Tomasz Szul

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States

Are you Tomasz Szul?

Claim your profile

Publications (15)67.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and persists after cigarette smoking has stopped. Mechanisms involved in this ongoing inflammatory response have not been delineated. Objective: We investigated changes to the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) - proline-glycine-proline (PGP) pathway and chronic inflammation in the development of COPD. Methods: A/J mice were exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 22 weeks followed by bronchoalveolar lavage, lung and cardiac tissue analysis. Two human cohorts were used to analyze changes to the LTA4H-PGP pathway in never smokers, control smokers, COPD smokers, and COPD former smokers. PGP/AcPGP and LTA4H aminopeptidase activity were detected by mass spectroscopy, LTA4H amounts were detected by ELISA, and acrolein was detected by Western blot. Measurements and Main Results: Mice exposed to cigarette smoke developed emphysema with increased PGP, neutrophilic inflammation, and selective inhibition of LTA4H aminopeptidase, which ordinarily degrades PGP. We recapitulated these findings in smokers with and without COPD. PGP and AcPGP are closely associated with cigarette smoke use. Once chronic inflammation is established, changes to LTA4H aminopeptidase remain, even in the absence of ongoing cigarette use. Acrolein acetylates LTA4H and inhibits aminopeptidase activity to the same extent as cigarette smoke. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a novel pathway of aberrant regulation of PGP/AcPGP, suggesting this inflammatory pathway may be intimately involved in disease progression in the absence of ongoing cigarette smoke exposure. We highlight a mechanism by which acrolein potentiates neutrophilic inflammation through selective inhibition of LTA4H aminopeptidase activity.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 05/2014; · 11.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RSV infection is a potent stimulus for airway epithelial expression of MMP-9, and MMP-9 activity in vivo is a predictor of disease severity in children with RSV-induced respiratory failure (RSV-RF).Human airway epithelial cells were infected with RSV A2 strain, and analysed for MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1, a natural inhibitor of MMP-9) release. In addition, endotracheal samples from children with RSV-RF and controls (non-RSV pneumonia and non-lung disease controls) were analysed for MMP-9, TIMP-1, human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity.RSV infection of airway epithelia was sufficient to rapidly induce MMP-9 transcription and protein release. Pulmonary MMP-9 activity peaked at 48 hours in infants with RSV-RF compared to controls. In the RSV group, MMP-9 activity and MMP-9:TIMP-1 ratio imbalance predicted higher oxygen requirement and worse Paediatric Risk of Mortality scores. Highest levels of HNE and MPO were measured in the RSV cohort but unlike MMP-9, these neutrophil markers failed to predict disease severity.These results support the hypothesis that RSV is a potent stimulus for MMP-9 expression and release from human airway epithelium, and that MMP-9 is an important biomarker of disease severity in mechanically ventilated children with RSV lung infection.
    European Respiratory Journal 12/2013; · 6.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three Sec7 Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) activate ADP-Ribosylation Factors (ARFs) to facilitate coating of transport vesicles within the secretory and endosomal pathways. GBF1 recruits COPI to pre-Golgi and Golgi compartments, while BIG1 and BIG2 recruit AP1 and GGA clathrin adaptors to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. Here, we report a functional cascade between these GEFs by showing that GBF1-activated ARFs (ARF4 and ARF5, but not ARF3) facilitate BIG1 and BIG2 recruitment to the TGN. We localize GBF1 ultrastructurally to the pre-Golgi, the Golgi and also the TGN. Our findings suggest a model in which GBF1 localized within pre-Golgi and Golgi compartments mediates ARF activation to facilitate recruitment of COPI to membranes, while GBF1 localized at the TGN mediates ARF activation that leads to the recruitment of BIG1 and BIG2 to the TGN. Membrane-associated BIG1/2 then activate ARFs that recruit clathrin adaptors. In this cascade, an early acting GEF (GBF1) activates ARFs that mediate recruitment of late acting GEFs (BIG1/2) to coordinate coating events within the pre-Golgi/Golgi/TGN continuum. Such coordination may optimize the efficiency and/or selectivity of cargo trafficking through the compartments of the secretory pathway.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tethering factor p115 (known as Uso1p in yeast) has been shown to facilitate Golgi biogenesis and membrane traffic in cells in culture. However, the role of p115 within an intact animal is largely unknown. Here, we document that depletion of p115 by using RNA interference (RNAi) in C. elegans causes accumulation of the 170 kD soluble yolk protein (YP170) in the body cavity and retention of the yolk receptor RME-2 in the ER and the Golgi within oocytes. Structure-function analyses of p115 have identified two homology regions (H1 and H2) within the N-terminal globular head and the coiled-coil 1 (CC1) domain as essential for p115 function. We identify a new C-terminal domain of p115 as necessary for Golgi ribbon formation and cargo trafficking. We show that p115 mutants that lack the fourth CC domain (CC4) act in a dominant-negative manner to disrupt Golgi and prevent cargo trafficking in cells containing endogenous p115. Furthermore, using RNAi of p115 and the subsequent transfection with p115 deletion mutants, we show that CC4 is necessary for Golgi ribbon formation and membrane trafficking in cells depleted of endogenous p115. p115 has been shown to bind a subset of ER-Golgi SNAREs through CC1 and CC4 domains (Shorter et al., 2002). Our findings show that CC4 is required for p115 function, and suggest that both the CC1 and the CC4 SNARE-binding motifs participate in p115-mediated membrane tethering.
    Journal of Cell Science 02/2012; 125(Pt 8):1896-909. · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • Tomasz Szul, Elizabeth Sztul
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein traffic is necessary to maintain homeostasis in all eukaryotic organisms. All newly synthesized secretory proteins destined to the secretory and endolysosmal systems are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi before delivery to their final destinations. Here, we describe the COPII and COPI coating machineries that generate carrier vesicles and the tethers and SNAREs that mediate COPII and COPI vesicle fusion at the ER-Golgi interface.
    Physiology 10/2011; 26(5):348-64. · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and their activating guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) play key roles in membrane traffic and signaling. All ARF GEFs share a ∼200-residue Sec7 domain (Sec7d) that alone catalyzes the GDP to GTP exchange that activates ARF. We determined the crystal structure of human BIG2 Sec7d. A C-terminal loop immediately following helix J (loop>J) was predicted to form contacts with helix H and the switch I region of the cognate ARF, suggesting that loop>J may participate in the catalytic reaction. Indeed, we identified multiple alanine substitutions within loop>J of the full length and/or Sec7d of two large brefeldin A-sensitive GEFs (GBF1 and BIG2) and one small brefeldin A-resistant GEF (ARNO) that abrogated binding of ARF and a single alanine substitution that allowed ARF binding but inhibited GDP to GTP exchange. Loop>J sequences are highly conserved, suggesting that loop>J plays a crucial role in the catalytic activity of all ARF GEFs. Using GEF mutants unable to bind ARF, we showed that GEFs associate with membranes independently of ARF and catalyze ARF activation in vivo only when membrane-associated. Our structural, cell biological, and biochemical findings identify loop>J as a key regulatory motif essential for ARF binding and GDP to GTP exchange by GEFs and provide evidence for the requirement of membrane association during GEF activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(42):36898-906. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of ArfGAP1 in COPI vesicle biogenesis has been controversial. In work using isolated Golgi membranes, ArfGAP1 was found to promote COPI vesicle formation. In contrast, in studies using large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) as model membranes, ArfGAP1 functioned as an uncoating factor inhibiting COPI vesicle formation. We set out to discriminate between these models. First, we reexamined the effect of ArfGAP1 on LUVs. We found that ArfGAP1 increased the efficiency of coatomer-induced deformation of LUVs. Second, ArfGAP1 and peptides from cargo facilitated self-assembly of coatomer into spherical structures in the absence of membranes, reminiscent of clathrin self-assembly. Third, in vivo, ArfGAP1 overexpression induced the accumulation of vesicles and allowed normal trafficking of a COPI cargo. Taken together, these data support the model in which ArfGAP1 promotes COPI vesicle formation and membrane traffic and identify a function for ArfGAP1 in the assembly of coatomer into COPI.
    Cellular logistics. 01/2011; 1(4):139-154.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Surface delivery of proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in cultured mammalian cells requires the GBF1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, the role of GBF1 in delivery of adhesion proteins during organogenesis in intact animals has not been characterized. Here, we report the function of the fly GBF1 homolog, Gartenzwerg (Garz) in the development of the salivary gland in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the GAL4/UAS system to selectively deplete Garz from salivary gland cells. We show that depletion of Garz disrupts the secretory pathway as evidenced by the collapse of Golgi-localized Lava lamp (Lva) and the TGN-localized γ subunit of the clathrin-adaptor protein complex (AP-1). Additionally, Garz depletion inhibits trafficking of cell-cell adhesion proteins cadherin (DE-cad) and Flamingo to the cell surface. Disregulation of trafficking correlates with mistargeting of the tumor suppressor protein Discs large involved in epithelial polarity determination. Garz-depleted salivary cells are smaller and lack well-defined plasma membrane domains. Garz depletion also inhibits normal elongation and positioning of epithelial cells, resulting in a disorganized salivary gland that lacks a well defined luminal duct. Our findings suggest that Garz is essential for establishment of epithelial structures and demonstrate an absolute requirement for Garz during Drosophila development.
    Cellular logistics. 01/2011; 1(2):69-76.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ATP7A (MNK) regulates copper homeostasis by translocating from a compartment localized within the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to increased copper load. The mechanisms that regulate the biogenesis of the MNK compartment and the trafficking of MNK are unclear. Here we show that the architecture of the MNK compartment is linked to the structure of the Golgi ribbon. Depletion of p115 tethering factor, which causes fragmentation of the Golgi ribbon, also disrupts the MNK compartment. In p115-depleted cells, MNK localizes to punctate structures that pattern on Golgi ministacks dispersed throughout the cell. Despite altered localization MNK trafficking still occurs, and MNK relocates from and returns to the fragmented compartment in response to copper. We further show that the biogenesis of the MNK compartment requires activation of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)1 GTPase, shown previously to facilitate the biogenesis of the Golgi ribbon. Activation of cellular Arf1 is prevented by 1) expressing an inactive "empty" form of Arf (Arf1/N126I), 2) expressing an inactive form of GBF1 (GBF1/E794K), guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf1, or 3) treating cells with brefeldin A, an inhibitor of GBF1 that disrupts MNK into a diffuse pattern. Importantly, preventing Arf activation inhibits copper-responsive trafficking of MNK to the PM. Our findings support a model in which active Arf is essential for the generation of the MNK compartment and for copper-responsive trafficking of MNK from there to the PM. Our findings provide an exciting foundation for identifying Arf1 effectors that facilitate the biogenesis of the MNK compartment and MNK traffic.
    AJP Cell Physiology 01/2008; 293(6):C1753-67. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: COPI recruitment to membranes appears to be essential for the biogenesis of the Golgi and for secretory trafficking. Preventing COPI recruitment by expressing inactive forms of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) or the ARF-activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1, or by treating cells with brefeldin A (BFA), causes the collapse of the Golgi into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and arrests trafficking of soluble and transmembrane proteins at the ER. Here, we assess COPI function in Golgi biogenesis and protein trafficking by preventing COPI recruitment to membranes by removing GBF1. We report that siRNA-mediated depletion of GBF1 causes COPI dispersal but does not lead to collapse of the Golgi. Instead, it causes extensive tubulation of the cis-Golgi. The Golgi-derived tubules target to peripheral ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) sites and create dynamic continuities between the ERGIC and the cis-Golgi compartment. COPI dispersal in GBF1-depleted cells causes dramatic inhibition of the trafficking of transmembrane proteins. Unexpectedly, soluble proteins continue to be secreted from GBF1-depleted cells. Our findings suggest that a secretory pathway capable of trafficking soluble proteins can be maintained in cells in which COPI recruitment is compromised by GBF1 depletion. However, the trafficking of transmembrane proteins through the existing pathway requires GBF1-mediated ARF activation and COPI recruitment.
    Journal of Cell Science 12/2007; 120(Pt 22):3929-40. · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms regulating membrane recruitment of the p115 tethering factor in vivo are unknown. Here, we describe cycling of p115 between membranes and cytosol and document the effects of Golgi matrix proteins, Rab1, and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNAREs) on this process. Rapid membrane/cytosol exchange is shown by swift (t1/2 approximately 20 s) loss of Golgi-localized p115-green fluorescent protein (GFP) after repeated photobleaching of cell periphery and rapid (t1/2 approximately 13 s) fluorescence recovery after photobleaching Golgi-localized p115-GFP. p115 mutant missing the GM130/giantin binding site exhibits analogous fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) (t1/2 approximately 13 s), suggesting that GM130 and giantin are not major determinants of p115 membrane dynamics. In contrast, p115-GFP exchanges more rapidly (t1/2 approximately 8 s) in cells expressing the inactive Rab1/N121I mutant, indicating that p115 cycling is influenced by Rab1. p115-GFP dynamics is also influenced by the assembly status of SNAREs. In cells expressing an ATPase-deficient NSF/E329Q mutant that inhibits SNARE complex disassembly, the cycling kinetics of p115-GFP are significantly slower (t1/2 approximately 21 s). In contrast, in cells incubated at reduced temperature (10 degrees C) that inhibits vesicular traffic, the cycling kinetics of p115-GFP are faster (t1/2 approximately 7 s). These data suggest that p115-binding sites on the membrane are provided by unassembled SNAREs. In agreement, biochemical studies show increased p115 recruitment to membranes in the presence of NSF and alpha-SNAP. Our data support a model in which recruitment of tethers is directly regulated by the assembly status of SNAREs.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 08/2006; 17(7):2996-3008. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-facilitated recruitment of COP I to membranes is required for secretory traffic. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 activates ARF and regulates ARF/COP I dynamics at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi interface. Like ARF and coatomer, GBF1 peripherally associates with membranes. ADP-ribosylation factor and coatomer have been shown to rapidly cycle between membranes and cytosol, but the membrane dynamics of GBF1 are unknown. Here, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to characterize the behavior of GFP-tagged GBF1. We report that GBF1 rapidly cycles between membranes and the cytosol (t1/2 is approximately 17 +/- 1 seconds). GBF1 cycles faster than GFP-tagged ARF, suggesting that in each round of association/dissociation, GBF1 catalyzes a single event of ARF activation, and that the activated ARF remains on membrane after GBF1 dissociation. Using three different approaches [expression of an inactive (E794K) GBF1 mutant, expression of the ARF1 (T31N) mutant with decreased affinity for GTP and Brefeldin A treatment], we show that GBF1 is stabilized on membranes when in a complex with ARF-GDP. GBF1 dissociation from ARF and membranes is triggered by its catalytic activity, i.e. the displacement of GDP and the subsequent binding of GTP to ARF. Our findings imply that continuous cycles of recruitment and dissociation of GBF1 to membranes are required for sustained ARF activation and COP I recruitment that underlies ER-Golgi traffic.
    Traffic 06/2005; 6(5):374-85. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The COCH gene mutated in autosomal dominant sensorineural deafness (DFNA9) encodes cochlin, a major constituent of the inner ear extracellular matrix. Sequence analysis of cochlin from DFNA9 patients identified five distinct single-amino-acid mutations within a conserved region (the LCCL domain) of cochlin. To define the molecular basis of DFNA9, we have generated myc-tagged wild-type and mutant cochlins and explored their behavior in transient transfection systems. Western blotting of cell lysates and culture media indicates that wild-type and mutant cochlins are synthesized and secreted in similar amounts. Immunofluorescent staining confirms that all are detected within the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex of transfected cells. Our findings suggest that COCH mutations are unlikely to cause abnormalities in secretion and suggest that extracellular events might cause DFNA9 pathology. In agreement, we show that wild-type cochlin accumulates in extracellular deposits that closely parallel the matrix component fibronectin, whereas mutant cochlins vary in the amount and pattern of extracellular material. Whereas some mutants exhibit an almost normal deposition pattern, some show complete lack of deposition. Our results suggest that DFNA9 results from gene products that fail to integrate correctly into the extracellular matrix. The partial or complete penetrance of integration defects suggests that DFNA9 pathology may be caused by multiple molecular mechanisms, including compromised ability of cochlin to self-assemble or to form appropriate complexes with other matrix components.
    Human Genetics 11/2003; 113(5):406-16. · 4.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) mediated recruitment of COPI to membranes plays a central role in transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. The activation of ARFs is mediated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Although several ARF-GEFs have been identified, the transport steps in which they function are still poorly understood. Here we report that GBF1, a member of the Sec7-domain family of GEFs, is responsible for the regulation of COPI-mediated events at the ER-Golgi interface. We show that GBF1 is essential for the formation, differentiation, and translocation of pre-Golgi intermediates and for the maintenance of Golgi integrity. We also show that the formation of transport-competent ER-to-Golgi intermediates proceeds in two stages: first, a COPI-independent event leads to the formation of an unstable compartment, which is rapidly reabsorbed in the absence of GBF1 activity. Second, the association of GBF1 with this compartment allows COPI recruitment and leads to its maturation into transport intermediates. The recruitment of GBF1 to this compartment is specifically inhibited by brefeldin A. Our findings imply that the continuous recruitment of GBF1 to spatially differentiated membrane domains is required for sustained membrane remodeling that underlies membrane traffic and Golgi biogenesis.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 07/2003; 14(6):2250-61. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    01/2003;

Publication Stats

259 Citations
67.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology (CDIB)
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Oxford
      • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom