[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Every part of Vernonia cinerea Less. has been reported for medicinal uses as they all have various therapeutic values with many kinds of pure compounds isolated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the cytoprotective effect and mechanisms of a whole plant extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from nicotine toxicity. Cytotoxic ability of nicotine and V. cinerea extract to HUVECs were determined by proliferation assay using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol,2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent. After that, the cytoprotective effect of V. cinerea was assessed by examining the presence of vacuole-like structures in cells exposed to 5 or 7.5 mM nicotine with and without V. cinerea water extract and stained them with crystal violet. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to confirm the mRNA levels of genes involved in intracellular antioxidant system. Although 0.1 to 5 mM nicotine showed no toxic effect on HUVECs during 7 days treatment, abnormal features, that is, the vacuole-like structures were found in the cytoplasm of exposed HUVECs. V. cinerea water extract of 100, 500 and 1,000 µg/ml mixed with 5 mM nicotine reduced the numbers of cells containing vacuole-like structures in the cytoplasm of HUVECs with the dose- and time-dependent fashion. The mRNA of catalase and catalase activity in HUVECs exposed to 5 mM nicotine was significantly down-regulated, but recovered when the cells were treated with V. cinerea extract. V. cinerea extract could be useful in protecting endothelial cells from nicotine toxicity possibly via intracellular antioxidant mechanism, catalase.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To assess the antioxidant effects of gamma-oryzanol on human prostate cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxic activity of gamma-oryzanol on human DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells was determined by proliferation assay using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol, 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent. mRNA levels of genes involved in the intracellular antioxidant system, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cancer cell lysates were used to measure lipid peroxidation using thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Glutathione contents of the cell lysates were estimated by the reaction between sulfhydryl group of 5, 5'-dithio (bis) nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) to produce a yellow- color of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid using colorimetric assay. Catalase activity was also analysed by examining peroxidative function. Protein concentration was estimated by Bradford's assay. Results: All concentrations of gamma-oryzanol, 0.1-2.0mg/ml, significantly inhibited cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in both prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3. Gene expression of catalase in DU145 and PC3 exposed to gamma-orizanol at 0.5mg/ml for 14 days was down regulated, while mRNA of GPX was also down regulated in PC3. The MDA and glutathione levels including catalase activity in the cell lysates of DU145 and PC3 treated with gamma-oryzanol 0.1 and 0.5mg/ml were generally decreased. Conclusions: This study highlighted effects of gamma-oryzanol via the down-regulation of antioxidant genes, catalase and GPX, not cytotoxic roles. This might be interesting for adjuvant chemotherapy to make prostate cancer cells more sensitive to free radicals. It might be useful for the reduction of cytotoxic agents and cancer chemoprevention.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2013; 14(9):5421-5. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetylcysteine (NAC), is one of the cheapest, safest and widely used over-the-counter-drugs in Thailand. Here the authors examine the antimetastatic potential of NAC on the metastasis of human prostate cancer cells.
Cytotoxicity of NAC to human prostate cancer cells, DU145 and PC3, were determined by proliferation assay using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol, 2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent. Cell migration and invasion were assessed by using a chemotaxis chamber containing membrane pre-coated with collagen IV and Matrigel, respectively. Cell attachment onto the surface of the membrane coated with collagen IV was tested for its adhesion potentiality.
NAC could inhibit the growth of DU145 and PC3 cells. Suppression of migration and invasion of both human prostrate cancer cells were observed. Cell attachment to the collagen IV-coated surface was obviously reduced. All inhibitions occurred in a dose-dependent fashion in both cell lines.
NAC could have a high potential in attenuating the migration of the human prostate cancer cells from their primary site and their adhesion and invasion to the remote locations. Hence, NAC might suppress the growth of the primary and the secondary tumors. Our findings suggest that NAC had a high possibility to become an antimetastatic agent for testing in clinical trials. Then, NAC might be used clinically as an optional adjuvant therapeutic drug in addition to the conventional standard treatment of human prostate cancer, obtaining a better outcome with the least toxic and affordable substance.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 12/2012; 95 Suppl 12:S56-62.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is not only a major public health and economically burden for the patients but also a major clinical impact for Thai urologists. The authors' aim was to study the anti-metastatic effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), one of the cheap, safe and widely used over-the-counter-drugs in Thailand, on the human bladder cancer cells.
Effects of NAC at various concentrations on the growth, adhesion, migration, and invasion of the human bladder cancer cell line were assessed in vitro.
NAC at the concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 30 mM could directly and significantly inhibit the growth, adhesion, migration, and invasion of the human bladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for cell viability was 33.33 +/- 0.78 mM. The inhibitory effects on migration, invasion and adhesion properties of the cancer cells were dramatically observed at the concentrations of > or = 10, > or = 20 and > or = 30 mM respectively.
NAC has an anti-metastatic effect on the human bladder cancer cells by inhibiting their growth, adhesion, migration, and invasion properties. This implies the high possibility that the urologists may apply the results to use it intravesically before, during and after the transurethral resection of bladder tumour in addition to its conventional usage by oral and parenteral routes.
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 09/2009; 92(9):1171-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contents of bioactive components, free radical scavenging and anti-acne producing bacteria activities of young and mature fruit rind extracts of mangosteen were compared. The young fruit rind extract contained significantly higher contents of phenolics and tannins and promoted higher free radical scavenging activity than the mature fruit rind extract, while the later extract contained higher contents of flavonoids and alpha-mangostin xanthone and gave higher anti-acne producing bacteria activity than the young fruit rind extract. Thus, the young and mature stages of mangosteen fruit rind should be beneficial for further development of antioxidant and anti-acne pharmaceutical preparations, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton) from several extracting and drying methods using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging assay.
The leaves of Siamese neem tree were extracted using percolation, decoction, maceration, soxhlet extraction, freeze drying or spray drying methods. The extract was tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH-scavenging assay. Thin-layer chromatography of the extract from decoction was also investigated.
The freeze drying method gave the highest yield (51.50%, w/w) of crude extract, while decoction gave the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50): 31.4 microg/ml). Thin-layer chromatography analysis was used to screen the leaf extract obtained using decoction, and the chromatogram showed spots corresponding to quercetin and rutin flavonoids which exhibited antioxidant activities (EC(50): 2.29 and 34.67 microg/ml, respectively).
Siamese neem tree leaf extracts possessed free radical scavenging activity against the DPPH radical. The most active extract was obtained with the leaf decoction method. It showed antioxidant activity with EC(50) of 31.4 microg/ml.
Medical Principles and Practice 02/2006; 15(3):219-22. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leaves, fruits, flowers and stem bark extracts from the Siamese neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton, Meliaceae) were assessed for antioxidant activity in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay, total antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in Chago K1 cancer cell culture by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. The results showed that leaf aqueous extract, flower and stem bark ethanol extracts exhibited higher free radical scavenging effect on the DPPH assay with 50% scavenging activity at 26.5, 27.9 and 30.6 microg/ml, respectively. The total antioxidant activity of these extracts was found to be 0.959, 0.988 and 1.064 mM of standard trolox, respectively. At 100 microg/ml, the flower ethanol and leaf aqueous extracts significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (46.0 and 50.6%, respectively) by the TBARS method. The results suggest that extracts from leaf, flower and stem bark of the Siamese neem tree have strong antioxidant potential. This report supports the ethnomedical use of young leaves and flowers of this plant as a vegetable bitter tonic to promote good health.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 06/2005; 99(1):109-12. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate metabolites of the lichen Laurera benguelensis. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the characterization of xanthones and anthraquinones in extracts of this lichen. Lichexanthone, secalonic acid D, norlichexanthon, parietin, emodin, teloschistin and citreorosein were detected in the lichen samples, which were collected from two places in Thailand. Components of the lichen were identified by relative retention time and spectral data. This is the first time that a detailed phytochemical analysis of the lichen L. benguelensis was reported and this paper has chemotaxonomic significance because very little has been published on the secondary metabolites present in Laurera species. Some of the metabolites were detected for the first time in the family Trypetheliaceae. The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity.
Biological research 43(2):169-76. · 1.13 Impact Factor