Mariano Sotomayor

Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Tlalpam, The Federal District, Mexico

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Publications (25)35.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the outcomes of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN), the impact of different treatment modalities, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality. We retrospectively reviewed cases of EPN from 3 tertiary care institutions in Mexico. The diagnosis was confirmed with computed tomographic scan. Treatment was classified as follows: medical management (MM), minimally invasive, and surgical. Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and radiological characteristics were assessed and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Comparison was assessed using 1-way analysis of variance and chi-square. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine prognostic factors. Main end point was mortality. A total of 62 patients were included (49 women and 13 men), with a mean age of 53.9 years. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (69.3%) and hypertension (40.3%). Escherichia coli was the most common isolated microorganism (62.7%). MM was provided to 24.2%, minimally invasive treatment to 51.6%, open drainage to 19.3%, and emergency nephrectomy to 4.8%. Overall mortality was 14.5% and was similar among different treatment modalities (P = .06). Survivors were younger (P = .004), had lower creatinine (P = .002), and better estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = .007). In univariate analysis, age (P = .009), creatinine (P = .009), and need for nephrectomy (P = .03) were associated with mortality. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, creatinine (odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.03-2.35, P = .03) and nephrectomy (odds ratio 9.7, 95% confidence interval 1.007-93.51, P = .049) remained significant predictors of mortality. EPN needs an aggressive MM and stepwise approach; nephrectomy should be the last resort of treatment. Creatinine level and need for nephrectomy are the strongest predictors of mortality according our analysis.
    Urology 04/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To analyze the outcomes of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN), the impact of different treatment modalities, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed cases of EPN from 3 tertiary care institutions in Mexico. The diagnosis was confirmed with computed tomographic scan. Treatment was classified as follows: medical management (MM), minimally invasive, and surgical. Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and radiological characteristics were assessed and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Comparison was assessed using 1-way analysis of variance and chi-square. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine prognostic factors. Main end point was mortality. Results A total of 62 patients were included (49 women and 13 men), with a mean age of 53.9 years. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (69.3%) and hypertension (40.3%). Escherichia coli was the most common isolated microorganism (62.7%). MM was provided to 24.2%, minimally invasive treatment to 51.6%, open drainage to 19.3%, and emergency nephrectomy to 4.8%. Overall mortality was 14.5% and was similar among different treatment modalities (P = .06). Survivors were younger (P = .004), had lower creatinine (P = .002), and better estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = .007). In univariate analysis, age (P = .009), creatinine (P = .009), and need for nephrectomy (P = .03) were associated with mortality. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, creatinine (odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.03-2.35, P = .03) and nephrectomy (odds ratio 9.7, 95% confidence interval 1.007-93.51, P = .049) remained significant predictors of mortality. Conclusion EPN needs an aggressive MM and stepwise approach; nephrectomy should be the last resort of treatment. Creatinine level and need for nephrectomy are the strongest predictors of mortality according our analysis.
    Urology 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic nephrectomy for living donors is the current procedure of choice. Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) is the variation of this technique currently used in our institution. Though the advantages and disadvantages have been described for this procedure, the graft function compared with open surgery has been shown to be equal. We compared the outcomes of patients undergoing the former standard open donor nephrectomy (ODN) versus the current HALDN technique. In this retrospective, comparative, and analytic study we reviewed our institutional database of renal transplantation procedures from January 2005 to April 2011 for perioperative variables and 1-year follow-up data. Donor renal function was evaluated with serum creatinine concentrations and estimated glomerular filtration rates with the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology formula. Complications were reported with the Clavien-Dindo classification. The 190 consecutive donors included 99 ODN and 91 HALDN, who did not show baseline differences. ODN had a shorter mean operative time (217 ± 57.5 vs 270 ± 60.1 minutes) and shorter warm ischemia time (2.12 ± 1.4 vs 4.62 ± 2.7 minutes). HALDN had less operative blood loss (274.4 ± 198.1 vs 202.99 ± 157.1 mL) and shorter in-hospital stay (5.58 ± 2.2 vs 4.23 ± 1.8 days). There were no significant differences in 30-day surgical complications or transfusion requirements. No graft loss was reported. No difference in renal function was observed between the groups at days 1-2 or months 1, 6, or 12 after nephrectomy. Laparoscopic surgery has replaced conventional open surgery for living renal donors. HALDN is a safe and successful procedure compared with ODN. It is now the procedure of choice in our institution.
    Transplantation Proceedings 11/2013; 45(9):3220-4. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Urinalysis alterations are common after prostatic surgery. However, time to normalization has not been established. Presence of pyuria and microhematuria can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The objective of this study is to determine the time to normalization for both parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent prostatic surgery without infectious complications during follow-up. We included patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with either monopolar or bipolar energy, or open prostatectomy (OP). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine the time of persistence of both parameters. ANOVA was used to compare the 3 groups according to the type of surgery. We analyzed the impact of preoperative use of 5-α-reductase inhibitors, and searched for a correlation between the weight of resected tissue and persistence of both parameters. RESULTS: 85 patients were analyzed: 44 underwent monopolar TURP, 27 bipolar TURP, and 14 OP. Persistence of pyuria was significantly longer than microhematuria with a median of 274 days vs. 176 days. Neither the use of monopolar or bipolar energy, nor the use of preoperative 5α-reductase inhibitors affected the persistence time. We found a positive correlation between the resected tissue weight and the persistence of leukocyturia after endoscopic surgery: 23g was the best cut-off point. CONCLUSIONS: Pyuria persists longer than microhematuria regardless of the type of surgery. There is a correlation between the resected tissue weight and the persistence of pyuria. The presence of pyuria and microhematuria after prostatic surgery is not always a pathological finding.
    Actas urologicas españolas 06/2013; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and accuracy of computed tomographic urography for the detection of bladder tumors in patients with microscopic hematuria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with microscopic hematuria initially evaluated with computed tomography and cystoscopy from January 2006 to December 2009 were evaluated. Computed tomography detecting a bladder lesion suspicious of malignancy was considered positive. Cystoscopy was classified as positive when a lesion requiring biopsy or resection was found. Performance characteristics of computed tomography were determined by comparing with cystoscopic and pathological findings. RESULTS: A total of 112 patients were eligible for analysis. Seven tumors were found on cystoscopy; of these, 2 were correctly diagnosed by computed tomography and 5 were missed. An additional case was considered erroneously positive. The results are a sensitivity of 29%, specificity of 99%, positive predictive value of 67%, negative predictive value of 95%, and accuracy of 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Although computed tomography has a high specificity its sensitivity is limited. For this reason conventional cystoscopy should be considered the standard for bladder evaluation of patients with microscopic hematuria.
    Actas urologicas españolas 02/2013; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Urinalysis alterations are common after prostatic surgery. However, time to normalization has not been established. Presence of pyuria and microhematuria can lead to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The objective of this study is to determine the time to normalization for both parameters. Material and methods We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent prostatic surgery without infectious complications during follow-up. We included patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with either monopolar or bipolar energy, or open prostatectomy (OP). Kaplan-Meier curves were used to determine the time of persistence of both parameters. ANOVA was used to compare the 3 groups according to the type of surgery. We analyzed the impact of preoperative use of 5-α-reductase inhibitors, and searched for a correlation between the weight of resected tissue and persistence of both parameters. Results 85 patients were analyzed: 44 underwent monopolar TURP, 27 bipolar TURP, and 14 OP. Persistence of pyuria was significantly longer than microhematuria with a median of 274 days vs. 176 days. Neither the use of monopolar or bipolar energy, nor the use of preoperative 5α-reductase inhibitors affected the persistence time. We found a positive correlation between the resected tissue weight and the persistence of leukocyturia after endoscopic surgery: 23 g was the best cut-off point. Conclusions Pyuria persists longer than microhematuria regardless of the type of surgery. There is a correlation between the resected tissue weight and the persistence of pyuria. The presence of pyuria and microhematuria after prostatic surgery is not always a pathological finding.
    Actas urologicas españolas 01/2013; 37(10):625–629. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to analyze our experience with 18 cases of Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) in a tertiary care center and describe our treatment strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of 262 patients admitted with acute pyelonephritis, 18 had CT findings of EPN. The Wan and Huang classifications were used. We assessed the clinical, radiological, and therapeutic characteristics of these patients and investigated potential prognostic factors of mortality. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2010, 17 women and 1 man with EPN were treated. Mean age was 52.4 years. Diabetes was found in 66% and hypertension in 72%. The most common clinical findings were tachycardia (11), fever (11) and flank pain (9); 66% (12) presented with severe sepsis and 2 had septic shock. Acute renal injury developed in 61%. Nine patients were treated exclusively with conservative management; 5 had double J stenting, 3 had CT-guided PCD and 1 required nephrectomy after unsuccessful medical management. Mortality was 11%. Altered consciousness (P=.0001), multiple organ failure (P=.0004), hyperglycemia (P=.003) and elevated leukocyte count (> 20000 K) (P=.01) were more frequent among patients dying from EPN. No difference in mortality was found between patients managed conservatively and those undergoing invasive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although rare, EPN should be suspected in patients with multiple comorbidities presenting with severe sepsis. Altered consciousness, multiple organ failure, hyperglycemia and elevated leukocyte count are poor prognosis indicators. Invasive management should be used judiciously and medical treatment can be a safe strategy in selected cases.
    Actas urologicas españolas 12/2012; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Areas of lower enhancement on computed tomography are frequently seen in renal-cell carcinoma. We investigated whether tumor enhancement on the most prominent hypodense areas correlates with the nuclear grade and other pathologic variables. From 2004 to 2009, all consecutive patients with a preoperative tomography who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy for renal-cell carcinoma at our tertiary referral center were retrospectively analyzed. Enhancement of the entire tumor on the slice with most prominent areas of lower enhancement was determined. Forty-eight patients were included. Clear-cell carcinoma comprised 91.6 %. Mean areas of lower enhancement for nuclear grade tumors 1-4 were 67.4, 38.7, 27.9, and 15.1 HU, respectively. Areas of lower enhancement negatively correlated with size, nuclear grade, T stage, and pathological stage. Tumors with extension beyond Gerota's fascia (10.5 vs. 35.9 HU, p < 0.001) and positive surgical margins (21.2 vs. 34.8 HU, p = 0.04) had more prominent areas of lower enhancement than organ-confined tumors. When comparing nuclear grade 1-3 to nuclear grade 4 tumors, these areas were significantly lower in the later (36.5 vs. 15.1 HU, p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristics curves for detecting nuclear grade 4 showed an area under the curve of 0.808 (95 % CI 0.659-0.957). Lower enhancement of the entire tumor at the point where hypodense tumor areas are more predominant on tomography is associated with higher nuclear grade and more advanced stage.
    International Urology and Nephrology 05/2012; 44(5):1369-74. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is linked to hormone-dependent cancers. Its prognostic implication in prostate cancer (PCa) is unclear. We analyzed the impact of MS in the survival of men with PCa treated surgically. We studied patients with PCa, treated surgically between 1990 and 2007, and compared the survival of men with MS (group 1) and without MS (group 2). A subgroup analysis of those in stage pT2 was also performed. We calculated biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and cancer-specific survival, and the relation of clinical and pathological variables with these end-points. 65 men had MS. The 5- and 10-year bPFS in group 1 was 36 and 32% vs. 72 and 68% in group 2 (p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen (p = 0.001) and MS (p < 0.0001) predicted biochemical progression/recurrence (BP/R). There was no difference in cancer-specific survival between groups (p = 0.40). Of 146 men in stage pT2, 38 had MS; group 1 men had worse 5- and 10-year bPFS (55 and 48%) than group 2 (80 and 73%; p = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, MS was the strongest predictor of BP/R (p = 0.0007). MS is related to adverse characteristics in PCa and confers poor bPFS after radical prostatectomy. MS is independently associated to the risk of BP/R.
    Urologia Internationalis 08/2011; 87(3):270-5. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined whether increasing the number of cores at first prostate biopsy would improve the cancer detection rate without increasing the detection of clinically insignificant tumors. From January 2009 to January 2010 patients scheduled for prostate biopsy were randomized to 12 or 18-core sampling. Study inclusion criteria were 1) age 45 to 75 years, 2) abnormal digital rectal examination and/or prostate specific antigen 4 to 20 ng/ml, and 3) no previous biopsy. The primary end point was the cancer detection rate. Secondary end points were clinically insignificant cancer detection and morbidity. A total of 150 patients were enrolled in the study. Preoperative variables were similar in the 2 groups of 75 patients each. Cancer was detected in 23 patients (30.7%) in group 1 and in 36 (48%) in group 2 (p = 0.02). More cases of insignificant cancer were detected in group 2 (p not significant). In men with prostate volume 65 cc or less the detection rate was 30.9% in group 1 and 52.8% in group 2 (p = 0.02). In men with prostate specific antigen 10 ng/ml or less the detection rate was 19.6% in group 1 and 38.4% in group 2 (p = 0.03). Two group 2 patients (5.5%) were diagnosed based on additional samples but the diagnosis corresponded to insignificant cancer. There was no statistically significant difference in morbidity. The 18-core protocol improves prostate cancer detection without increasing morbidity. Results suggest that the 12-core biopsy protocol is adequate for prostate cancer detection at first biopsy.
    The Journal of urology 06/2011; 185(6):2132-6. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic impact of early recurrence (within 12 months) after surgery on cancer-specific survival (CSS) of patients with localized clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Patients with surgically treated localized ccRCC were studied. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, we calculated CSS; by univariate and multivariate models we analyzed the association of early recurrence with cancer-related mortality. We identified 259 patients with pT1-4/NX/0M0 ccRCC treated between February 1981 and September 2009; of 66 (25.5%) with disease recurrence, 29 (43.9%) had early relapse. Overall, 43 patients (16.6%) died from ccRCC. The 5- and 10-year CSS for those without, late and early recurrence was 98.5 and 96.5%, 53 and 39.8%, and 23 and 23%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate Cox model, pT stage (p = 0.01) and early recurrence (p < 0.0001) independently predicted CSS. Recurrent disease after localized ccRCC confers a poor prognosis, especially if detected within 12 months after surgery. Thus, this criterion should be included as an independent risk factor for cancer-related mortality.
    Urologia Internationalis 02/2011; 86(1):47-52. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the prognostic role of clinical and pathological variables in patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) treated surgically. We retrospectively analyzed our database of 394 consecutive patients with renal tumors. We excluded those with hereditary conditions, benign tumors or histological diagnosis other than RCC. The variables evaluated were weight loss, performance status, thrombocytosis, tumor diameter, nuclear grade, lymph node invasion and metastases. The main endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS). We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to determine prognostic factors. We identified 345 patients with RCC treated surgically between 1980 and 2009. After a median follow-up of 32 months, 23% died from cancer; they had larger tumors (p<0.0001), higher nuclear grade (p<0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). The 5- and 10-year CSS was 97.6 and 97.6% for stage I, 75.3 and 63.8% for stage II; 62.3 and 55.5% for stage III; 16.5 and 11.0% for stage IV (p<0.0001). All variables were associated with CSS on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis tumor size, thrombocytosis, nuclear grade, lymph node invasion and metastases were independently associated with cancer-related mortality. Our findings confirm the potential role of tumor size, nuclear grade, lymph node invasion and metastases. Thrombocytosis also has a prognostic role in patients with renal-cell carcinoma.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 01/2011; 63(1):12-7. · 0.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The application of current prognosticators in locally advanced nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is controversial. We analyzed the impact of clinical and pathological variables on the survival of this subset of patients. We studied patients with RCC in stages III and IV without metastases, treated surgically between 1980 and 2009. We calculated disease-free (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), and the relation of clinical and pathological variables with these end-points. We identified 126 patients with locally advanced RCC; 8.7% had sarcomatoid differentiation. Tumor stage was pT3a in 48% and pT3b in 42%; 11.9% had lymph node invasion (N+). Patients with N- and N+ had a 10-year DFS of 49.0 and 23.4%, respectively (p = 0.0001). In multivariate analysis N+ (p = 0.0002) was the strongest predictor of DFS. The 10-year CSS of patients without sarcomatoid differentiation was 53.1% while those with sarcomatoid differentiation did not reach the median time to death (p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.01) was the strongest predictor of CSS. Locally advanced RCC portends poor prognosis. Preoperatively, weight loss and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status are predictors of recurrence and mortality, respectively. However, the most powerful predictors of DFS and CSS in our cohort were lymph node status and sarcomatoid differentiation.
    Urologia Internationalis 01/2010; 85(1):23-9. · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2010; 183(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated that sildenafil citrate users alter dosing-sexual attempt behavior when switched to tadalafil. The impact of geography and culture on sexual behavior with phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment has not been fully investigated. To describe and compare the changes in dosing-sexual attempt behavior with sildenafil citrate vs. tadalafil treatment across four distinct geographies: Asia, Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Central Eastern Europe/Middle East (CEE/ME), and Latin America (LA). Data from a single-arm, open-label clinical trial conducted in 21 countries from November 2002 to May 2004 were used in this analysis. Men with erectile dysfunction and a history of > or =6-week prior sildenafil citrate use continued sildenafil citrate treatment for 4 weeks then switched to tadalafil for 8 weeks. Dosing instructions were provided. Timing of dose and sexual intercourse was assessed through patient diaries for the final 4 weeks of each treatment period. A total of 2,760 men were enrolled: Asia 15.8%; ANZ 29.4%; CEE/ME 19.7%; LA 35.1%. The median time from dosing to intercourse was significantly increased during tadalafil treatment across all geographical regions; however, the magnitude of increase differed significantly by geography (P < 0.0001). The Asian cohort demonstrated the shortest duration between dosing and sexual intercourse attempts (irrespective of drug), and altered sexual behavior the least upon switching to tadalafil. The ANZ cohort demonstrated the longest duration between dosing and sexual intercourse attempts (irrespective of drug), and altered sexual behavior the most upon switching to tadalafil. Men with a history of established sildenafil citrate use alter their dose-attempt behavior when treated with tadalafil irrespective of geography. However, the extent to which sexual behavior alters is not uniform across geographical regions, suggesting that dosing instructions and duration of drug effectiveness, in combination with personal and cultural preferences, may determine sexual behavior with PDE5 inhibitor use.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 09/2009; 6(10):2836-50. · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2009; 181(4):817-817.
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    ABSTRACT: The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP), and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) assess efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). To determine the degree that multiplicity of satisfaction questions in ED treatment evaluation instruments are congruent, to better understand the concept of sexual "satisfaction," and to identify factors that correlate with improvement. Questionnaire data from 4,174 placebo- or tadalafil-treated patients with ED were analyzed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on IIEF and SEP satisfaction questions. Spearman correlation coefficients were determined. Data from 431 of the 4,174 patients who completed EDITS questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to investigate improvement of each IIEF satisfaction question. PCA rotated on three factors explained 91% of total variance and separated IIEF Q6 (intercourse frequency) from a SEP and a remaining IIEF factor. All correlations between and among questions were close (rho = 0.62-0.98; P < 0.0001), except for those with IIEF Q6 (rho = 0.28-0.34; P < 0.0001). In a sub-sample, PCA of five IIEF, two SEP, and three EDITS questions identified four factors that explained 90% of all variance: EDITS questions, IIEF questions except Q6, SEP questions, and IIEF Q6. Greater improvement in IIEF-EF domain score was consistently and positively associated with satisfaction measures (P < 0.0001). Factor analysis detected close relationships among satisfaction questions in IIEF, SEP, and EDITS instruments, each of which, apart from IIEF Q6 (intercourse frequency), appeared to be an independent measure of satisfaction. Cultural differences may explain different satisfaction correlations with baseline ED severity in different regions. Clinicians may make use of the correlation between intercourse frequency (Q6) and satisfaction when prescribing a PDE5 inhibitor for ED, by explaining that the inhibitor should enable more frequent intercourse.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 01/2009; 6(1):232-42. · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2009; 181(4):802-802.
  • American journal of men's health 01/2009; 6(3):229-229. · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • European Urology Supplements - EUR UROL SUPPL. 01/2008; 7(3):143-143.