Shuxun Ren

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (25)178.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Myocyte hypertrophy antecedent to heart failure involves changes in global gene expression, although the preceding mechanisms to coordinate DNA accessibility on a genomic scale are unknown. Chromatin-associated proteins can alter chromatin structure by changing their association with DNA, thereby altering the gene expression profile. Little is known about the global changes in chromatin sub-proteomes that accompany heart failure, and the mechanisms by which these proteins alter chromatin structure. The present study tests the fundamental hypothesis that cardiac growth and plasticity in the setting of disease recapitulates conserved developmental chromatin remodeling events. We used quantitative proteomics to identify chromatin-associated proteins extracted via detergent and to quantify changes in abundance during disease. Our study identified 321 proteins in this sub-proteome, demonstrating it to have modest conservation with that revealed using strong acid. Of these proteins, 176 exhibited altered expression during cardiac hypertrophy and failure; we conducted extensive functional characterization of one of these proteins, Nucleolin. Morpholino-based knockdown of nucleolin abolished protein expression but surprisingly had little impact on gross morphological development. However, zebrafish hearts lacking Nucleolin displayed severe developmental impairment, abnormal chamber patterning and functional deficits, ostensibly due to defects in cardiac looping and myocyte differentiation. The mechanisms underlying these defects involve perturbed BMP4 expression, decreased rRNA transcription and a shift to more heterochromatic chromatin. This study reports the quantitative analysis of a new chromatin sub-proteome in the normal and diseased mouse heart. Validation studies in zebrafish examine the role of Nucleolin to orchestrate genomic reprogramming events shared between development and disease.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2013; · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protein phosphatase 1-like gene (PPM1l) was identified as causal gene for obesity and metabolic abnormalities in mice. However, the underlying mechanisms were unknown. In this report, we find PPM1l encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane targeted protein phosphatase (PP2Ce) and has specific activity to basal and ER stress induced auto-phosphorylation of Inositol-REquiring protein-1 (IRE1). PP2Ce inactivation resulted in elevated IRE1 phosphorylation and higher expression of XBP-1, CHOP, and BiP at basal. However, ER stress stimulated XBP-1 and BiP induction was blunted while CHOP induction was further enhanced in PP2Ce null cells. PP2Ce protein levels are significantly induced during adipogenesis in vitro and are necessary for normal adipocyte maturation. Finally, we provide evidence that common genetic variation of PPM11 gene is significantly associated with human lipid profile. Therefore, PPM1l mediated IRE1 regulation and downstream ER stress signaling is a plausible molecular basis for its role in metabolic regulation and disorder.
    Molecular metabolism. 01/2013; 2(4):405-416.
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    ABSTRACT: The Notch signaling pathway is an important contributor to the development and homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Not surprisingly, mutations in Notch receptors and ligands have been linked to a variety of hereditary diseases that impact both the heart and the vasculature. In particular, mutations in the gene encoding the human Notch ligand jagged 1 result in a multisystem autosomal dominant disorder called Alagille syndrome, which includes tetralogy of Fallot among its more severe cardiac pathologies. Jagged 1 is expressed throughout the developing embryo, particularly in endothelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial-specific deletion of Jag1 leads to cardiovascular defects in both embryonic and adult mice that are reminiscent of those in Alagille syndrome. Mutant mice display right ventricular hypertrophy, overriding aorta, ventricular septal defects, coronary vessel abnormalities and valve defects. Examination of mid-gestational embryos revealed that the loss of Jag1, similar to the loss of Notch1, disrupts endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition during endocardial cushion formation. Furthermore, adult mutant mice exhibit cardiac valve calcifications associated with abnormal matrix remodeling and induction of bone morphogenesis. This work shows that the endothelium is responsible for the wide spectrum of cardiac phenotypes displayed in Alagille Syndrome and it demonstrates a crucial role for Jag1 in valve morphogenesis.
    Development 10/2012; · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A fundamental question in biology is how genome-wide changes in gene expression are enacted in response to a finite stimulus. Recent studies have mapped changes in nucleosome localization, determined the binding preferences for individual transcription factors, and shown that the genome adopts a nonrandom structure in vivo. What remains unclear is how global changes in the proteins bound to DNA alter chromatin structure and gene expression. We have addressed this question in the mouse heart, a system in which global gene expression and massive phenotypic changes occur without cardiac cell division, making the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling centrally important. To determine factors controlling genomic plasticity, we used mass spectrometry to measure chromatin-associated proteins. We have characterized the abundance of 305 chromatin-associated proteins in normal cells and measured changes in 108 proteins that accompany the progression of heart disease. These studies were conducted on a high mass accuracy instrument and confirmed in multiple biological replicates, facilitating statistical analysis and allowing us to interrogate the data bioinformatically for modules of proteins involved in similar processes. Our studies reveal general principles for global shifts in chromatin accessibility: altered linker to core histone ratio; differing abundance of chromatin structural proteins; and reprogrammed histone post-translational modifications. Using small interfering RNA-mediated loss-of-function in isolated cells, we demonstrate that the non-histone chromatin structural protein HMGB2 (but not HMGB1) suppresses pathologic cell growth in vivo and controls a gene expression program responsible for hypertrophic cell growth. Our findings reveal the basis for alterations in chromatin structure necessary for genome-wide changes in gene expression. These studies have fundamental implications for understanding how global chromatin remodeling occurs with specificity and accuracy, demonstrating that isoform-specific alterations in chromatin structural proteins can impart these features.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 01/2012; 11(6):M111.014258. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) by a family of serine/threonine kinases known as G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) and protein kinase A (PKA) is a critical determinant of cardiac function. Upregulation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a well-established causal factor of heart failure, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We sought to determine the relative contribution of PKA- and GRK-mediated phosphorylation of β(2)AR to the receptor coupling to G(i) signaling that attenuates cardiac reserve and contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure in response to pressure overload. Overexpression of GRK2 led to a G(i)-dependent decrease of contractile response to βAR stimulation in cultured mouse cardiomyocytes and in vivo. Importantly, cardiac-specific transgenic overexpression of a mutant β(2)AR lacking PKA phosphorylation sites (PKA-TG) but not the wild-type β(2)AR (WT-TG) or a mutant β(2)AR lacking GRK sites (GRK-TG) led to exaggerated cardiac response to pressure overload, as manifested by markedly exacerbated cardiac maladaptive remodeling and failure and early mortality. Furthermore, inhibition of G(i) signaling with pertussis toxin restores cardiac function in heart failure associated with increased β(2)AR to G(i) coupling induced by removing PKA phosphorylation of the receptor and in GRK2 transgenic mice, indicating that enhanced phosphorylation of β(2)AR by GRK and resultant increase in G(i)-biased β(2)AR signaling play an important role in the development of heart failure. Our data show that enhanced β(2)AR phosphorylation by GRK, in addition to PKA, leads the receptor to G(i)-biased signaling, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure, marking G(i)-biased β(2)AR signaling as a primary event linking upregulation of GRK to cardiac maladaptive remodeling, failure and cardiodepression.
    Circulation Research 12/2011; 110(2):265-74. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate and comprehensive de novo transcriptome profiling in heart is a central issue to better understand cardiac physiology and diseases. Although significant progress has been made in genome-wide profiling for quantitative changes in cardiac gene expression, current knowledge offers limited insights to the total complexity in cardiac transcriptome at individual exon level. To develop more robust bioinformatic approaches to analyze high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data, with the focus on the investigation of transcriptome complexity at individual exon and transcript levels. In addition to overall gene expression analysis, the methods developed in this study were used to analyze RNA-Seq data with respect to individual transcript isoforms, novel spliced exons, novel alternative terminal exons, novel transcript clusters (ie, novel genes), and long noncoding RNA genes. We applied these approaches to RNA-Seq data obtained from mouse hearts after pressure-overload-induced by transaortic constriction. Based on experimental validations, analyses of the features of the identified exons/transcripts, and expression analyses including previously published RNA-Seq data, we demonstrate that the methods are highly effective in detecting and quantifying individual exons and transcripts. Novel insights inferred from the examined aspects of the cardiac transcriptome open ways to further experimental investigations. Our work provided a comprehensive set of methods to analyze mouse cardiac transcriptome complexity at individual exon and transcript levels. Applications of the methods may infer important new insights to gene regulation in normal and disease hearts in terms of exon utilization and potential involvement of novel components of cardiac transcriptome.
    Circulation Research 12/2011; 109(12):1332-41. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic defects in amino acid metabolism are major causes of newborn diseases that often lead to abnormal development and function of the central nervous system. Their direct impact on cardiac development and function has rarely been investigated. Recently, the authors have established that a mitochondrial targeted 2C-type ser/thr protein phosphatase, PP2Cm, is the endogenous phosphatase of the branched-chain alpha keto acid-dehydrogenase complex (BCKD) and functions as a key regulator in branched-chain amino acid catabolism and homeostasis. Genetic inactivation of PP2Cm in mice leads to significant elevation in plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids and branched-chain keto acids at levels similar to those associated with intermediate mild forms of maple syrup urine disease. In addition to neuronal tissues, PP2Cm is highly expressed in cardiac muscle, and its expression is diminished in a heart under pathologic stresses. Whereas phenotypic features of heart failure are seen in PP2Cm-deficient zebra fish embryos, cardiac function in PP2Cm-null mice is compromised at a young age and deteriorates faster by mechanical overload. These observations suggest that the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids also has physiologic significance in maintaining normal cardiac function. Defects in PP2Cm-mediated catabolism of branched-chain amino acids can be a potential novel mechanism not only for maple syrup urine disease but also for congenital heart diseases and heart failure.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2011; 32(3):305-10. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is caused by a mutant prelamin A, progerin, that terminates with a farnesylcysteine. HGPS knock-in mice (Lmna(HG/+)) develop severe progeria-like disease phenotypes. These phenotypes can be ameliorated with a protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), suggesting that progerin's farnesyl lipid is important for disease pathogenesis and raising the possibility that FTIs could be useful for treating humans with HGPS. Subsequent studies showed that mice expressing non-farnesylated progerin (Lmna(nHG/+) mice, in which progerin's carboxyl-terminal -CSIM motif was changed to -SSIM) also develop severe progeria, raising doubts about whether any treatment targeting protein prenylation would be particularly effective. We suspected that those doubts might be premature and hypothesized that the persistent disease in Lmna(nHG/+) mice could be an unanticipated consequence of the cysteine-to-serine substitution that was used to eliminate farnesylation. To test this hypothesis, we generated a second knock-in allele yielding non-farnesylated progerin (Lmna(csmHG)) in which the carboxyl-terminal -CSIM motif was changed to -CSM. We then compared disease phenotypes in mice harboring the Lmna(nHG) or Lmna(csmHG) allele. As expected, Lmna(nHG/+) and Lmna(nHG/nHG) mice developed severe progeria-like disease phenotypes, including osteolytic lesions and rib fractures, osteoporosis, slow growth and reduced survival. In contrast, Lmna(csmHG/+) and Lmna(csmHG/csmHG) mice exhibited no bone disease and displayed entirely normal body weights and survival. The frequencies of misshapen cell nuclei were lower in Lmna(csmHG/+) and Lmna(csmHG/csmHG) fibroblasts. These studies show that the ability of non-farnesylated progerin to elicit disease depends on the carboxyl-terminal mutation used to eliminate protein prenylation.
    Human Molecular Genetics 11/2010; 20(3):436-44. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lamin A is formed from prelamin A by four post-translational processing steps-farnesylation, release of the last three amino acids of the protein, methylation of the farnesylcysteine and the endoproteolytic release of the C-terminal 15 amino acids (including the farnesylcysteine methyl ester). When the final processing step does not occur, a farnesylated and methylated prelamin A accumulates in cells, causing a severe progeroid disease, restrictive dermopathy (RD). Whether RD is caused by the retention of farnesyl lipid on prelamin A, or by the retention of the last 15 amino acids of the protein, is unknown. To address this issue, we created knock-in mice harboring a mutant Lmna allele (LmnanPLAO) that yields exclusively non-farnesylated prelamin A (and no lamin C). These mice had no evidence of progeria but succumbed to cardiomyopathy. We suspected that the non-farnesylated prelamin A in the tissues of these mice would be strikingly mislocalized to the nucleoplasm, but this was not the case; most was at the nuclear rim (indistinguishable from the lamin A in wild-type mice). The cardiomyopathy could not be ascribed to an absence of lamin C because mice expressing an otherwise identical knock-in allele yielding only wild-type prelamin A appeared normal. We conclude that lamin C synthesis is dispensable in mice and that the failure to convert prelamin A to mature lamin A causes cardiomyopathy (at least in the absence of lamin C). The latter finding is potentially relevant to the long-term use of protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors, which lead to an accumulation of non-farnesylated prelamin A.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2010; 19(13):2682-94. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has a significant impact on cardiac gene expression, contractility, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammatory response in heart. The p38 kinase pathway also has a controversial role in cardiac hypertrophy. MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2) is a well-established p38 downstream kinase, yet its contribution to p38-mediated pathological response in heart has not been investigated. We examined the specific contribution of MK2 to the pathological remodeling induced by p38. We used a cardiomyocyte specific and inducible transgenic approach to determine the functional and molecular impact of acute activation of the p38 pathway in heart in either a MK2 wild-type or a MK2-null background. p38 activation in wild-type mice led to a rapid onset of lethal cardiomyopathy associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction. Inactivation of MK2 partially but significantly reduced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, improved contractile performance, and prevented early lethality. MK2 inactivation had no effect on the mRNA levels of hypertrophic marker genes or the proinflammatory gene cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. However, MK2 had a major role in COX-2 protein synthesis without affecting the mRNA level or protein stability. p38 activity in adult myocytes can contribute to pathological hypertrophy and remodeling in adult heart and that MK2 is an important downstream molecule responsible for specific features of p38-induced cardiac pathology.
    Circulation Research 03/2010; 106(8):1434-43. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic pressure overload to the heart leads to cardiac hypertrophy and failure through processes that involve reorganization of subcellular compartments and alteration of established signaling mechanisms. To identify proteins contributing to this process, we examined changes in nuclear-associated myofilament proteins as the murine heart undergoes progressive hypertrophy following pressure overload. Calsarcin-1, a negative regulator of calcineurin signaling in the heart, was found to be enriched in cardiac nuclei and displays increased abundance following pressure overload through a mechanism that is decoupled from transcriptional regulation. Using proteomics, we identified novel processing of this protein in the setting of cardiac injury and identified four residues subject to modification by phosphorylation. These studies are the first to determine mechanisms regulating calsarcin abundance during hypertrophy and failure and reveal the first evidence of post-translational modifications of calsarcin-1 in the myocardium. Overall, the findings expand the roles of calsarcins to include nuclear tasks during cardiac growth.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 02/2010; 48(6):1206-14. · 5.15 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure - J CARD FAIL. 01/2009; 15(6).
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    ABSTRACT: PTEN is a dual lipid and protein phosphatase that antagonizes PI3K as well as other signaling pathways and regulates cellular survival and growth. However, its potential role in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury remains unknown. We established a transgenic mouse model with inducible and cardiac specific deletion of Pten gene (Pten(CKO)) in adult heart via tamoxifen dependent Cre-loxP mediated DNA recombination. 3 weeks after tamoxifen induced PTEN inactivation, elevated PI3K activity was observed in the Pten(CKO) hearts as determined from downstream AKT signaling. No significant differences in cardiac function as well as chamber size were observed between Pten(CKO) and Control animals based on echocardiography. In response to 30 min ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion in Langendorff preparations, Pten(CKO) hearts developed significantly better function recovery than Control animals. At 60 min post reperfusion, the recovery of LVDP reached 77.9% of pre-ischemia basal in Pten(CKO) hearts vs 44.2% of Control (p<0.01). Consistent with the observed functional improvement, TTC staining revealed a significant reduction in infarct size in Pten(CKO) hearts compared with Control (24.2% vs 39.7%, p<0.05). Pten(CKO) hearts had significantly fewer apoptosis positive cardiomyocytes after I/R injury as identified by TUNEL staining. Furthermore, ERK activity and BCL-2 expression were not affected at basal but became significantly higher after ischemia/reperfusion in Pten(CKO) hearts. These data indicate that PTEN may play a role in ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting anti-apoptotic survival signals. Inhibiting PTEN may serve as a potential approach to exert cardiac protection against ischemia reperfusion injury.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 12/2008; 46(2):193-200. · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bmx nonreceptor tyrosine kinase has an established role in endothelial and lymphocyte signaling; however, its role in the heart is unknown. To determine whether Bmx participates in cardiac growth, we subjected mice deficient in the molecule (Bmx knockout mice) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In comparison with wild-type mice, which progressively developed massive hypertrophy following TAC, Bmx knockout mice were resistant to TAC-induced cardiac growth at the organ and cell level. Loss of Bmx preserved cardiac ejection fraction and decreased mortality following TAC. These findings are the first to demonstrate a necessary role for the Tec family of tyrosine kinases in the heart and reveal a novel regulator (Bmx) of pressure overload-induced hypertrophic growth.
    Circulation Research 12/2008; 103(12):1359-62. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activation of p38alpha, a MAPK family member, is associated with macrophage activation by microbial pattern molecules, such as LPS. The requirement of p38alpha in inflammatory responses has been shown in a number of studies using chemical inhibitors, though the inhibitors also inhibit p38beta and perhaps some other enzymes. In this study, we used conditional knockout of p38alpha in macrophages to address the role of p38alpha in macrophage activation. We found that p38alpha deficiency causes a significant inhibition in the production of LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-12, and IL-18, but it has little or no effect on IL-6 or IFN-beta production. Knockout of p38alpha in macrophages did not affect LPS-induced activation of the other major signaling pathways (NF-kappaB, Jnk, and Erk), nor did it affect the transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB. It had little inhibitory effect on LPS-induced AP-1 activity, but it significantly inhibited LPS-induced C/EBP-beta and CREB activation, indicating that the role of p38alpha in cytokine production in macrophages is at least in part through its regulation of C/EBP-beta and CREB activation. In addition, we also confirmed that p38alpha is important for phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages. Our in vivo studies with two murine models showed that p38alpha is involved in sepsis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that p38alpha is an important player in inflammatory responses.
    The Journal of Immunology 05/2008; 180(7):5075-82. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms involved in the induction of arrhythmia and electrophysiological remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy are unclear. Using an inducible gene-switch approach, we achieved tissue-specific and temporally regulated induction of a well-established hypertrophic pathway, the Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway, in adult mouse heart. On Ras activation, the transgenic animal developed ventricular hypertrophy and arrhythmias. The development of ventricular arrhythmias was temporally correlated with electrophysiological remodeling in isolated ventricular myocytes, including action potential prolongation, increased sodium-calcium exchanger activity, reduced outward potassium currents, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ defects, and loss of protein kinase A-dependent phospholamban phosphorylation. From genome-wide expression profiling, we discovered a selective induction of G alpha inhibiting subunit 1 (Gi alpha1) expression in the Ras transgenic heart. Treatment of transgenic animals with the Gi/o inhibitor pertussis toxin normalized the phospholamban phosphorylation by protein kinase A, reversed the action potential prolongation, and significantly reduced the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in Ras transgenic animals. These data suggest that selective induction of G alpha inhibiting subunit 1 expression and activity is a novel downstream event in hypertrophic signaling that may be a critical factor leading to cellular electrophysiological remodeling and cardiac arrhythmias in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
    Circulation 09/2007; 116(6):596-605. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play a central role in the regulation of programmed cell death signaling. Here, we report the finding of a mitochondrial matrix-targeted protein phosphatase 2C family member (PP2Cm) that regulates mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and is essential for cell survival, embryonic development, and cardiac function. PP2Cm is highly conserved among vertebrates, with the highest expression levels detected in the heart and brain. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of PP2Cm resulted in cell death associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured cardiac mycoytes and an induction of hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo. PP2Cm-deficient mitochondria showed elevated susceptibility to calcium-induced MPTP opening, whereas mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activities were not affected. Finally, inactivation of PP2Cm in developing zebrafish embryos caused abnormal cardiac and neural development as well as heart failure associated with induced apoptosis. These data suggest that PP2Cm is a novel mitochondrial protein phosphatase that has a critical function in cell death and survival, and may play a role in regulating the MPTP opening.
    Genes & Development 05/2007; 21(7):784-96. · 12.44 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure - J CARD FAIL. 01/2007; 13(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Postnatal cardiac hypertrophies have traditionally been classified into physiological or pathological hypertrophies. Both of them are induced by hemodynamic load. Cardiac postnatal hypertrophic growth is regarded as a part of the cardiac maturation process that is independent of the cardiac working load. However, the functional significance of this biological event has not been determined, mainly because of the difficulty in creating an experimental condition for testing the growth potential of functioning heart in the absence of hemodynamic load. Recently, we generated a novel transgenic mouse model (alphaMHC-BMP10) in which the cardiac-specific growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is overexpressed in postnatal myocardium. These alphaMHC-BMP10 mice appear to have normal cardiogenesis throughout embryogenesis, but develop to smaller hearts within 6 weeks after birth. alphaMHC-BMP10 hearts are about half the normal size with 100% penetrance. Detailed morphometric analysis of cardiomyocytes clearly indicated that the compromised cardiac growth in alphaMHC-BMP10 mice was solely because of defect in cardiomyocyte postnatal hypertrophic growth. Physiological analysis further demonstrated that the responses of these hearts to both physiological (e.g. exercise-induced hypertrophy) and pathological hypertrophic stimuli remain normal. In addition, the alphaMHC-BMP10 mice develop subaortic narrowing and concentric myocardial thickening without obstruction by four weeks of age. Systematic analysis of potential intracellular pathways further suggested a novel genetic pathway regulating this previously undefined cardiac postnatal hypertrophic growth event. This is the first demonstration that cardiac postnatal hypertrophic growth can be specifically modified genetically and dissected out from physiological and pathological hypertrophies.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2006; 281(37):27481-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cardiac Failure - J CARD FAIL. 01/2006; 12(6).