[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of previously undiagnosed arrhythmias in candidates for TAVR and to determine its impact on therapy changes and arrhythmic events following the procedure.
-A total of 435 candidates for TAVR underwent 24-hour continuous electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring the day before the procedure. Newly diagnosed arrhythmias were observed in 70 patients (16.1%) before TAVR: paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial tachycardia (AT) in 28, advanced atrio-ventricular block (AVB) or severe bradycardia in 24, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 26, and intermittent left bundle branch block (LBBB) in 3 patients. All arrhythmic events but one were asymptomatic, and led to a therapy change in 43% of patients. In patients without known AF/AT, the occurrence of AF/AT during 24-hour ECG recording was associated with a higher rate of 30-day cerebrovascular events (7.1% vs 0.4%, P=0.030). Among the 53 patients with new-onset AF/AT after TAVR, 30.2% had newly diagnosed paroxysmal AF/AT before the procedure. In patients who needed permanent pacemaker implantation following the procedure (n=35), 31.4% had newly diagnosed advanced AVB or severe bradycardia before TAVR. New-onset persistent LBBB following TAVR occurred in 37 patients, 8.1% of whom had intermittent LBBB before the procedure.
-Newly diagnosed arrhythmias were observed in about a fifth of TAVR candidates, led to a higher rate of cerebrovascular events and accounted for a third of arrhythmic events following the procedure. This high arrhythmia burden highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of arrhythmic events in such patients in order to implement the appropriate therapeutic measures earlier on.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant paravalvular leak (PVL) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) confers a worse prognosis. Symptoms related to significant PVL may be difficult to differentiate from those related to other causes of heart failure. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) directly quantifies valvular regurgitation, but has not been extensively studied in symptomatic post-TAVR patients.
CMR was compared to qualitative (QE) and semi-quantitative echocardiography (SQE) for classifying PVL and prognostic value at one year post-imaging in 23 symptomatic post-TAVR patients. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, heart failure hospitalization, and intractable symptoms necessitating repeat invasive therapy; the secondary outcome was a composite of all-cause death and heart failure hospitalization. The difference in event-free survival according to greater than mild PVL versus mild or less PVL by QE, SQE, and CMR were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
Compared to QE, CMR reclassified PVL severity in 48% of patients, with most patients (31%) reclassified to at least one grade higher. Compared to SQE, CMR reclassified PVL severity in 57% of patients, all being reclassified to at least one grade lower; SQE overestimated PVL severity (mean grade 2.5 versus 1.7, p = 0.001). The primary and secondary outcomes occurred in 48% and 35% of patients, respectively. Greater than mild PVL by CMR was associated with reduced event-free survival for the primary outcome (p < 0.0001), however greater than mild PVL by QE and SQE were not (p = 0.83 and p = 0.068). Greater than mild PVL by CMR was associated with reduced event-free survival for the secondary outcome, as well (p = 0.012).
In symptomatic post-TAVR patients, CMR commonly reclassifies PVL grade compared with QE and SQE. CMR provides superior prognostic value compared to QE and SQE, as patients with greater than mild PVL by CMR (RF > 20%) had a higher incidence of adverse events.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 12/2014; 16:93. · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging inflammatory and immune biomarker. Whether suPAR level predicts the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and of incident death and myocardial infarction (MI) in subjects with suspected CAD, is unknown.
Journal of the American Heart Association. 10/2014; 3(5):e001118.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echocardiography is frequently the initial noninvasive imaging modality used to assess patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Standard transthoracic echocardiography can provide, even in the acute care setting, useful information about left ventricular (LV) morphology as well as regional and global systolic or diastolic function. It allows the differentiation of different LV morphologic patterns according to the localization of wall motion abnormalities. A “circumferential pattern” of LV myocardial dysfunction characterized by symmetric wall motion abnormalities involving the midventricular segments of the anterior, inferior, and lateral walls should be considered suggestive of TTC and included in the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Moreover, advanced echocardiographic techniques, including speckle-tracking, myocardial contrast, and coronary flow studies, are providing mechanistic and pathophysiologic insights into this unique syndrome. Early identification of any potential complications (i.e., LV outflow tract obstruction, reversible moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, right ventricular involvement, thrombus formation, and cardiac rupture) are crucial for the management, risk stratification, and follow-up of patients with TTC. Because of the dynamic evolution of the syndrome, comprehensive serial echocardiographic examinations should be systematically performed. This review focuses on these aspects of imaging and the increasing understanding of the clinical and prognostic utility of echocardiography in TTC.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. 10/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TF TAVR) performed in a catheterization laboratory (minimalist approach [MA]) with TF TAVR performed in a hybrid operating room (standard approach [SA]).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve replacement is increasingly being performed as operator and center experience in transcatheter valve replacement technology and techniques have accrued. Complications, such as valve embolization and paravalvular regurgitation, still occur and relate to valve deployment. The use of novel imaging techniques, such as 3D echocardiography, allows for better differentiation of cardiac structures and appropriate positioning of the transcatheter valve using well-visualized anatomical landmarks. Here the authors describe in images and video the use of 3D echocardiography for deployment of a mitral valve-in-valve.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study sought to examine the relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM) regression and clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on a case of suspected ischemic heart disease we review hiatal hernia causing chest pain. Rest echocardiography images were suggestive of cardiac mass in the left atrium. Dobutamine stress echocardiogram was negative for inducible ischemia. Multi-slice computed tomography of the chest was performed showing that a large hiatal hernia was present compressing on the left atrium. Multimodality imaging is necessary for suspected mass compressing the heart, causing chest discomfort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : The role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in cardiovascular atheroprotection is well established. Epidemiological data have clearly demonstrated an inverse relationship between HDL levels and the risk for coronary artery disease, which is independent of the low-density lipoprotein levels. However, more recent data provide evidence that high HDL levels are not always protective and that under certain conditions may even confer an increased risk. Thus, a new concept has arisen, which stresses the importance of HDL functionality, rather than HDL concentration per se, in the assessment of cardiovascular risk. HDL functionality is genetically defined but can also be modified by several environmental and lifestyle factors, such as diet, smoking or certain pharmacologic interventions. Furthermore, HDL is consisted of a heterogeneous group of particles with major differences in their structural, biological and functional properties. Recently, the cholesterol efflux capacity from macrophages was proven to be an excellent metric of HDL functionality, because it was shown to have a strong inverse relationship with the risk of angiographically documented coronary artery disease, independent of the HDL and apolipoprotein A-1 levels, although it may not actually predict the prospective risk for cardiovascular events. Thus, improving the quality of HDL may represent a better therapeutic target than simply raising the HDL level, and assessment of HDL function may prove informative in refining our understanding of HDL-mediated atheroprotection.
The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 03/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although CAD was formerly considered a lipid accumulation-mediated disease, it has now been clearly shown to involve an ongoing inflammatory response. Advances in basic science research have established the crucial role of inflammation in mediating all stages of CAD. Today, there is convincing evidence that multiple inter-related immune mechanisms interact with metabolic risk factors to initiate, promote and ultimately activate lesions in the coronary arteries. This review aims to provide current evidence pertaining to the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of CAD and discusses the impact of inflammatory markers and their modification on clinical outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in coronary artery disease is prominent. CMR provides functional and structural heart disease assessment with high accuracy. It allows accurate cardiac volume and flow quantification and wall motion analysis both at rest and at stress. CMR myocardial perfusion studies detect myocardial ischemia and provide insights into the morphology of the myocardial tissue. CMR imaging noninvasively differentiates causes of myocardial injury such as ischemia or inflammation; stages of myocardial injury, such as acute or chronic; grade of myocardial damage, such as reversible or irreversible; myocardial fibrosis or scar. There is an emerging role of CMR in patients with acute chest presentation since it can demonstrate causes of chest pain other than coronary artery disease such as myocarditis, pericarditis, aortic dissection and pulmonary embolism. CMR is noninvasive and radiation-free. It's combined approach of functional and structural cardiac assessment makes it unique compared with other imaging modalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multimodality imaging of aortitis is useful for identification of acute and chronic mural changes due to inflammation, edema, and fibrosis, as well as characterization of structural luminal changes including aneurysm and stenosis or occlusion. Identification of related complications such as dissection, hematoma, ulceration, rupture, and thrombosis is also important. Imaging is often vital for obtaining specific diagnoses (i.e., Takayasu arteritis) or is used adjunctively in atypical cases (i.e., giant cell arteritis). The extent of disease is established at baseline, with associated therapeutic and prognostic implications. Imaging of aortitis may be useful for screening, routine follow up, and evaluation of treatment response in certain clinical settings. Localization of disease activity and structural abnormality is useful for guiding biopsy or surgical revascularization or repair. In this review, we discuss the available imaging modalities for diagnosis and management of the spectrum of aortitis disorders that cardiovascular physicians should be familiar with for facilitating optimal patient care.