Jacqueline Van De Walle

Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, WAL, Belgium

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Publications (9)25.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The intake of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin contaminating cereal food items, causes gastro-intestinal illness in human and animal. This study investigated whether intracellular inflammatory cascades (MAPKs and NF-κB), cell maturity (proliferating vs. differentiated), cell state (control vs. inflamed) and exposure duration (chronic vs. acute) affect IL-8 secretion and PGE-2 synthesis in Caco-2 cells exposed to plausible intestinal concentrations (50, 500 and 5000 ng/ml) of DON. IL-8 secretion and PGE-2 synthesizing capacity were dose-dependently upregulated in differentiated Caco-2 cells exposed to DON during 24h, reaching an increase of ∼25 and 1.7-fold respectively, whereas transcript level of IL-8 and COX-2 were increased by ∼40 and 17-fold. Similar results were obtained with proliferating cells. The upregulation decreased upon simultaneous incubation with inhibitors of MAPKs ERK1/2 or p38 or of transcription factor NF-κB. IL-8 secretion and PGE-2 synthesizing capacity increased respectively by ∼15 and 2-fold after chronic 21 day incubation with DON (50 ng/ml). IL-8 production was exacerbated (∼510-fold versus negative control) upon simultaneous exposure to inflammatory stimuli. These results suggest activation of inflammatory pathways in intestinal epithelial cells exposed chronically or acutely to DON. The sensitivity to DON, whereas not affected by cell differentiation, is exacerbated by the presence of additional stimuli.
    Toxicology in Vitro 10/2010; 24(7):1890-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterocytes regulate gut maintenance and defence by secreting and responding to inflammatory mediators and by modulating the intestinal epithelial permeability. In order to develop an in vitro model of the acute phase of intestinal inflammation, Caco-2 cells were exposed to the inflammatory mediators IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and LPS, and the importance of several experimental parameters, i.e. cell differentiation, stimulus nature, concentration and combination on the inflammatory response was assessed by measuring the production of IL-6, IL-8, PGE-2 and NO and by evaluating the monolayer permeability. A maximal increase in IL-8, IL-6 and PGE-2 production and monolayer permeability was observed when using the cytokines simultaneously at their highest level, but this relied mainly on IL-1beta. The effects of TNF-alpha on IL-8 and IL-6 or NO production were stronger upon combination with IL-1beta or IFN-gamma, respectively, whereas cells were unaffected by the presence of LPS. Although NO production, induced by IFN-gamma-containing combinations, was observed only in differentiated cells, general inflammatory response was higher in proliferating cells. The use of a mixture of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma thus accurately mimics intestinal inflammatory processes, but cell differentiation and stimuli combination are important parameters to take into account for in vitro studies on intestinal inflammation.
    Toxicology in Vitro 08/2010; 24(5):1441-9. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Toxicology Letters 07/2010; 196. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of raw and processed cereal food, adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Since DON acts as a protein synthesis inhibitor, the constantly renewing intestinal epithelium could be particularly sensitive to DON. We analyzed the toxicological effects of DON on intestinal epithelial protein synthesis and barrier integrity. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, as a widely used model of the human intestinal barrier, were exposed to realistic intestinal concentrations of DON (50, 500 and 5000 ng/ml) during 24h. DON caused a concentration-dependent decrease in total protein content associated with a reduction in the incorporation of [(3)H]-leucine, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis. DON simultaneously increased the paracellular permeability of the monolayer as reflected through a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance associated with an increased paracellular flux of the tracer [(3)H]-mannitol. A concentration-dependent reduction in the expression level of the tight junction constituent claudin-4 was demonstrated by Western blot, which was not due to diminished transcription, increased degradation, or NF-kappaB, ERK or JNK activation, and was also observed for a tight junction independent protein, i.e. intestinal alkaline phosphatase. These results demonstrate a dual toxicological effect of DON on differentiated Caco-2 cells consisting in an inhibition of protein synthesis as well as an increase in monolayer permeability, and moreover suggest a possible link between them through diminished synthesis of the tight junction constituent claudin-4.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2010; 245(3):291-8. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) are involved in transduction cascades that play a key role in inflammatory response. We tested the ability of preselected natural polyphenolic extracts (grape seed, cocoa, sugar cane, oak, mangosteen and pomegranate) to modulate intestinal inflammation using human intestinal Caco-2 cells treated for 4h with these extracts and then stimulated by cytokines for 24 or 48h. The effect of polyphenolic extracts, at 50 micromol of gallic acid equivalent/l, was investigated on inflammation-related cellular events: (i) NF-kappaB activity (cells transfected with a NF-kappaB-luciferase construct), (ii) activation of Erk1/2 and JNK (western blotting), (iii) secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8) (ELISA), (iv) secretion of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) (ELISA), (v) production of NO (Griess method). Results show that: (i) sugar cane, oak and pomegranate extracts inhibited NF-kappaB activity (from 1.6 to 1.9-fold) (P<0.001); (ii) pomegranate slightly inhibited Erk1/2 activation (1.3-fold) (P=0.008); (iii) oak and pomegranate decreased NO synthesis by 1.5-fold (P<0.001) and that of IL-8 by 10.3 and 6.7-fold respectively; (iv) pomegranate and cocoa decreased PGE(2) synthesis by 4.6 (P<0.0001) and 2.2-fold (P=0.001), respectively. We suggest that pomegranate extract could be particularly promising in dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 03/2009; 47(6):1221-30. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies support beneficial effects of polyphenols in various chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, the inflammatory bowel diseases. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by polyphenols could explain part of their anti-inflammatory properties, but few data are available on the intestine. The purpose of the present study was thus to investigate the effects of some polyphenols on NF-kappaB activation using human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Effects of standard polyphenols (50 mumol/l) were studied on different cellular events associated with NF-kappaB activation: (i) NF-kappaB activity using cells transiently transfected with a NF-kappaB-luciferase construct and stimulated by inflammatory agents (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha or lipopolysaccharides (LPS)); (ii) phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB-alpha) analysed by Western blot; (iii) secretion of IL-8 quantified by ELISA assay. Results showed that chrysin and ellagic acid inhibited NF-kappaB activity, whereas genistein and resveratrol increased it. These effects were independent of the nature of the inducer, indicating that polyphenols may modulate NF-kappaB activation by acting on a common event to the cytokine- and LPS-mediated cascades. Chrysin strongly reduced (2.5-fold) IL-1beta-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation, whereas ellagic acid increased it (1.7-fold). Ellagic acid, genistein and epigallocatechin gallate reduced (4- to 8-fold) IL-1beta-induced IL-8 secretion, while resveratrol promoted (1.7-fold) the secretion. Chrysin also diminished IL-8 secretion by 1.6-fold (but P>0.05). The data indicate that polyphenols can modulate the NF-kappaB activation pathway in the intestine. Chrysin could block NF-kappaB activation via the inhibition of IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation. The other molecular targets of the active polyphenols are still to be identified.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2008; 100(3):542-51. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin in crops in Europe and North America. In human intestinal Caco-2 cells, DON activates the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). We hypothesized a link between DON ingestion and intestinal inflammation, and used Caco-2 cells to assess the effects of DON, at plausible intestinal concentrations (250-10,000 ng/ml), on inflammatory mediators acting downstream the MAPKs cascade i.e. activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion. In addition, Caco-2 cells were co-exposed to pro-inflammatory stimuli in order to mimic an inflamed intestinal epithelium. Dose-dependent increases in NF-kappaB activity and IL-8 secretion were observed, reaching 1.4- and 7.6-fold, respectively using DON at 10 microg/ml. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-kappaB (IkappaB) increased (1.6-fold) at DON levels <0.5 microg/ml. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to pro-inflammatory agents, i.e. 25 ng/ml interleukin-1beta, 100 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-alpha or 10 microg/ml lipopolysaccharides, activated NF-kappaB and increased IL-8 secretion. Synergistic interactions between these stimuli and DON were observed. These data show that DON induces NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 secretion dose-dependently in Caco-2 cells, and this effect was accentuated upon pro-inflammatory stimulation, suggesting DON exposure could cause or exacerbate intestinal inflammation.
    Toxicology Letters 04/2008; 177(3):205-14. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Toxicology Letters 10/2007; 172. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Toxicology Letters - TOXICOL LETT. 01/2007; 172.