[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: We sought to explore whether global and regional scientific output in cardiovascular medicine are associated with economic variables and follow the same trend as medicine and as science overall. Methods and results: We registered the number of documents, number of citations, citations per document and the h-index for the first 50 countries according to the h-index (a measure to evaluate both the productivity and impact of the publications) in cardiovascular medicine. Economic variables (gross domestic product [GDP] per capita, % expenditure of the GDP in research and development [R&D] and health) were obtained from the World Bank, the UNESCO, and the World Health Organization. In total, the scientific output in cardiology showed the same position as in medicine and science overall (mean difference vs. medicine -0.9±5.3º, p=0.25 vs. science -0.7±5.3º, p=0.39). We found significant correlations between the h-index and the % GDP expenditure in R&D (r=0.67, p<0.001), and the % GDP expenditure in health (r=0.71, p<0.0001). Overall, there was a 21.4% (interquartile range 3.7; 55.0) increase in the % GDP expenditure in R&D between 1996 and 2007. Emerging economies showed the larger growth in % GDP expenditure in health and R&D. Conclusions: The global situation of scientific output in cardiovascular medicine is highly polarised and closely related to economic indicators. Emergent economies, with higher rates of GDP growth and increasingly larger expenditures for R&D and healthcare, are expected to show a visible escalation in the scientific global picture in the near future.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 08/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Globalisation in coronary stent research calls for harmonization of clinical endpoint definitions and event adjudication. Little has been published about the various processes used for event adjudication or their impact on outcome reporting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a validation of the clinical event committee (CEC) adjudication process on 100 suspected events in the RESOLUTE All-comers trial (Resolute-AC). Two experienced Clinical Research Organisations (CRO) that had already extensive internal validation processes in place, participated in the study. After initial adjudication by the primary-CEC, events were cross-adjudicated by an external-CEC using the same definitions. Major discrepancies affecting the primary end point of target-lesion failure (TLF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI), or clinically-indicated target-lesion revascularization (CI-TLR), were analysed by an independent oversight committee who provided recommendations for harmonization. Discordant adjudications were reconsidered by the primary CEC. Subsequently, the RAC database was interrogated for cases that based on these recommendations merited re-adjudication and these cases were also re-adjudicated by the primary CEC. Final discrepancies in adjudication of individual components of TLF occurred in 7 out of 100 events in 5 patients. Discrepancies for the (hierarchical) primary endpoint occurred in 5 events (2 cardiac deaths and 3 TV-MI). After application of harmonization recommendations to the overall RAC population (n=2292), the primary CEC adjudicated 3 additional clinical-TLRs and considered 1 TV-MI as no event. CONCLUSIONS: A harmonization process provided a high level of concordance for event adjudication and improved accuracy for final event reporting. These findings suggest it is feasible to pool clinical event outcome data across clinical trials even when different CECs are responsible for event adjudication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to compare the long-term safety of two devices with different antiproliferative properties: the Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (E-ZES; Medtronic, Inc) and the Cypher sirolimus-eluting stent (C-SES; Cordis, Johnson & Johnson) in a broad group of patients and lesions.
Between May 21, 2007 and Dec 22, 2008, we recruited 8791 patients from 36 recruiting countries to participate in this open-label, multicentre, randomised, superiority trial. Eligible patients were those aged 18 years or older undergoing elective, unplanned, or emergency procedures in native coronary arteries. Patients were randomly assigned to either receive E-ZES and C-SES (ratio 1:1). Randomisation was stratified per centre with varying block sizes of four, six, or eight patients, and concealed with a central telephone-based or web-based allocation service. The primary outcome was definite or probable stent thrombosis at 3 years and was analysed by intention to treat. Patients and investigators were aware of treatment assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00476957.
PROTECT randomised 8791 patients, of whom 8709 provided consent to participate and were eligible: 4357 were allocated to the E-ZES group and 4352 patients to the C-SES group. At 3 years, rates of definite or probable stent thrombosis did not differ between groups (1·4% for E-ZES [predicted: 1·5%] vs 1·8% [predicted: 2·5%] for C-SES; hazard ratio [HR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·58-1·14, p=0·22). Dual antiplatelet therapy was used in 8402 (96%) patients at discharge, 7456 (88%) at 1 year, 3041 (37%) at 2 years, and 2364 (30%) at 3 years.
No evidence of superiority of E-ZES compared with C-SES in definite or probable stent thrombosis rates was noted at 3 years. Time analysis suggests a difference in definite or probable stent thrombosis between groups is emerging over time, and a longer follow-up is therefore needed given the clinical relevance of stent thrombosis.
The Lancet 08/2012; 380(9851):1396-405. · 39.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To introduce the interested reader to the concepts of the Clinical Event Committee (CEC) work process with a focus on the adjudication of major endpoints in contemporary coronary stent trials.
Endpoint adjudication by independent Clinical Events Committees (CEC) is critical to ensure the generation and recording of quality data in clinical outcome trials. CEC adjudication provides a standard, systematic and unbiased assessment of endpoints. For trials with relatively long-term clinical endpoints that span geographic regions and include diverse clinical presentations and practice patterns, this poses specific challenges. The recently published RESOLUTE All Comer coronary stent trial is used to illustrate some aspects of the CEC process.
Understanding the CEC review process is important to guide the design of future trials and allow meaningful comparisons of event rates among trials.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 07/2012; 8(3):368-74. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although large clinical trials have shown that everolimus-eluting stents (EES) significantly reduce target vessel revascularisation (TVR), myocardial infarction (MI) and stent thrombosis (ST) compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) in diverse populations, there is a paucity of data comparing EES and PES in patients presenting with MI.
We performed a post hoc subgroup analysis on COMPARE, an all-comer trial comparing EES to PES. We identified 863 patients (EES=434, PES=429 treated for MI: 452 ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and 411 non ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). EES was associated with a significant reduction in the primary endpoint, a composite of all-cause mortality, MI, and TVR, at two years (RR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.40-0.83, p=0.002). While the effect was more marked in the STEMI (RR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.30-0.87, p=0.01) than the NSTEMI subgroup (RR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.39-1.08, p=0.09), the interaction p-value (0.5) suggests that a difference in treatment effect between presentations is unlikely. ST rates were significantly lower with EES (RR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.12-0.73, p=0.005).
At two years, EES results are superior to PES in terms of safety and efficacy endpoints in treatment of MI.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 01/2012; 7(12):1376-85. · 3.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary plaque burden in patients with stable and unstable angina pectoris.
Twenty-one patients with stable and 20 with unstable angina pectoris scheduled for conventional coronary angiography (CCA) underwent MSCT-CA using a 64-slice scanner offering a fast rotation time (330 ms) and higher X-ray tube output (900 mAs). To determine the MSCT coronary plaque burden, we assessed the extent (number of diseased segments), size (small or large), type (calcific, noncalcific, mixed) of plaque, its anatomic distribution and angiographic appearance in all available ≥2-mm segments. In a subset of 15 (seven stable, eight unstable) patients, the detection and classification of coronary plaques by MSCT was verified by intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS).
Sensitivity and specificity of MSCT compared with ICUS to detect significant plaques (defined as ≥1-mm plaque thickness on ICUS) was 83% and 87%. Overall, 473 segments were examined, resulting in 11.6±1.5 segments per patient. Plaques were present in 62% of segments and classified as large in 47% of diseased segments. Thirty-two percent were noncalcific, 25% calcific and 43% mixed. Plaques were most frequently located in the proximal and mid segments. Plaque was found in 33% of segments classified as normal on CCA. Unstable patients had significantly more noncalcific plaques when compared with stable patients (45% vs. 21%, p<0.05).
MSCT-CA provides important information regarding the coronary plaque burden in patients with stable and unstable angina.
La radiologia medica 09/2011; 116(8):1174-87. · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the Xience V (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) everolimus-eluting stent (EES) with the Taxus Liberté (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) at 2-year follow-up.
COMPARE (Comparison of the everolimus eluting XIENCE-V stent with the paclitaxel eluting TAXUS LIBERTÉ stent in all-comers: a randomized open label trial) demonstrated a superior clinical outcome of EES over PES at 1 year in all comers. Whether this superiority is maintained after discontinuation, at 12 months, of dual antiplatelet therapy is unclear.
Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with limited exclusion criteria were randomly allocated to EES or PES. The 2-year pre-specified endpoints are composites of safety and efficacy and stent thrombosis.
Follow-up was completed in 1,795 of 1,800 patients (99.7%). The groups had similar baseline characteristics. At 2 years, significantly fewer EES patients took dual antiplatelet therapy (11.4% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.02). The primary composite of all death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization occurred in 9.0% of EES patients and 13.7% of PES patients (relative risk [RR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 to 0.86) driven by a lower rate of myocardial infarction (3.9% vs. 7.5%; RR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.77) and target vessel revascularization (3.2% vs. 8.0%; RR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.62), in parallel with a lower rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis (0.9% vs. 3.9%; RR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.49). Differences significantly increased between 1- and 2-year follow-up for the primary composite endpoint (p = 0.04), target vessel revascularization (p = 0.02), and definite or probable stent thrombosis (p = 0.02).
The substantial clinical benefit of the EES over the PES with regard to measures of both safety and efficacy is maintained at 2 years in real-life practice with an increasing benefit in terms of safety and efficacy between 1 year and 2 years.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2011; 58(1):11-8. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to define the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of intracoronary enhancement on the absolute density values of coronary plaques during multislice computed tomography.
We studied seven ex-vivo left coronary artery specimens surrounded by olive oil and filled with isotonic saline and four solutions with decreasing dilutions of contrast material: control (isotonic saline), 1/200, 1/80, 1/50, and 1/20. The multislice computed tomography protocol was: slice/collimation 32 x 2 x 0.6 mm and rotation time 330 ms. The attenuation (Hounsfield units) value of atherosclerotic plaques was measured for each dilution in lumen, plaque (noncalcified coronary wall thickening), calcium, and surrounding oil. In-vivo assessment was performed in 12 patients (nine men; mean age 58.7 +/- 9.9 years) who underwent two subsequent multislice computed tomography scans (arterial and delayed) after intravenous administration of a single bolus of contrast material. The attenuation values of lumen and plaques during arterial and delayed computed tomography were compared. The results were compared with one-way analysis of variance and correlated with Pearson's test.
Mean lumen (45 +/- 38-669 +/- 151 HU) and plaque (11 +/- 35-101 +/- 72 HU) attenuation differed significantly (P < 0.001) among the different dilutions. The attenuation of lumen and plaque of coronary plaques showed moderate correlation (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). The mean attenuation value in vivo for the arterial and delayed phase scans differed significantly (P < 0.001) for lumen (325 +/- 70 and 174 +/- 46 HU, respectively) and plaque (138 +/- 71 and 100 +/- 52 HU, respectively).
Coronary plaque attenuation values are significantly modified by differences in lumen contrast densities both ex vivo and in vivo. This should be taken into account when considering the distinction between lipid and fibrous plaques.
Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 05/2010; 11(5):337-44. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Everolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents, compared with bare metal stents, reduced the risk of restenosis in clinical trials with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. We compared the safety and efficacy of the second-generation everolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents in real-life practice.
We randomly assigned 1800 consecutive patients (aged 18-85 years) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention at one centre to treatment with everolimus-eluting or paclitaxel-eluting stents. The primary endpoint was a composite of safety and efficacy (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularisation) within 12 months. Patients were not told which stent they had been allocated. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01016041.
Follow-up was completed in 1797 patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 56 (6%) of 897 patients in the everolimus-eluting stent group versus 82 (9%) of 903 in the paclitaxel-eluting stent group (relative risk 0.69 [95% CI 0.50-0.95], p value for superiority=0.02). The difference was attributable to a lower rate of stent thrombosis (6 [<1%] vs 23 [3%], 0.26 [0.11-0-64], p=0.002), myocardial infarction (25 [3%] vs 48 [5%], 0.52 [0.33-0.84], p=0.007), and target vessel revascularisation (21 [2%] vs 54 [6%], 0.39 [0.24-0.64], p=0.0001). Cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularisation occurred in 44 [5%] patients in the everolimus-eluting stent group versus 74 [8%] patients in the paclitaxel-eluting stent group, p value for superiority was 0.005.
The everolimus-eluting stent is better than the second generation paclitaxel-eluting stent in unselected patients in terms of safety and efficacy. On the basis of our results, we suggest that paclitaxel-eluting stents should no longer be used in everyday clinical practice.
Unrestricted grants from Abbott Vascular and Boston Scientific.
The Lancet 01/2010; 375(9710):201-9. · 39.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CAPTIM (Comparison of primary Angioplasty and Pre-hospital fibrinolysis In acute Myocardial infarction) study found no evidence that a strategy of primary angioplasty was superior in terms of 30-day outcomes to a strategy of pre-hospital fibrinolysis with transfer to an interventional facility in patients managed early at the acute phase of an acute myocardial infarction. The present analysis was designed to compare both strategies at 5 years.
The CAPTIM study included 840 patients managed in a pre-hospital setting within 6 h of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Patients were randomized to either a primary angioplasty (n = 421) or a pre-hospital fibrinolysis (rt-PA) with immediate transfer to a centre with interventional facilities (n = 419). Long-term follow-up was obtained in blinded fashion from 795 patients (94.6%). Using an intent-to-treat analysis, all-cause mortality at 5 years was 9.7% in the pre-hospital fibrinolysis group when compared with 12.6% in the primary angioplasty group [HR 0.75 (95% CI, 0.50-1.14); P = 0.18]. For patients included within 2 h, 5 year mortality was 5.8% in the pre-hospital fibrinolysis group when compared with 11.1% in the primary angioplasty group [HR 0.50 (95% CI, 0.25-0.97); P = 0.04], whereas it was, respectively, 14.5 and 14.4% in patients included after 2 h [HR 1.02, (95% CI 0.59-1.75), P = 0.92].
The 5-year follow-up is consistent with the 30-day outcomes of the trial, showing similar mortality for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a policy of pre-hospital lysis followed by transfer to an interventional center. In addition, for patients treated within 2 h of symptom onset, 5-year mortality was lower with pre-hospital lysis.
European Heart Journal 06/2009; 30(13):1598-606. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Patients with the MS have endothelial dysfunction, decreased circulating adiponectin, and a high expression of angiogenic inhibitors such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). We hypothesized that such patients, in the event of a coronary occlusion, might exhibit a less developed collateral circulation.
Three hundred and eighty-seven consecutive patients with at least one coronary occlusion of a major coronary vessel at diagnostic angiography were prospectively enrolled. Collateral development was graded with validated angiographic methods. The MS was defined according to the ATP-III definition. Fasting glucose, adiponectin, insulin concentrations, and PAI-1 were measured at the time of angiography. MS was associated with less developed collateral vessels (P = 0.005). In multivariable analysis adjusting for potential confounding factors including the duration of coronary occlusion (P = 0.0001), fasting glycaemia (P = 0.0007), low adiponectin concentration (P = 0.01), insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR; P = 0.01), high circulating PAI-1 concentration (P = 0.01), and hypertension (P = 0.008) were independently associated with poor coronary collateral vessel development.
This study shows that in patients with coronary occlusion, collateral circulation is impaired in patients with the MS. This association is partly related to fasting glycaemia and to key parameters linked to insulin resistance.
European Heart Journal 02/2009; 30(7):840-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the adjunctive value of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in the diagnostic work-up of patients with typical angina pectoris.
CTCA was performed in 62 consecutive patients (45 male, mean age 58.8 +/- 7.7 years) with typical angina undergoing diagnostic work-up including exercise-ECG and conventional coronary angiography. Only patients with sinus heart rhythm and ability to breath hold for 20 s were included. Patients with initial heart rates >/=70 beats/min received beta-blockers. We determined the post-test likelihood ratios, to detect or exclude patients with significant (>/=50% lumen diameter reduction) stenoses, of exercise-ECG and CTCA separately, and of CT performed after exercise-ECG testing. The prevalence of patients with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) was 74%. Positive and negative likelihood ratios for exercise-ECG were 2.3 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-5.3] and 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2-0.7) and for CTCA 7.5 (95% CI: 2.1-27.1) and 0.0 (95% CI: 0.0-8), respectively. CTCA increased the post-test probability of significant CAD after a negative exercise-ECG from 58 to 91%, and after a positive exercise-ECG from 89 to 99%, while CT correctly identified patients without CAD (probability 0%).
Non-invasive CTCA is a potentially useful tool, in the diagnostic work-up of patients with typical angina pectoris, both to detect and to exclude significant CAD.
European Heart Journal 08/2007; 28(15):1872-8. · 14.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most clinical trials of coronary stents have measured nominally identical safety and effectiveness end points, differences in definitions and timing of assessment have created confusion in interpretation.
The Academic Research Consortium is an informal collaboration between academic research organizations in the United States and Europe. Two meetings, in Washington, DC, in January 2006 and in Dublin, Ireland, in June 2006, sponsored by the Academic Research Consortium and including representatives of the US Food and Drug Administration and all device manufacturers who were working with the Food and Drug Administration on drug-eluting stent clinical trial programs, were focused on consensus end point definitions for drug-eluting stent evaluations. The effort was pursued with the objective to establish consistency among end point definitions and provide consensus recommendations. On the basis of considerations from historical legacy to key pathophysiological mechanisms and relevance to clinical interpretability, criteria for assessment of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stent thrombosis were developed. The broadly based consensus end point definitions in this document may be usefully applied or recognized for regulatory and clinical trial purposes.
Although consensus criteria will inevitably include certain arbitrary features, consensus criteria for clinical end points provide consistency across studies that can facilitate the evaluation of safety and effectiveness of these devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the temporal effect of statin therapy on coronary atherosclerotic plaque volume measured by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), we searched PubMed for eligible studies published between 1990 and January 2006. Inclusion criteria for retrieved studies were (1) IVUS volume analysis at baseline and follow-up and (2) statin therapy in > or =1 group of patients. All data of interest were abstracted in prespecified structured collection forms. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 4.2. Random-effect weighted mean difference (WMD) was used as summary statistics for comparison of continuous variables. Nine studies of 985 patients (with 11 statin treatment arms) were selected. After a mean follow-up of 9.8 +/- 4.9 months, we found a significant decrease in coronary plaque volume (WMD -5.77 mm(3), 95% confidence interval -10.36 to -1.17, p = 0.01), with no significant heterogeneity across studies (p = 0.47). Prespecified subgroup analyses showed similar trends. Studies in which the achieved low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was <100 mg/dl showed a trend for plaque regression (WMD -7.88 mm(3), 95% confidence interval -16.31 to 0.55, p = 0.07), whereas studies in which the achieved level of LDL cholesterol was > or =100 mg/dl, the trend was less evident (WMD -4.22 mm(3), 95% confidence interval -10.27 to 1.82, p = 0.17). Plaque volume remained essentially unchanged in patients not treated with statins (WMD 0.13 mm(3), 95% confidence interval -4.42 to 4.68, p = 0.96). In conclusion, statin therapy, particularly when achieving the target LDL level, appears to promote a significant regression of coronary plaque volume as measured by IVUS.
The American Journal of Cardiology 02/2007; 99(1):5-10. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surveillance conventional coronary angiography (CCA) is recommended 2 to 6 months after stent-supported left main coronary artery (LMCA) percutaneous coronary intervention due to the unpredictable occurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR), with its attendant risks. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a promising technique for noninvasive coronary evaluation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of high-resolution MSCT to detect ISR after stenting of the LMCA.
Seventy-four patients were prospectively identified from a consecutive patient population scheduled for follow-up CCA after LMCA stenting and underwent MSCT before CCA. Until August 2004, a 16-slice scanner was used (n = 27), but we switched to the 64-slice scanner after that period (n = 43). Patients with initial heart rates > 65 bpm received beta-blockers, which resulted in a mean periscan heart rate of 57 +/- 7 bpm. Among patients with technically adequate scans (n = 70), MSCT correctly identified all patients with ISR (10 of 70) but misclassified 5 patients without ISR (false-positives). Overall, the accuracy of MSCT for detection of angiographic ISR was 93%. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 91%, 67%, and 100%, respectively. When analysis was restricted to patients with stenting of the LMCA with or without extension into a single major side branch, accuracy was 98%. When both branches of the LMCA bifurcation were stented, accuracy was 83%. For the assessment of stent diameter and area, MSCT showed good correlation with intravascular ultrasound (r = 0.78 and 0.73, respectively). An intravascular ultrasound threshold value > or = 1 mm was identified to reliably detect in-stent neointima hyperplasia with MSCT.
Current MSCT technology, in combination with optimal heart rate control, allows reliable noninvasive evaluation of selected patients after LMCA stenting. MSCT is safe to exclude left main ISR and may therefore be an acceptable first-line alternative to CCA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of subclinical high-risk plaques is potentially important because they may have greater likelihood of rupture and subsequent thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between plaque composition determined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radio frequency (RF) data analysis and clinical presentation.
In 55 patients, a nonculprit vessel with < 50% diameter stenosis was studied with IVUS. Tissue maps were reconstructed from RF data using IVUS-Virtual Histology software.
Mean percentage of the different plaque components were 0.99% +/- 0.9%, calcium; 68.04% +/- 9.8%, fibrous; 19.31% +/- 7.3%, fibrolipidic; and 9.43% +/- 6.6%, lipid core. Mean lipid core percentage was significantly larger in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) when compared with stable patients (12.26% +/- 7.0% vs 7.40% +/- 5.5%, P = .006). In addition, stable patients showed more fibrotic vessels (70.97% +/- 9.3% vs 63.96% +/- 9.1%, P = .007). There was no significant difference for either mean calcium (1.20% +/- 1.1% vs 0.83% +/- 0.7%, P = .124) or fibrolipidic (20.57% +/- 6.9% vs 18.40% +/- 7.6%, P = .281) percentages in ACS and stable patients, respectively. Vessel area obstruction did not differ between groups (46.49% +/- 10.9% vs 42.83% +/- 11.8%, P = .221). There was a significant, albeit weak, positive correlation between lipid core percentage and stenosis severity as determined by vessel area obstruction (r = 0.34, P = .015).
In this study, plaque characterization of nonculprit vessels using spectral analysis of IVUS RF data analysis was significantly related to clinical presentation. Percentage of lipid core, a feature related to acute coronary events and worse prognosis, was significantly larger in patients with ACS. Conversely, stable patients showed more fibrotic content.
American heart journal 06/2006; 151(5):1020-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate in terms of clinical, haemodynamic and biochemical profile the safety and efficacy of the Impella Recover(R) LP 2.5 left ventricular assist device during elective high risk percutaneous coronary interventions (HR-PCI).Methods and results: Ten out of twelve patients were initially enrolled to receive PCI supported by the Impella catheter; eight underwent pressure-volume (PV) loop analysis while one patient was monitored by intra-cardiac echocardiographic. Free haemoglobin (fHb), B-type natriuretic pepetide, catecholamines, aldosterone, angiotensin II, and endothelin were assessed before, every 40 minutes as average during the procedure and at 3, 12, 24 and 48 hours after intervention. The Impella catheter was used for 144+/-88 min [median (IQR) 108 (85-198)], and was removed immediately after the procedure in all but one patients. In 6, 3 and 2 patients, fHb levels increased above 1, 5 and 10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), respectively. No significant effect was found on the tested biomarkers in Impella-supported procedures. The PV analysis showed the occurrence of an acute volume increase in the majority of patients immediately after Impella insertion that tended to persist even at maximal pump speed. This was confirmed by the intracardiac echocardiography that was performed in one patient.Conclusions: Our data, although preliminary due to the limited sample size, does not encourage the routine use of Impella Recover(R) LP 2.5 in HR-PCI. Additional studies are required to confirm and elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the acute LV volume loading and to quantify the degree of haemolysis induced by the pump in a broader set of patients.
EuroIntervention: journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology 05/2006; 2(1):91-100. · 3.17 Impact Factor