Jan Booij

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (269)1044.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is a stimulant drug that is widely used recreationally as well as for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although animal studies have shown neurotoxic effects of dAMPH on the dopaminergic system, little is known about such effects on the human brain. Here, we studied the dopaminergic system at multiple physiological levels in recreational dAMPH users and age, gender and IQ-matched dAMPH-naïve healthy controls. We assessed baseline D2/3 receptor availability, in addition to changes in DA release using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and DA functionality using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) following a dAMPH challenge. Also, the subjective responses to the challenge were determined. dAMPH users displayed significantly lower striatal DA D2/3 receptor binding compared to healthy controls. In dAMPH users we further observed a blunted DA release and DA functionality to an acute dAMPH challenge, as well as a blunted subjective response. Finally, the lower D2/3 availability, the more pleasant the dAMPH administration was experienced by control subjects, but not by dAMPH users. Thus, in agreement with preclinical studies, we show that recreational use of dAMPH in human subjects is associated with dopaminergic system dysfunction. These findings warrant further (longitudinal) investigations, and call for caution when using this drug recreationally and for ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 14 November 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.301.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 11/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Overeating and obesity are associated with impulsivity. In studies among patients with a substance use disorder, impulsivity was found to be associated with substance-related attentional bias. This study examined whether obesity, impulsivity and food craving are associated with an attentional bias for high-calorie food. Methods: Obese (n = 185, mean BMI = 38.18 ± 6.17) and matched healthy-weight (n = 134, mean BMI = 22.35 ± 1.63) men (27.9%) and women (72.1%), aged 18-45 years, took part in the study. Participants were tested on several self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (i.e., response inhibition and reward sensitivity) and self-reported trait craving. In addition, they performed a visual search task to measure attentional bias for high- and low-caloric foods. Results: Self-reported impulsivity influenced the relationship between weight status and detection speed of high- and low-caloric food items: High-impulsive participants with obesity were significantly faster than high-impulsive healthy-weight participants in detecting a high-caloric food item among neutral items, whereas no such difference was observed among low-impulsive participants. No significant effects were found on low-caloric food items, for trait craving or any of the behavioral measures of impulsivity. Conclusion: Self-reported impulsivity, but not trait craving or behavioral measures of impulsivity, is associated with an attentional bias for high-caloric foods, but only in people with obesity. It is in particular the speedy detection of high-caloric foods in the environment that characterizes the impulsive person with obesity, which in turn may cause risky eating patterns in a society were high-caloric food is overly present. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An increased risk for psychosis is observed in people with hearing impairment. According to the social defeat hypothesis, the long-term experience of exclusion leads to enhanced baseline activity and/or sensitization of the dopamine system and puts the individual at increased risk for psychosis.
    JAMA Psychiatry 10/2014; · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and does directly impact patients' everyday functioning. However, the underlying mechanisms of early cognitive decline are not known. This study explored the association between striatal dopaminergic deficits and cognitive impairment within a large cohort of early, drug-naïve PD patients and tested the hypothesis that executive dysfunction in PD is associated with striatal dopaminergic depletion. A cross-sectional multicenter cohort of 339 PD patients and 158 healthy controls from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative study was analyzed. Each individual underwent cerebral single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and a standardized neuropsychological assessment with tests of memory as well as visuospatial and executive function. SPECT imaging was performed with [123I]FP-CIT, and specific binding ratios in left and right putamen and caudate nucleus were calculated. The association between specific binding ratios, cognitive domain scores, and age was analyzed using Pearson's correlations, partial correlation, and conditional process analysis. A small, but significant, positive association between total striatal dopamine transporter binding and the attention/executive domain was found (r = 0.141; P = 0.009) in PD, but this was not significant after adjusting for age. However, in a moderated mediation model, we found that cognitive executive differences between controls and patients with PD were mediated by an age-moderated striatal dopaminergic deficit. Our findings support the hypothesis that nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit is associated with executive impairment, but not to memory or visuospatial impairment, in early PD. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 10/2014; · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Establishing an early, accurate diagnosis is fundamental for appropriate clinical management of patients with movement disorders or dementia. Ioflupane (123)I Injection (DaTscan, (123)I-ioflupane) is an important adjunct to support the clinical diagnosis. Understanding individual-reader diagnostic performance of (123)I-ioflupane in a variety of clinical scenarios is essential.
    Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [(123)I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [(123)I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [(123)I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 05/2014; · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Preclinical imaging with SPECT combined with CT or MRI is used more and more frequently and has proven to be very useful in translational research. In this article, an overview of current preclinical research applications and trends of SPECT combined with CT or MRI, mainly in tumour imaging and neuroscience imaging, is given and the advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are described. Today SPECT and CT systems are often integrated into a single device (commonly called a SPECT/CT system), whereas at present combined SPECT and MRI is almost always carried out with separate systems and fiducial markers to combine the separately acquired images. While preclinical SPECT/CT is most widely applied in oncology research, SPECT combined with MRI (SPECT/MRI when integrated in one system) offers the potential for both neuroscience applications and oncological applications. Today CT and MRI are still mainly used to localize radiotracer binding and to improve SPECT quantification, although both CT and MRI have additional potential. Future technology developments may include fast sequential or simultaneous acquisition of (dynamic) multimodality data, spectroscopy, fMRI along with high-resolution anatomic MRI, advanced CT procedures, and combinations of more than two modalities such as combinations of SPECT, PET, MRI and CT all together. This will all strongly depend on new technologies. With further advances in biology and chemistry for imaging molecular targets and (patho)physiological processes in vivo, the introduction of new imaging procedures and promising new radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice may be accelerated.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 05/2014; 41 Suppl 1:S36-49. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulse control disorders (ICD) are relatively common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generally are regarded as adverse effects of dopamine replacement therapy, although certain demographic and clinical risk factors are also involved. Previous single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies showed reduced ventral striatal dopamine transporter binding in Parkinson patients with ICD compared with patients without. Nevertheless, these studies were performed in patients with preexisting impulse control impairments, which impedes clear-cut interpretation of these findings. We retrospectively procured follow-up data from 31 medication-naïve PD patients who underwent dopamine transporter SPECT imaging at baseline and were subsequently treated with dopamine replacement therapy. We used questionnaires and a telephone interview to assess medication status and ICD symptom development during the follow-up period (31.5 ± 12.0 months). Eleven patients developed ICD symptoms during the follow-up period, eight of which were taking dopamine agonists. The PD patients with ICD symptoms at follow-up had higher baseline depressive scores and lower baseline dopamine transporter availability in the right ventral striatum, anterior-dorsal striatum, and posterior putamen compared with PD patients without ICD symptoms. No baseline between-group differences in age and disease stage or duration were found. The ICD symptom severity correlated negatively with baseline dopamine transporter availability in the right ventral and anterior-dorsal striatum. The results of this preliminary study show that reduced striatal dopamine transporter availability predates the development of ICD symptoms after dopamine replacement therapy and may constitute a neurobiological risk factor related to a lower premorbid dopamine transporter availability or a more pronounced dopamine denervation in PD patients susceptible to ICD. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 05/2014; · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction:The neurotransmitter dopamine is important in the regulation of food intake. It is hypothesised that obese people experience less reward from food due to lower striatal dopamine release, which consequently leads to overeating. This study is the first to assess whether obese subjects have blunted striatal dopamine release.Method:We measured striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (DRD2/3) availability and amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in 15 obese and 15 age-matched, normal-weight women using [(123)I]iodobenzamide single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. In addition, correlations with food craving were examined.Results:Baseline striatal DRD2/3 availability was lower in obese subjects (0.91±0.16) compared to controls (1.09±0.16; p=0.006). Amphetamine-induced dopamine release was significant in controls (7.5%±9.2; p=0.007) and not in obese subjects (1.2%±17.7; p=0.802), although the difference in release between groups (d=0.45) was not significant. Dopamine release positively correlated with the trait food craving in obese subjects.Conclusion:This study replicates previous findings of lower striatal DRD2/3 availability in obesity and provides preliminary data that obesity is associated with blunted dopamine release. The positive correlation between dopamine release and food craving in obesity may seem contradictory with the latter finding but is presumably related to heterogeneity within the obese subjects.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 04/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, including impulsive decision-making and impulsive action, representing relatively independent neurocircuitries. ADHD is treated with methylphenidate, a drug that binds to dopamine transporters. This study in 24 adult male patients with ADHD shows that dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate in the putamen correlates with improvements in cognitive but not in motor impulsivity.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 03/2014; · 6.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent (123)I-FP-CIT ((123)-I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane) SPECT study on rats suggested that a single 1 mg/kg dose of the antipsychotic haloperidol induces enough dopamine release to compete with (123)I-FP-CIT for binding to the dopamine transporter. Taking into account the far-reaching consequences of this proposition, we were interested in testing whether we could reproduce this finding using storage phosphor imaging. Twenty rats were pretreated with saline or haloperidol (1 mg/kg of body weight) and then injected with (123)I-FP-CIT. Two hours after (123)I-FP-CIT injection, the rats were sacrificed and binding in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and cerebellum (nonspecific binding) was measured. In contrast to the earlier SPECT finding, acute administration of haloperidol did not induce a significant change in (123)I-FP-CIT binding ratios in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. Changes in synaptic dopamine due to acute haloperidol administration were not detectable with (123)I-FP-CIT.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2014; · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) provide useful information about cerebrovascular condition and regional metabolism. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) is a promising non-invasive MRI technique to quantitatively measure the CBF, whereas additional hypercapnic pCASL measurements are currently showing great promise to quantitatively assess the CVR. However, the introduction of pCASL at a larger scale awaits further evaluation of the exact accuracy and precision compared to the gold standard. (15)O H2O positron emission tomography (PET) is currently regarded as the most accurate and precise method to quantitatively measure both CBF and CVR, though it is one of the more invasive methods as well. In this study we therefore assessed the accuracy and precision of quantitative pCASL-based CBF and CVR measurements by performing a head-to-head comparison with (15)O H2O PET, based on quantitative CBF measurements during baseline and hypercapnia. We demonstrate that pCASL CBF imaging is accurate during both baseline and hypercapnia with respect to (15)O H2O PET with a comparable precision. These results pave the way for quantitative usage of pCASL MRI in both clinical and research settings.
    NeuroImage 02/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response is thought to represent a robust biomarker in schizophrenia. Reduced PPI has been demonstrated in subjects at ultra high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis. Imaging studies report disruption of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with schizophrenia. First, we compared the PPI of the acoustic startle response in UHR subjects versus healthy controls, to see if we could replicate previous findings of reduced PPI; secondly, we investigated our hypothesis that PPI would be negatively correlated with striatal synaptic dopamine (DA) concentration. We measured the startle reactivity and PPI of the acoustic startle response in 14 UHR subjects, and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Imaging of 11 UHR subjects and 11 healthy controls was completed by an [(123)I]-IBZM (radiotracer for dopamine D2/3 receptors) SPECT, at baseline and again after DA depletion with alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT). The percentage change in striatal [(123)I]-IBZM radiotracer binding potential is a proxy of striatal synaptic DA concentration. UHR subjects showed reduced PPI, compared to control subjects. In both UHR and control subjects, there were no significant correlations between striatal synaptic DA concentration and PPI. We provide further evidence for the hypothesis that these two biomarkers are measuring different aspects of pathophysiology.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 02/2014; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    Diabetologia 02/2014; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is an increasingly recognized clinical syndrome characterized by acute reversible apical ventricular dysfunction, commonly preceded by exposure to severe physical or emotional stress. In this review, we give a short overview on clinical presentation and treatment of TCM and discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of TCM and the role of various non-invasive imaging modalities in TCM with a focus on the potential role of (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Currently, the dominating hypothesis on the pathophysiology of TCM postulates that high levels of the neurotransmitter epinephrine may trigger a change in intracellular signaling in ventricular myocytes. More specific, epinephrine stimulates G-protein coupled β2 adenoreceptors (β2AR) which are located on ventricular myocytes. Normal levels of this neurotransmitter predominantly stimulate the intracellular G-protein, and induce a positive inotropic effect. However, with significant increasing levels of epinephrine, the predominance of stimulation is shifted from G-stimulating to the G-inhibitor protein coupling, which leads to a negative inotropic effect. Interestingly, this negative inotropic effect is the largest in the apical myocardium where the β2AR:β1AR ratio is the highest within the heart. Echocardiography and ventriculography are essential to diagnose TCM, but new imaging tools are promising to diagnose TCM and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance can be used to differentiate TCM from other myocardial diseases, such as myocarditis. (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) scintigraphy can be used to assess ventricular adrenergic activity and may guide optimization of individual (pharmacological) therapy. These new insights into the possible pathophysiological mechanisms and novel diagnostic imaging modalities can be used as starting point for the development of international guidelines of TCM which may increase the awareness, and optimize the treatment of TCM.
    Journal of Nuclear Cardiology 01/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imaging of the dopaminergic system with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and particularly of the dopamine transporter (DAT) located in the striatum, is a well accepted tool in clinical practice to confirm or exclude loss of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in patients suspected to suffer from Parkinson's disease (PD). SPECT techniques were developed successfully to image neurotransmitter systems, including the presynaptic DAT and postsynaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors, in rat and mouse models of PD. Here we review the results of preclinical SPECT studies of the dopaminergic system in rat and mouse models of PD. Initially, SPECT studies in animal models of PD were performed to validate that micro-SPECT is able to accurately assess parts of the dopaminergic system in small animals in-vivo. However, more recently, micro-SPECT DAT is increasingly used as a research tool to support the interpretation of human DAT SPECT studies in PD, including clinical trials examining the effects of potential neuroprotective drugs. Translational research with SPECT is an interesting development which may further increase our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of PD.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 01/2014; 20S1:S184-S186. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system is present in Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease related dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies, and is thought to contribute to cognitive deficits in these patients. In vivo imaging of the cholinergic system in these diseases may be of value to monitor central cholinergic disturbances and to select cases in which treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors could be beneficial. The muscarinic receptor tracer [(123)I]iododexetimide, predominantly reflecting M1 receptor binding, may be an appropriate tool for imaging of the cholinergic system by means of SPECT. In this study, we used [(123)I]iododexetimide to study the effects of a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion (an animal model of Parkinson's disease) on the muscarinic receptor availability in the rat brain. Rats (n=5) were injected in vivo at 10-13days after a confirmed unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Muscarinic receptor availability was measured bilaterally in multiple brain areas on storage phosphor images by region of interest analysis. Autoradiography revealed a consistent and statistically significant lower [(123)I]iododexetimide binding in all examined neocortical areas on the ipsilateral side of the lesion as compared to the contralateral side. In hippocampal and subcortical areas, such asymmetry was not detected. This study suggests that evaluation of muscarinic receptor availability in dopamine depleted brains using [(123)I]iododexetimide is feasible. We conclude that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions induce a decrease of neocortical muscarinic receptor availability. We hypothesize that this arises from down regulation of muscarinic postsynaptic M1 receptors due to hyperactivation of the cortical cholinergic system in response to dopamine depletion. In rats, dopamine depletion provokes a decrease in neocortical muscarinic receptor availability, which is evaluable by [(123)I]iododexetimide imaging. This study may further underline the role of a dysregulated muscarinic system in patients with Lewy body disorders.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 01/2014; 41(1):90-95. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Essential tremor is regarded to be a disease of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging is a rapidly growing field with potential benefits to both diagnostics and research. The exact role of imaging techniques with respect to essential tremor in research and clinical practice is not clear and a systematic review into the different imaging techniques in essential tremor is lacking the literature. Methods We performed a systematic literature search combining the terms essential tremor and familial tremor with the keywords: imaging, MRI, VBM, DWI, fMRI, PET and SPECT, both in abbreviated as well as in full form. We summarize and discuss the quality and the external validity of each study and place the results in the context of existing knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of essential tremor. Results A total of 48 neuroimaging studies met our search criteria, roughly divided in 19 structural and 29 functional and metabolic studies. The quality of the studies varied, especially concerning inclusion criteria. Functional imaging studies indicated cerebellar hyperactivity during rest and during tremor. The studies also pointed to involvement of the thalamus, the inferior olive and the red nucleus. Structural studies showed less consistent results. Discussion and conclusion Neuroimaging techniques in essential tremor give insight in the pathophysiology of essential tremor indicating involvement of the cerebellum as most consistent finding. GABAergic dysfunction might be a major premise in the pathophysiological hypotheses. Inconsistencies between studies can be partly explained by the inclusion of heterogeneous patient groups. Improvement of scientific research requires more stringent inclusion criteria and application of advanced analysis techniques. Also, the use of multimodal neuroimaging techniques is a promising development in movement disorders research. Currently, the role of imaging techniques in essential tremor in daily clinical practice is limited.
    NeuroImage: Clinical. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin-mediated mechanisms, in particular via the serotonin transporter (SERT), are thought to have an effect on food intake and play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, imaging studies that examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and SERT are sparse and provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was to further test the association between SERT and BMI in a large cohort of healthy subjects. Methods: 127 subjects of the ENC DAT database (58 females, age 52±18 years, range 20–83, BMI 25.2±3.8 kg/m2, range 18.2–41.1) were analyzed using region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-based approaches to calculate [123I]FP-CIT specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios (SBR) in the hypothalamus/thalamus and midbrain/brainstem as SERT-specific target regions. Results: In the voxel-based analysis, SERT availability and BMI were positively associated in the thalamus, but not in the midbrain. In the ROI-analysis, the interaction between gender and BMI showed a trend with higher correlation coefficient for men in the midbrain albeit not significant (0.03 SBR⁎m2/kg, p=0.1). Conclusions: The data are in agreement with previous PET findings of an altered central serotonergic tone depending on BMI, as a probable pathophysiologic mechanism in obesity, and should encourage further clinical studies in obesity targeting the serotonergic system.
    European Neuropsychopharmacology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA) can be challenging especially early in the course of the disease. Previous studies have shown that midbrain serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in patients with established MSA was significantly lower compared to PD. It is unknown if this is also true for early-stage patients. Methods. 77 early-stage, untreated PD patients were recruited between 1995 and 1998, underwent [(123)I] β -CIT SPECT imaging, and were followed for at least five years. 16 patients were lost to followup, and in 4 the diagnosis was changed to another atypical parkinsonian syndrome, but not in MSA. In 50 patients, the PD diagnosis was unchanged at followup. In seven patients, the diagnosis was changed to MSA at followup. We retrospectively assessed baseline midbrain SERT availability as well as midbrain SERT-to-striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) ratios. Results. No difference in baseline [(123)I] β -CIT SERT availability was found. The midbrain SERT-to-striatal DAT ratio for whole striatum was significantly lower in patients with PD compared to MSA (P = 0.049). However, when adjusting for the disease duration at imaging this difference is not significant (P = 0.070). Conclusion. Midbrain SERT availability is not different between early-stage PD and MSA. Therefore, SERT imaging is not useful to differentiate between early PD and MSA.
    ISRN neurology. 01/2014; 2014:345132.

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,044.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Universität Heidelberg
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1997–2014
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Neurology
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1992–2014
    • University of Amsterdam
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Stavanger University Hospital
      • Division of Psychiatry
      Stavanger, Rogaland Fylke, Norway
    • University of Antwerp
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2008–2012
    • Academic Medical Center (AMC)
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Image Sciences Institute
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2003–2012
    • VU University Medical Center
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research
      • • Department of Medical Psychology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • Université de Caen Basse-Normandie
      • Groupe Mémoire et Plasticité comportementale (GMPc)
      Caen, Basse-Normandie, France
    • Akershus universitetssykehus
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 1995–2009
    • VU University Amsterdam
      • Department of Neurology
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Institute of Psychology (IOP)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands