophageal stricture, particularly young patients, is not yet widely accepted due to the incidence of late adverse events. Considering the curability and quality-of-life associated with a long expected prognosis, we determined that surgery was the best treatment option for this young patient. In this case, we decided to perform an esophagectomy and reconstruction with ileocolon interposition in order to preserve the reservoir function of the stomach and to avoid any problems related to the reflux of gastric contents. In conclusion, resection of the esophagus is a treatment option in patients with benign esophageal injury, especially in cases involving young patients with refractory esophageal stricture. In addition, ileocolon interposition may help to improve the quality-of-life of patients.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2014; 20(27):9205-09. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i27.9205
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although dissection of mediastinal lymph nodes along the thoracic duct is included in standard radical esophagectomy, it is not routinely performed because of the undesirable hemodynamic effects. This study aims to investigate whether dissection of the nodes along the thoracic duct has prognostic benefits. Methods A total of 778 consecutive patients who underwent radical esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection for squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus from 1984 to 2011 were included. The incidence of metastasis in thoracic duct nodes and that in nodes within #112 station excluding thoracic duct nodes were studied in relation to the depth of the main tumor. The survival curves of lymph node-positive patients were compared. Results The metastatic incidence was 2.2 % in T1b/T2, whereas it was 10.0 % in T3/T4. The survival curves in patients with metastasis in the thoracic duct nodes and in the #112 station were not statistically different. Conclusion The dissection of the nodes along the thoracic duct along with thoracic duct resection should be performed routinely; however, reliable indicator of the necessity of its dissection is awaited in T1b/T2 tumors because of the low metastatic rate and the potential risk associated with resection of the thoracic duct.
    Esophagus 07/2014; 11(3):204-210. DOI:10.1007/s10388-014-0433-9
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    ABSTRACT: Lung metastasectomy has become an effective treatment for selected patients with colorectal cancer, renal cancer, and other malignancies; however, limited experience has been reported regarding pulmonary metastasectomy for esophageal carcinoma. We reviewed 23 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy and investigated their long-term prognosis and prognostic factors. A total of 23 patients who underwent 30 curative pulmonary metastasectomies at Toranomon Hospital, Japan, between 2001 and 2011 were included. Four patients underwent repeated metastasectomy. The overall survival rate was examined by the Kaplan-Meier method and various characteristics were assessed by univariate analysis to identify prognostic factors. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rate was 82.6, 46, and 34.1 %, respectively. Median follow-up was 37.4 months (range 1-114 months). Univariate analysis revealed a history of extrapulmonary metastases before pulmonary metastasectomy, poorly differentiated primary esophageal carcinoma, and short disease-free interval (DFI) as unfavorable prognostic factors. Five patients who underwent repeated metastasectomy for recurrent pulmonary metastases survived a mean 58 months (range 24-114 months). The other patients survived a mean 29.4 months (range 1-109 months). Pulmonary resection for lung metastases from esophageal carcinoma should be considered in selected patients, and repeated metastasectomy should be encouraged. Extrapulmonary metastases before pulmonary metastasectomy, poor differentiation of primary esophageal carcinoma, and short DFI are unfavorable prognostic factors. Due to poor prognosis, metastasectomy in patients with these factors should be more carefully considered before being indicated.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; DOI:10.1245/s10434-014-3677-7
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    ABSTRACT: Esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer is a highly invasive procedure. Most studies analyzing the risk factors for pulmonary morbidity were conducted in the early 1990s. However, previous studies did not use fixed diagnostic criteria for postoperative pneumonia and reported widely varying onset frequencies.To define postoperative pneumonia diagnostic criteria, clarify the onset frequency of postoperative pneumonia after esophagectomy in accordance with these criteria, and investigate the risk factors of postoperative pneumonia.Risk factors for postoperative pneumonia were analyzed in 615 patients who underwent esophagectomy between January 2006 and December 2007 at 7 Japanese institutions using logistic regression models. The necessary criterion for a pneumonia diagnosis was an infiltrative shadow on a chest radiograph. Furthermore, a pneumonia diagnosis was based on the presence of at least 2 of the following 3 criteria: white blood count abnormalities, body temperature of 38 °C or higher, and purulent sputum.Overall, 615 patients were statistically analyzed. Pneumonia onset occurred in 66 cases (10.7 %). The risk of postoperative pneumonia was associated with a preoperative body weight loss of 5 % or more and late tracheal tube extubation.This study revealed that preoperative body weight loss increased the risk of postoperative pneumonia after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer, while early-stage tracheal tube extubation reduced the risk.
    Esophagus 04/2014; 11(2). DOI:10.1007/s10388-014-0423-y
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the use of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric submucosal tumor (gSMT) and the development of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) have enabled either preservation of the stomach or minimization of the extent of partial resection. In the present study, the outcomes following the recent introduction of LECS for gSMT are presented. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of LECS for gSMT, including esophagogastric junction (EGJ) SMT. LECS is indicated for lesions that have an intragastric growth pattern, or for which fundusectomy can be avoided despite an extragastric growth pattern. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of LECS carried out in 25 patients including five EGJ SMT. Surgery was completed achieving an R0 resection rate of 100% with no postoperative complications. Mean tumor sizewas 32.3 ± 13.5 mm and mean resected specimen size was 37.6 ± 13.5 mm. Resection margins were tumor-free in all cases, with adequate minimum surgical margins, and precise conclusive diagnosis was achieved with perfect operative specimens. Endoscopic confirmation of the EGJ enabled the extent of resection to be minimized and the stomach to be preserved, avoiding fundusectomy. Although there were significant differences in tumor size and resected specimen size between EGJ SMT and non-EGJ SMT, there were no significant differences in outcomes of the LECS procedure. LECS is feasible and safe for cases with gSMT including lesions adjacent to the EGJ.
    Digestive Endoscopy 12/2013; 26(4). DOI:10.1111/den.12215
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    ABSTRACT: In totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, determining the resection line with safe proximal margins is often difficult, particularly for tumors located in a relatively upper area. This is because, in contrast to open surgery, identifying lesions by palpating or opening the stomach is essentially impossible. This study introduces a useful method of tumor identification that is accurate, safe, and rapid. On the operation day, after inducing general anesthesia, a mixture of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue is injected into the submucosal layer of the proximal margin. When resecting stomach, all marker spots should be on the resected side. In all cases, the proximal margin is examined histologically by using frozen sections during the operation. From October 2009 to September 2011, a prospective study that evaluated this method was performed. A total of 34 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Approximately 5 min was required to complete the procedure. Proximal margins were negative in all cases, and the mean ± standard deviation length of the proximal margin was 23.5 ± 12.8 mm. No side effects, such as allergy, were encountered. As a method of tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, this procedure appears accurate, safe, and rapid.
    Surgical Endoscopy 11/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00464-013-3319-3