[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), impaired Aβ removal contributes to elevated extracellular Aβ levels that drive amyloid plaque pathogenesis. Extracellular proteolysis, export across the blood-brain barrier, and cellular uptake facilitate physiologic Aβ clearance. Astrocytes can take up and degrade Aβ, but it remains unclear whether this function is insufficient in AD or can be enhanced to accelerate Aβ removal. Additionally, age-related dysfunction of lysosomes, the major degradative organelles wherein Aβ localizes after uptake, has been implicated in amyloid plaque pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that enhancing lysosomal function in astrocytes with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis, would promote Aβ uptake and catabolism and attenuate plaque pathogenesis. Exogenous TFEB localized to the nucleus with transcriptional induction of lysosomal biogenesis and function in vitro. This resulted in significantly accelerated uptake of exogenously applied Aβ42, with increased localization to and degradation within lysosomes in C17.2 cells and primary astrocytes, indicating that TFEB is sufficient to coordinately enhance uptake, trafficking, and degradation of Aβ. Stereotactic injection of adeno-associated viral particles carrying TFEB driven by a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter was used to achieve astrocyte-specific expression in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Exogenous TFEB localized to astrocyte nuclei and enhanced lysosome function, resulting in reduced Aβ levels and shortened half-life in the brain interstitial fluid and reduced amyloid plaque load in the hippocampus compared with control virus-injected mice. Therefore, activation of TFEB in astrocytes is an effective strategy to restore adequate Aβ removal and counter amyloid plaque pathogenesis in AD.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2014; 34(29):9607-20. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging paradigms mandate discovery of imaging agents for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to appearance of clinical symptoms. To accomplish this objective, a novel heterocyclic molecule (4) was synthesized and validated as Aβ targeted probe. The agent shows labeling of numerous diffuse Aβ plaques in confirmed AD human brain tissues and traverses the blood-brain barrier to enable labeling of parenchymal Aβ plaques in live mice (APP(±)/PS1(±)) brains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An unresolved debate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is whether amyloid plaques are pathogenic, causing overt physical disruption of neural circuits, or protective, sequestering soluble forms of amyloid-β (Aβ) that initiate synaptic damage and cognitive decline. Few animal models of AD have been capable of isolating the relative contribution made by soluble and insoluble forms of Aβ to the behavioral symptoms and biochemical consequences of the disease. Here we use a controllable transgenic mouse model expressing a mutant form of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to distinguish the impact of soluble Aβ from that of deposited amyloid on cognitive function and synaptic structure. Rapid inhibition of transgenic APP modulated the production of Aβ without affecting pre-existing amyloid deposits and restored cognitive performance to the level of healthy controls in Morris water maze, radial arm water maze, and fear conditioning. Selective reduction of Aβ with a γ-secretase inhibitor provided similar improvement, suggesting that transgene suppression restored cognition, at least in part by lowering Aβ. Cognitive improvement coincided with reduced levels of synaptotoxic Aβ oligomers, greater synaptic density surrounding amyloid plaques, and increased expression of presynaptic and postsynaptic markers. Together these findings indicate that transient Aβ species underlie much of the cognitive and synaptic deficits observed in this model and demonstrate that significant functional and structural recovery can be attained without removing deposited amyloid.
Journal of Neuroscience 06/2014; 34(23):7871-7885. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serotonin signaling suppresses generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in vitro and in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We show that in an aged transgenic AD mouse model (APP/PS1 plaque-bearing mice), the antidepressant citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, decreased Aβ in brain interstitial fluid in a dose-dependent manner. Growth of individual amyloid plaques was assessed in plaque-bearing mice that were chronically administered citalopram. Citalopram arrested the growth of preexisting plaques and reduced the appearance of new plaques by 78%. In healthy human volunteers, citalopram's effects on Aβ production and Aβ concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured prospectively using stable isotope labeling kinetics, with CSF sampling during acute dosing of citalopram. Aβ production in CSF was slowed by 37% in the citalopram group compared to placebo. This change was associated with a 38% decrease in total CSF Aβ concentrations in the drug-treated group. The ability to safely decrease Aβ concentrations is potentially important as a preventive strategy for AD. This study demonstrates key target engagement for future AD prevention trials.
Science translational medicine 05/2014; 6(236):236re4. · 14.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with an elevated risk for seizures that may be fundamentally connected to cognitive dysfunction. Supporting this link, many mouse models for AD exhibit abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in addition to the expected neuropathology and cognitive deficits. Here, we used a controllable transgenic system to investigate how network changes develop and are maintained in a model characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) overproduction and progressive amyloid pathology. EEG recordings in tet-off mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) from birth display frequent sharp wave discharges (SWDs). Unexpectedly, we found that withholding APP overexpression until adulthood substantially delayed the appearance of epileptiform activity. Together, these findings suggest that juvenile APP overexpression altered cortical development to favor synchronized firing. Regardless of the age at which EEG abnormalities appeared, the phenotype was dependent on continued APP overexpression and abated over several weeks once transgene expression was suppressed. Abnormal EEG discharges were independent of plaque load and could be extinguished without altering deposited amyloid. Selective reduction of Aβ with a γ-secretase inhibitor has no effect on the frequency of SWDs, indicating that another APP fragment or the full-length protein was likely responsible for maintaining EEG abnormalities. Moreover, transgene suppression normalized the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory innervation in the cortex, whereas secretase inhibition did not. Our results suggest that APP overexpression, and not Aβ overproduction, is responsible for EEG abnormalities in our transgenic mice and can be rescued independently of pathology.
Journal of Neuroscience 03/2014; 34(11):3826-40. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tau is primarily a cytoplasmic protein that stabilizes microtubules. However, it is also found in the extracellular space of the brain at appreciable concentrations. Although its presence there may be relevant to the intercellular spread of tau pathology, the cellular mechanisms regulating tau release into the extracellular space are not well understood. To test this in the context of neuronal networks in vivo, we used in vivo microdialysis. Increasing neuronal activity rapidly increased the steady-state levels of extracellular tau in vivo. Importantly, presynaptic glutamate release is sufficient to drive tau release. Although tau release occurred within hours in response to neuronal activity, the elimination rate of tau from the extracellular compartment and the brain is slow (half-life of ∼11 d). The in vivo results provide one mechanism underlying neuronal tau release and may link trans-synaptic spread of tau pathology with synaptic activity itself.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2014; · 13.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia in the elderly population. Accumulation, aggregation, and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides generated through proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are likely initiating events in the pathogenesis of AD. While Aβ production is accelerated in familial AD, increasing evidence indicates that impaired clearance of Aβ is responsible for late-onset AD. Because Aβ is mainly generated in neurons, these cells are predicted to have the highest risk of encountering Aβ among all cell types in the brain. However, it is still unclear whether they are also involved in Aβ clearance. Here we show that receptor-mediated endocytosis in neurons by the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) plays a critical role in brain Aβ clearance. LRP1 is known to be an endocytic receptor for multiple ligands including Aβ. Conditional knock-out of Lrp1 in mouse forebrain neurons leads to increased brain Aβ levels and exacerbated amyloid plaque deposition selectively in the cortex of amyloid model APP/PS1 mice without affecting Aβ production. In vivo microdialysis studies demonstrated that Aβ clearance in brain interstitial fluid is impaired in neuronal Lrp1 knock-out mice. Because the neuronal LRP1-deletion did not affect the mRNA levels of major Aβ degrading enzymes, neprilysin and insulin-degrading enzyme, the disturbed Aβ clearance is likely due to the suppression of LRP1-mediated neuronal Aβ uptake and degradation. Together, our results demonstrate that LRP1 plays an important role in receptor-mediated clearance of Aβ and indicate that neurons not only produce but also clear Aβ.
Journal of Neuroscience 12/2013; 33(49):19276-83. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in regard to both neurofibrillary tangle formation and neuronal network hyperexcitability. The genetic ablation of tau substantially reduces hyperexcitability in AD mouse lines, induced seizure models, and genetic in vivo models of epilepsy. These data demonstrate that tau is an important regulator of network excitability. However, developmental compensation in the genetic tau knock-out line may account for the protective effect against seizures. To test the efficacy of a tau reducing therapy for disorders with a detrimental hyperexcitability profile in adult animals, we identified antisense oligonucleotides that selectively decrease endogenous tau expression throughout the entire mouse CNS-brain and spinal cord tissue, interstitial fluid, and CSF-while having no effect on baseline motor or cognitive behavior. In two chemically induced seizure models, mice with reduced tau protein had less severe seizures than control mice. Total tau protein levels and seizure severity were highly correlated, such that those mice with the most severe seizures also had the highest levels of tau. Our results demonstrate that endogenous tau is integral for regulating neuronal hyperexcitability in adult animals and suggest that an antisense oligonucleotide reduction of tau could benefit those with epilepsy and perhaps other disorders associated with tau-mediated neuronal hyperexcitability.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2013; 33(31):12887-97. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The data reported in the Technical Comments by Fitz et al., Price et al., Tesseur et al., and Veeraraghavalu et al. replicate and validate our central conclusion that bexarotene stimulates the clearance of soluble β-amyloid peptides and results in the reversal of behavioral deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The basis of the inability to reproduce the drug-stimulated microglial-mediated reduction in plaque burden is unexplained. However, we concluded that plaque burden is functionally unrelated to improved cognition and memory elicited by bexarotene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The APOE4 allele variant is the strongest known genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The link between apolipoprotein E (apoE) and Alzheimer's disease is likely due in large part to the impact of apoE on the metabolism of amyloid beta (Abeta) within the brain. Manipulation of apoE levels and lipidation within the brain has been proposed as a therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, we know little about the dynamic regulation of apoE levels and lipidation within the central nervous system. We have developed an assay to measure apoE levels in the brain interstitial fluid of awake and freely moving mice using large molecular weight cut-off microdialysis probes. RESULTS: We were able to recover apoE using microdialysis from human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in vitro and mouse brain parenchyma in vivo. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the hippocampus of wild-type mice and interstitial fluid was collected for 36 hours. Levels of apoE within the microdialysis samples were determined by ELISA. The levels of apoE were found to be relatively stable over 36 hours. No apoE was detected in microdialysis samples from apoE KO mice. Administration of the RXR agonist bexarotene increased ISF apoE levels while ISF Abeta levels were decreased. Extrapolation to zero-flow analysis allowed us to determine the absolute recoverable concentration of apoE3 in the brain ISF of apoE3 KI mice. Furthermore, analysis of microdialysis samples by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis determined lipidated apoE particles in microdialysis samples were consistent in size with apoE particles from CSF. Finally, we found that the concentration of apoE in the brain ISF was dependent upon apoE isoform in human apoE knockin mice, following the pattern apoE2>apoE3>apoE4. CONCLUSIONS: We are able to collect lipidated apoE from the brain of awake and freely moving mice and monitor apoE levels over the course of several hours from a single mouse. Our technique enables assessment of brain apoE dynamics under physiological and pathophysiological conditions and in response to therapeutic interventions designed to affect apoE levels and lipidation within the brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accumulation of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) in amyloid plaques is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reactive astrocytes are intimately associated with amyloid plaques; however, their role in AD pathogenesis is unclear. We deleted the genes encoding two intermediate filament proteins required for astrocyte activation-glial fibrillary acid protein (Gfap) and vimentin (Vim)-in transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1). The gene deletions increased amyloid plaque load: APP/PS1 Gfap(-/-)Vim(-/-) mice had twice the plaque load of APP/PS1 Gfap(+/+)Vim(+/+) mice at 8 and 12 mo of age. APP expression and soluble and interstitial fluid Aβ levels were unchanged, suggesting that the deletions had no effect on APP processing or Aβ generation. Astrocyte morphology was markedly altered by the deletions: wild-type astrocytes had hypertrophied processes that surrounded and infiltrated plaques, whereas Gfap(-/-)Vim(-/-) astrocytes had little process hypertrophy and lacked contact with adjacent plaques. Moreover, Gfap and Vim gene deletion resulted in a marked increase in dystrophic neurites (2- to 3-fold higher than APP/PS1 Gfap(+/+)Vim(+/+) mice), even after normalization for amyloid load. These results suggest that astrocyte activation limits plaque growth and attenuates plaque-related dystrophic neurites. These activities may require intimate contact between astrocyte and plaque.-Kraft, A. W., Hu, X., Yoon, H., Yan, P., Xiao, Q., Wang, Y., Gil, S. C., Brown, J., Wilhelmsson, U., Restivo, J. L., Cirrito, J. R., Holtzman, D. M., Kim, J., Pekny, M., Lee, J.-M. Attenuating astrocyte activation accelerates plaque pathogenesis in APP/PS1 mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Although amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide deposition into insoluble plaques is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease; soluble oligomeric Aβ has been hypothesized to more directly underlie impaired learning and memory in dementia of the Alzheimer type. However, the lack of a sensitive, specific, and quantitative assay for Aβ oligomers has hampered rigorous tests of this hypothesis. METHODS: We developed a plate-based single molecule counting fluorescence immunoassay for oligomeric Aβ sensitive to low pg/ml concentrations of synthetic Aβ dimers using the same Aβ-specific monoclonal antibody to both capture and detect Aβ. The Aβ oligomer assay does not recognize monomeric Aβ, amyloid precursor protein, or other non-Aβ peptide oligomers. RESULTS: Aβ oligomers were detected in aqueous cortical lysates from patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and nondemented patients with Aβ plaque pathology. However, Aβ oligomer concentrations in demented patients' lysates were tightly correlated with Aβ plaque coverage (r = 0.88), but this relationship was weaker in those from nondemented patients (r = 0.30) despite equivalent Aβ plaque pathology. The ratio of Aβ oligomer levels to plaque density fully distinguished demented from nondemented patients, with no overlap between groups in this derived variable. Other Aβ and plaque measures did not distinguish demented from nondemented patients. Aβ oligomers were not detected in cerebrospinal fluid with this assay. INTERPRETATION: The results raise the intriguing hypothesis that the linkage between plaques and oligomers may be a key pathophysiological event underlying dementia of the Alzheimer type. This Aβ oligomer assay may be useful for many tests of the oligomer hypothesis. ANN NEUROL 2012.
Annals of Neurology 09/2012; · 11.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In light of the rising prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), new strategies to prevent, halt, and reverse this condition are needed urgently. Perturbations of brain network activity are observed in AD patients and in conditions that increase the risk of developing AD, suggesting that aberrant network activity might contribute to AD-related cognitive decline. Human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice simulate key aspects of AD, including pathologically elevated levels of amyloid-β peptides in brain, aberrant neural network activity, remodeling of hippocampal circuits, synaptic deficits, and behavioral abnormalities. Whether these alterations are linked in a causal chain remains unknown. To explore whether hAPP/amyloid-β-induced aberrant network activity contributes to synaptic and cognitive deficits, we treated hAPP mice with different antiepileptic drugs. Among the drugs tested, only levetiracetam (LEV) effectively reduced abnormal spike activity detected by electroencephalography. Chronic treatment with LEV also reversed hippocampal remodeling, behavioral abnormalities, synaptic dysfunction, and deficits in learning and memory in hAPP mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that aberrant network activity contributes causally to synaptic and cognitive deficits in hAPP mice. LEV might also help ameliorate related abnormalities in people who have or are at risk for AD.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2012; 109(42):E2895-903. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apolipoprotein ε4 allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with earlier age of onset. The incidence of spontaneous seizures has been reported to be increased in sporadic AD as well as in the early onset autosomal dominant forms of AD. We now report the emergence of a seizure phenotype in aged apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) targeted replacement (TR) mice but not in age-matched apoE2 TR or apoE3 TR mice. Tonic-clonic seizures developed spontaneously after 5 months of age in apoE4 TR mice and are triggered by mild stress. Female mice had increased seizure penetrance compared to male mice, but had slightly reduced overall seizure severity. The majority of seizures were characterized by head and neck jerks, but 25% of aged apoE4 TR mice had more severe tonic-clonic seizures which occasionally progressed to tonic extension and death. Aged apoE4 TR mice progressed through pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure stages more rapidly than did apoE3 TR and apoE2 TR mice. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings revealed more frequent bursts of synchronous theta activity in the hippocampus of apoE4 TR mice than in apoE2 TR or apoE3 TR mice. Cortical EEG recordings also revealed sharp spikes and other abnormalities in apoE4 TR mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the emergence of an age-dependent seizure phenotype in old apoE4 TR mice in the absence of human amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) overexpression, suggesting increased central nervous system neural network excitability.
Brain research 06/2012; 1467:120-32. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques in the extracellular space in the brain. Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated amyloid β peptide (Aβ), a proteolytic fragment of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). For APP to be proteolytically cleaved into Aβ, it must be internalized into the cell and trafficked to endosomes where specific protease complexes can cleave APP. Several recent genome-wide association studies have reported that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the phosphatidylinositol clathrin assembly lymphoid-myeloid leukemia (PICALM) gene were significantly associated with Alzheimer disease, suggesting a role in APP endocytosis and Aβ generation. Here, we show that PICALM co-localizes with APP in intracellular vesicles of N2a-APP cells after endocytosis is initiated. PICALM knockdown resulted in reduced APP internalization and Aβ generation. Conversely, PICALM overexpression increased APP internalization and Aβ production. In vivo, PICALM was found to be expressed in neurons and co-localized with APP throughout the cortex and hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice. PICALM expression was altered using AAV8 gene transfer of PICALM shRNA or PICALM cDNA into the hippocampus of 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice. PICALM knockdown decreased soluble and insoluble Aβ levels and amyloid plaque load in the hippocampus. Conversely, PICALM overexpression increased Aβ levels and amyloid plaque load. These data indicate that PICALM, an adaptor protein involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, regulates APP internalization and subsequent Aβ generation. PICALM contributes to amyloid plaque load in brain likely via its effect on Aβ metabolism.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2012; 287(25):21279-89. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain region-specific deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques principally composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is a pathological signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent human neuroimaging data suggest that resting-state functional connectivity strength is reduced in patients with AD, cognitively normal elderly harboring elevated amyloid burden, and in advanced aging. Interestingly, there exists a striking spatial correlation between functional connectivity strength in cognitively normal adults and the location of Aβ plaque deposition in AD. However, technical limitations have heretofore precluded examination of the relationship between functional connectivity, Aβ deposition, and normal aging in mouse models. Using a novel functional connectivity optical intrinsic signal (fcOIS) imaging technique, we demonstrate that Aβ deposition is associated with significantly reduced bilateral functional connectivity in multiple brain regions of older APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The amount of Aβ deposition in each brain region was associated with the degree of local, age-related bilateral functional connectivity decline. Normal aging was associated with reduced bilateral functional connectivity specifically in retrosplenial cortex. Furthermore, we found that the magnitude of regional bilateral functional correlation in young APP/PS1 mice before Aβ plaque formation was proportional to the amount of region-specific plaque deposition seen later in older APP/PS1 mice. Together, these findings suggest that Aβ deposition and normal aging are associated with region-specific disruption of functional connectivity and that the magnitude of local bilateral functional connectivity predicts regional vulnerability to subsequent Aβ deposition in mouse brain.
Journal of Neuroscience 03/2012; 32(13):4334-40. · 6.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J. Neurochem. (2012) 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07709.x ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects about 35.6 million people worldwide, and if current trends continue with no medical advancement, one in 85 people will be affected by 2050. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a cost-effective, easy to use, sensor platform to diagnose and study AD. The measurement of peptide amyloid beta (Aβ) found in CSF has been assessed as an avenue to diagnose and study the disease. The quantification of the ratio of Aβ1-40/42 (or Aβ ratio) has been established as a reliable test to diagnose AD through human clinical trials. Therefore, we have developed a multiplexed, implantable immunosensor to detect amyloid beta (Aβ) isoforms using triple barrel carbon fiber microelectrodes as the sensor platform. Antibodies act as the biorecognition element of the sensor and selectively capture and bind Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 to the electrode surface. Electrochemistry was used to measure the intrinsic oxidation signal of Aβ at 0.65 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), originating from a single tyrosine residue found at position 10 in its amino acid sequence. Using the proposed immunosensor Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 could be specifically detected in CSF from mice within a detection range of 20-50 nM and 20-140 nM respectively. The immunosensor enables real-time, highly sensitive detection of Aβ and opens up the possibilities for diagnostic ex vivo applications and research-based in vivo studies.
Journal of Neurochemistry 02/2012; · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain, a process normally facilitated by apolipoprotein E (apoE). ApoE expression is transcriptionally induced through the action of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and liver X receptors in coordination with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Oral administration of the RXR agonist bexarotene to a mouse model of AD resulted in enhanced clearance of soluble Aβ within hours in an apoE-dependent manner. Aβ plaque area was reduced more than 50% within just 72 hours. Furthermore, bexarotene stimulated the rapid reversal of cognitive, social, and olfactory deficits and improved neural circuit function. Thus, RXR activation stimulates physiological Aβ clearance mechanisms, resulting in the rapid reversal of a broad range of Aβ-induced deficits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that soluble, diffusible forms of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) are pathogenically important in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and thus have both diagnostic and therapeutic salience. To learn more about the dynamics of soluble Aβ economy in vivo, we used microdialysis to sample the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), which contains the most soluble Aβ species in brain at steady state, in >40 wake, behaving APP transgenic mice before and during the process of Aβ plaque formation (age 3-28 months). Diffusible forms of Aβ, especially Aβ(42), declined significantly in ISF as mice underwent progressive parenchymal deposition of Aβ. Moreover, radiolabeled Aβ administered at physiological concentrations into ISF revealed a striking difference in the fate of soluble Aβ in plaque-rich (vs plaque-free) mice: it clears more rapidly from the ISF and becomes more associated with the TBS-extractable pool, suggesting that cerebral amyloid deposits can rapidly sequester soluble Aβ from the ISF. Likewise, acute γ-secretase inhibition in plaque-free mice showed a marked decline of Aβ(38), Aβ(40), and Aβ(42), whereas in plaque-rich mice, Aβ(42) declined significantly less. These results suggest that most of the Aβ(42) that populates the ISF in plaque-rich mice is derived not from new Aβ biosynthesis but rather from the large reservoir of less soluble Aβ(42) in brain parenchyma. Together, these and other findings herein illuminate the in vivo dynamics of soluble Aβ during the development of AD-type neuropathology and after γ-secretase inhibition and help explain the apparent paradox that CSF Aβ(42) levels fall as humans develop AD.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2011; 31(44):15861-9. · 6.75 Impact Factor