P J Brophy

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (116)804.96 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuron-glia interactions establish functional membrane domains along myelinated axons. These include nodes of Ranvier, paranodal axoglial junctions and juxtaparanodes. Paranodal junctions are the largest vertebrate junctional adhesion complex, and they are essential for rapid saltatory conduction and contribute to assembly and maintenance of nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying paranodal junction assembly are poorly understood. Ankyrins are cytoskeletal scaffolds traditionally associated with Na(+) channel clustering in neurons and are important for membrane domain establishment and maintenance in many cell types. Here we show that ankyrin-B, expressed by Schwann cells, and ankyrin-G, expressed by oligodendrocytes, are highly enriched at the glial side of paranodal junctions where they interact with the essential glial junctional component neurofascin 155. Conditional knockout of ankyrins in oligodendrocytes disrupts paranodal junction assembly and delays nerve conduction during early development in mice. Thus, glial ankyrins function as major scaffolds that facilitate early and efficient paranodal junction assembly in the developing CNS.
    Nature neuroscience. 11/2014;
  • Matthew Grove, Peter J Brophy
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    ABSTRACT: Without Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), developing murine Schwann cells (SCs) proliferate poorly, sort axons inefficiently, and cannot myelinate peripheral nerves. Here we show that FAK is required for the development of SCs when their basal lamina (BL) is fragmentary, but not when it is mature in vivo. Mutant SCs fail to spread on fragmentary BL during development in vivo, and this is phenocopied by SCs lacking functional FAK on low laminin (LN) in vitro. Furthermore, SCs without functional FAK initiate differentiation prematurely, both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to their behavior on high levels of LN, SCs lacking functional FAK grown on low LN display reduced spreading, proliferation, and indicators of contractility (i.e., stress fibers, arcs, and focal adhesions) and are primed to differentiate. Growth of SCs lacking functional FAK on increasing LN concentrations in vitro revealed that differentiation is not regulated by G1 arrest but rather by cell spreading and the level of contractile actomyosin. The importance of FAK as a critical regulator of the specific response of developing SCs to fragmentary BL was supported by the ability of adult FAK mutant SCs to remyelinate demyelinated adult nerves on mature BL in vivo. We conclude that FAK promotes the spreading and actomyosin contractility of immature SCs on fragmentary BL, thus maintaining their proliferation, and preventing differentiation until they reach high density, thereby promoting radial sorting. Hence, FAK has a critical role in the response of SCs to limiting BL by promoting proliferation and preventing premature SC differentiation.
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 10/2014; 34(40):13422-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Postnatal synapse elimination plays a critical role in sculpting and refining neural connectivity throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the removal of supernumerary axonal inputs from neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Here, we reveal a novel and important role for myelinating glia in regulating synapse elimination at the mouse NMJ, where loss of a single glial cell protein, the glial isoform of neurofascin (Nfasc155), was sufficient to disrupt postnatal remodeling of synaptic circuitry. Neuromuscular synapses were formed normally in mice lacking Nfasc155, including the establishment of robust neuromuscular synaptic transmission. However, loss of Nfasc155 was sufficient to cause a robust delay in postnatal synapse elimination at the NMJ across all muscle groups examined. Nfasc155 regulated neuronal remodeling independently of its canonical role in forming paranodal axo-glial junctions, as synapse elimination occurred normally in mice lacking the axonal paranodal protein Caspr. Rather, high-resolution proteomic screens revealed that loss of Nfasc155 from glial cells was sufficient to disrupt neuronal cytoskeletal organization and trafficking pathways, resulting in reduced levels of neurofilament light (NF-L) protein in distal axons and motor nerve terminals. Mice lacking NF-L recapitulated the delayed synapse elimination phenotype observed in mice lacking Nfasc155, suggesting that glial cells regulate synapse elimination, at least in part, through modulation of the axonal cytoskeleton. Together, our study reveals a glial cell-dependent pathway regulating the sculpting of neuronal connectivity and synaptic circuitry in the peripheral nervous system.
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 09/2014; 34(38):12904-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Fast, saltatory conduction in myelinated nerves requires the clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) at nodes of Ranvier in a nodal complex. The Neurofascin (Nfasc) gene encodes neuronal Neurofascin 186 (Nfasc186) at the node and glial Neurofascin 155 at the paranode, and these proteins play a key role in node assembly. However, their role in the maintenance and stability of the node is less well understood. Here we show that by inducible ablation of Nfasc in neurons in adult mice, Nfasc186 expression is reduced by >99% and 94% at PNS and CNS nodes, respectively. Gliomedin and NrCAM at PNS and brevican at CNS nodes are largely lost with neuronal neurofascin; however, Nav at nodes of Ranvier persist, albeit with ∼40% reduction in expression levels. βIV Spectrin, ankyrin G, and, to a lesser extent, the β1 subunit of the sodium channel, are less affected at the PNS node than in the CNS. Nevertheless, there is a 38% reduction in PNS conduction velocity. Loss of Nfasc186 provokes CNS paranodal disorganization, but this does not contribute to loss of Nav. These results show that Nav at PNS nodes are still maintained in a nodal complex when neuronal neurofascin is depleted, whereas the retention of nodal Nav in the CNS, despite more extensive dissolution of the complex, suggests a supportive role for the partially disrupted paranodal axoglial junction in selectively maintaining Nav at the CNS node.
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2014; 34(15):5083-8. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gangliosides are widely expressed sialylated glycosphingolipids with multifunctional properties in different cell types and organs. In the nervous system, they are highly enriched in both glial and neuronal membranes. Mice lacking complex gangliosides attributable to targeted ablation of the B4galnt1 gene that encodes β-1,4-N-acetylegalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GalNAc-transferase; GalNAcT(-/-)) develop normally before exhibiting an age-dependent neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by marked behavioral abnormalities, central and peripheral axonal degeneration, reduced myelin volume, and loss of axo-glial junction integrity. The cell biological substrates underlying this neurodegeneration and the relative contribution of either glial or neuronal gangliosides to the process are unknown. To address this, we generated neuron-specific and glial-specific GalNAcT rescue mice crossed on the global GalNAcT(-/-) background [GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) and GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial)] and analyzed their behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological phenotype. Complex gangliosides, as assessed by thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, GalNAcT enzyme activity, and anti-ganglioside antibody (AgAb) immunohistology, were restored in both neuronal and glial GalNAcT rescue mice. Behaviorally, GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) retained a normal "wild-type" (WT) phenotype throughout life, whereas GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) resembled GalNAcT(-/-) mice, exhibiting progressive tremor, weakness, and ataxia with aging. Quantitative electron microscopy demonstrated that GalNAcT(-/-) and GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) nerves had significantly increased rates of axon degeneration and reduced myelin volume, whereas GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) and WT appeared normal. The increased invasion of the paranode with juxtaparanodal Kv1.1, characteristically seen in GalNAcT(-/-) and attributed to a breakdown of the axo-glial junction, was normalized in GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(neuronal) but remained present in GalNAcT(-/-)-Tg(glial) mice. These results indicate that neuronal rather than glial gangliosides are critical to the age-related maintenance of nervous system integrity.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2014; 34(3):880-91. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deficiency of the major constituent of central nervous system (CNS) myelin, proteolipid protein (PLP), causes axonal pathology in spastic paraplegia type-2 patients and in Plp1(null) -mice but is compatible with almost normal myelination. These observations led us to speculate that PLP's role in myelination may be partly compensated for by other tetraspan proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the abundance of the structurally related tetraspanin-2 (TSPAN2) is highly increased in CNS myelin of Plp1(null) -mice. Unexpectedly, Tspan2(null) -mutant mice generated by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells displayed low-grade activation of astrocytes and microglia in white matter tracts while they were fully myelinated and showed no signs of axonal degeneration. To determine overlapping functions of TSPAN2 and PLP, Tspan2(null) *Plp1(null) double-mutant mice were generated. Strikingly, the activation of astrocytes and microglia was strongly enhanced in Tspan2(null) *Plp1(null) double-mutants compared with either single-mutant, but the levels of dysmyelination and axonal degeneration were not increased. In this model, glial activation is thus unlikely to be caused by axonal pathology, and vice versa does not potentiate axonal degeneration. Our results support the concept that multiple myelin proteins have distinct roles in the long-term preservation of a healthy CNS, rather than in myelination per se. GLIA 2013.
    Glia 08/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The axon initial segment (AIS) is responsible for both the modulation of action potentials and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. Yet, the molecular mechanisms controlling its assembly are incompletely understood. Our study in single electroporated motor neurons in mouse embryos revealed that AnkyrinG (AnkG), the AIS master organizer, is undetectable in bipolar migrating motor neurons, but is already expressed at the beginning of axonogenesis at E9.5 and initially distributed homogeneously along the entire growing axon. Then, from E11.5, a stage when AnkG is already apposed to the membrane, as observed by electron microscopy, the protein progressively becomes restricted to the proximal axon. Analysis on the global motor neurons population indicated that Neurofascin follows an identical spatio-temporal distribution, whereas sodium channels and β4-spectrin only appear along AnkG(+) segments at E11.5. Early patch-clamp recordings of individual motor neurons indicated that at E12.5 these nascent AISs are already able to generate spikes. Using knock-out mice, we demonstrated that neither β4-spectrin nor Neurofascin control the distal-to-proximal restriction of AnkG.
    Brain Structure and Function 06/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influences of axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internodal length on the velocity of conduction of peripheral nerve action potentials are unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong dependence of conduction velocity on internodal length. However, a theoretical analysis has suggested that this relationship may be lost above a nodal separation of ∼0.6 mm. Here we measured nerve conduction velocities in a rabbit model of limb lengthening that produced compensatory increases in peripheral nerve growth. Divided tibial bones in one hindlimb were gradually lengthened at 0.7 mm per day using an external frame attached to the bone. This was associated with a significant increase (33%) of internodal length (0.95-1.3 mm) in axons of the tibial nerve that varied in proportion to the mechanical strain in the nerve of the lengthened limb. Axonal diameter, myelin thickness, and g-ratios were not significantly altered by limb lengthening. Despite the substantial increase in internodal length, no significant change was detected in conduction velocity (∼43 m/s) measured either in vivo or in isolated tibial nerves. The results demonstrate that the internode remains plastic in the adult but that increases in internodal length of myelinated adult nerve axons do not result in either deficiency or proportionate increases in their conduction velocity and support the view that the internodal lengths of nerves reach a plateau beyond which their conduction velocities are no longer sensitive to increases in internodal length.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2013; 33(10):4536-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Predictions that conduction velocities are sensitive to the distance between nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons have implications for nervous system function during growth and repair [1-3]. Internodal lengths defined by Schwann cells in hindlimb nerves, for example, can undergo a 4-fold increase during mouse development, and regenerated nerves have internodes that are uniformly short [4, 5]. Nevertheless, the influence of internodal length on conduction speed has limited experimental support. Here, we examined this problem in mice expressing a mutant version of periaxin, a protein required for Schwann cell elongation [4]. Importantly, elongation of mutant Schwann cells was retarded without significant derangements to myelination or axon caliber. In young mice with short mutant Schwann cells, nerve conduction velocity was reduced and motor function was impaired. This demonstrates a functional relationship between internodal distance and conduction speed. Moreover, as internodes lengthened during postnatal growth, conduction velocities recovered to normal values and mutant mice exhibited normal motor and sensory behavior. This restoration of function confirms a further prediction by Huxley and Stämpfli that conduction speeds should increase as internodal distances lengthen until a "flat maximum" is reached, beyond which no further gains in conduction velocity accrue [6].
    Current biology: CB 09/2012; 22(20):1957-61. · 10.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Live imaging studies of the processes of demyelination and remyelination have so far been technically limited in mammals. We have thus generated a Xenopus laevis transgenic line allowing live imaging and conditional ablation of myelinating oligodendrocytes throughout the CNS. In these transgenic pMBP-eGFP-NTR tadpoles the myelin basic protein (MBP) regulatory sequences, specific to mature oligodendrocytes, are used to drive expression of an eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter fused to the Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) selection enzyme. This enzyme converts the innocuous prodrug metronidazole (MTZ) to a cytotoxin. Using two-photon imaging in vivo, we show that pMBP-eGFP-NTR tadpoles display a graded oligodendrocyte ablation in response to MTZ, which depends on the exposure time to MTZ. MTZ-induced cell death was restricted to oligodendrocytes, without detectable axonal damage. After cessation of MTZ treatment, remyelination proceeded spontaneously, but was strongly accelerated by retinoic acid. Altogether, these features establish the Xenopus pMBP-eGFP-NTR line as a novel in vivo model for the study of demyelination/remyelination processes and for large-scale screens of therapeutic agents promoting myelin repair.
    Journal of Neuroscience 09/2012; 32(37):12885-12895. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cajal bands are cytoplasmic channels flanked by appositions where the abaxonal surface of Schwann cell myelin apposes and adheres to the overlying plasma membrane. These appositions contain a dystroglycan complex that includes periaxin and dystrophin-related protein 2 (Drp2). Loss of periaxin disrupts appositions and Cajal bands in Schwann cells and causes a severe demyelinating neuropathy in mouse and human. Here, we investigated the role of mouse Drp2 in apposition assembly and Cajal band function and compared it with periaxin. We show that periaxin and Drp2 are not only both required to form appositions, but they must also interact. Periaxin-Drp2 interaction is also required for Drp2 phosphorylation, but phosphorylation is not required for the assembly of appositions. Drp2 loss causes corresponding increases in Dystrophin family members, utrophin and dystrophin Dp116, although dystroglycan remains unchanged. We also show that all dystroglycan complexes in Schwann cells use the uncleaved form of β-dystroglycan. Drp2-null Schwann cells have disrupted appositions and Cajal bands, and they undergo focal hypermyelination and concomitant demyelination. Nevertheless, they do not have the short internodal lengths and associated reduced nerve conduction velocity seen in the absence of periaxin, showing that periaxin regulates Schwann cell elongation independent of its role in the dystroglycan complex. We conclude that the primary role of the dystroglycan complex in appositions is to stabilize and limit the radial growth of myelin.
    Journal of Neuroscience 07/2012; 32(27):9419-28. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In developing peripheral nerves, differentiating Schwann cells sort individual axons from bundles and ensheath them to generate multiple layers of myelin. In recent years, there has been an increased understanding of the extracellular and intracellular factors that initiate and stimulate Schwann cell myelination, together with a growing appreciation of some of the signaling pathways involved. However, our knowledge of how Schwann cell growth is regulated during myelination is still incomplete. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core kinase in two major complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate cell growth and differentiation in a variety of mammalian cells. Here we show that elimination of mTOR from murine Schwann cells prevented neither radial sorting nor the initiation of myelination. However, normal postnatal growth of myelinating Schwann cells, both radially and longitudinally, was highly retarded. The myelin sheath in the mutant was much thinner than normal; nevertheless, sheath thickness relative to axon diameter (g-ratio) remained constant in both wild-type and mutant nerves from P14 to P90. Although axon diameters were normal in the mutant at the initiation of myelination, further growth as myelination proceeded was retarded, and this was associated with reduced phosphorylation of neurofilaments. Consistent with thinner axonal diameters and internodal lengths, conduction velocities in mutant quadriceps nerves were also reduced. These data establish a critical role for mTOR signaling in both the longitudinal and radial growth of the myelinating Schwann cell.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2012; 32(5):1817-25. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • J Neurosci. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: In developing peripheral nerves, differentiating Schwann cells sort individual axons from bundles and ensheath them to generate multiple layers of myelin. In recent years, there has been an increased understanding of the extracellular and intracellular factors that initiate and stimulate Schwann cell myelination, together with a growing appreciation of some of the signaling pathways involved. However, our knowledge of how Schwann cell growth is regulated during myelination is still incomplete. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core kinase in two major complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate cell growth and differentiation in a variety of mammalian cells. Here we show that elimination of mTOR from murine Schwann cells prevented neither radial sorting nor the initiation of myelination. However, normal postnatal growth of myelinating Schwann cells, both radially and longitudinally, was highly retarded. The myelin sheath in the mutant was much thinner than normal; nevertheless, sheath thickness relative to axon diameter (g-ratio) remained constant in both wild-type and mutant nerves from P14 to P90. Although axon diameters were normal in the mutant at the initiation of myelination, further growth as myelination proceeded was retarded, and this was associated with reduced phosphorylation of neurofilaments. Consistent with thinner axonal diameters and internodal lengths, conduction velocities in mutant quadriceps nerves were also reduced. These data establish a critical role for mTOR signaling in both the longitudinal and radial growth of the myelinating Schwann cell.
    The Journal of Neuroscience. 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: In developing peripheral nerves, differentiating Schwann cells sort individual axons from bundles and ensheath them to generate multiple layers of myelin. In recent years, there has been an increased understanding of the extracellular and intracellular factors that initiate and stimulate Schwann cell myelination, together with a growing appreciation of some of the signaling pathways involved. However, our knowledge of how Schwann cell growth is regulated during myelination is still incomplete. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core kinase in two major complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate cell growth and differentiation in a variety of mammalian cells. Here we show that elimination of mTOR from murine Schwann cells prevented neither radial sorting nor the initiation of myelination. However, normal postnatal growth of myelinating Schwann cells, both radially and longitudinally, was highly retarded. The myelin sheath in the mutant was much thinner than normal; nevertheless, sheath thickness relative to axon diameter (g-ratio) remained constant in both wild-type and mutant nerves from P14 to P90. Although axon diameters were normal in the mutant at the initiation of myelination, further growth as myelination proceeded was retarded, and this was associated with reduced phosphorylation of neurofilaments. Consistent with thinner axonal diameters and internodal lengths, conduction velocities in mutant quadriceps nerves were also reduced. These data establish a critical role for mTOR signaling in both the longitudinal and radial growth of the myelinating Schwann cell.
    Journal of Neuroscience 01/2012; 32(5):1817-25.. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • J Neurosci. 01/2012; 32(5):1817-1825.
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    ABSTRACT: Myelinated axons have a distinct protein architecture essential for action potential propagation, neuronal communication, and maintaining cognitive function. Damage to myelinated axons, associated with cerebral hypoperfusion, contributes to age-related cognitive decline. We sought to determine early alterations in the protein architecture of myelinated axons and potential mechanisms after hypoperfusion. Using a mouse model of hypoperfusion, we assessed changes in proteins critical to the maintenance of paranodes, nodes of Ranvier, axon-glial integrity, axons, and myelin by confocal laser scanning microscopy. As early as 3 d after hypoperfusion, the paranodal septate-like junctions were damaged. This was marked by a progressive reduction of paranodal Neurofascin signal and a loss of septate-like junctions. Concurrent with paranodal disruption, there was a significant increase in nodal length, identified by Nav1.6 staining, with hypoperfusion. Disruption of axon-glial integrity was also determined after hypoperfusion by changes in the spatial distribution of myelin-associated glycoprotein staining. These nodal/paranodal changes were more pronounced after 1 month of hypoperfusion. In contrast, the nodal anchoring proteins AnkyrinG and Neurofascin 186 were unchanged and there were no overt changes in axonal and myelin integrity with hypoperfusion. A microarray analysis of white matter samples indicated that there were significant alterations in 129 genes. Subsequent analysis indicated alterations in biological pathways, including inflammatory responses, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, blood vessel development, and cell proliferation processes. Our results demonstrate that hypoperfusion leads to a rapid disruption of key proteins critical to the stability of the axon-glial connection that is mediated by a diversity of molecular events.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2011; 31(49):18185-94. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transparency of the ocular lens depends on symmetric packing and membrane organization of highly elongated hexagonal fiber cells. These cells possess an extensive, well-ordered cortical cytoskeleton to maintain cell shape and to anchor membrane components. Periaxin (Prx), a PDZ domain protein involved in myelin sheath stabilization, is also a component of adhaerens plaques in lens fiber cells. Here we show that Prx is expressed in lens fibers and exhibits maturation dependent redistribution, clustering discretely at the tricellular junctions in mature fiber cells. Prx exists in a macromolecular complex with proteins involved in membrane organization including ankyrin-B, spectrin, NrCAM, filensin, ezrin and desmoyokin. Importantly, Prx knockout mouse lenses were found to be softer and more easily deformed than normal lenses, revealing disruptions in fiber cell hexagonal packing, membrane skeleton and membrane stability. These observations suggest a key role for Prx in maturation, packing, and membrane organization of lens fiber cells. Hence, there may be functional parallels between the roles of Prx in membrane stabilization of the myelin sheath and the lens fiber cell.
    Developmental Biology 09/2011; 357(1):179-90. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The axon initial segment (AIS) is critical for the initiation and propagation of action potentials. Assembly of the AIS requires interactions between scaffolding molecules and voltage-gated sodium channels, but the molecular mechanisms that stabilize the AIS are poorly understood. The neuronal isoform of Neurofascin, Nfasc186, clusters voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier in myelinated nerves: here, we investigate its role in AIS assembly and stabilization. Inactivation of the Nfasc gene in cerebellar Purkinje cells of adult mice causes rapid loss of Nfasc186 from the AIS but not from nodes of Ranvier. This causes AIS disintegration, impairment of motor learning and the abolition of the spontaneous tonic discharge typical of Purkinje cells. Nevertheless, action potentials with a modified waveform can still be evoked and basic motor abilities remain intact. We propose that Nfasc186 optimizes communication between mature neurons by anchoring the key elements of the adult AIS complex.
    Neuron 03/2011; 69(5):945-56. · 15.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The complex manifestations of chronic multiple sclerosis (MS)are due in part to widespread axonal abnormalities that affect lesional and nonlesional areas in the central nervous system. We describe an association between microglial activation and axon/oligodendrocyte pathology at nodal and paranodal domains in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of MS cases and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The extent of paranodal axoglial (neurofascin-155(+)/Caspr1(+)) disruption correlated with local microglial inflammation and axonal injury (expression of nonphosphorylated neurofilaments) in MS NAWM. These changes were independent of demyelinating lesions and did not correlate with the density of infiltrating lymphocytes. Similar axoglial alterations were seen in the subcortical white matter of Parkinson disease cases and in preclinical EAE, at a time point when there is microglial activation before the infiltration of immune cells. Disruption of the axoglial unit in adjuvant-immunized animals was reversible and coincided with the resolution of microglial inflammation; paranodal damage and microglial inflammation persisted in chronic EAE. Axoglial integrity could be preserved by the administration of minocycline, which inhibited microglial activation, in actively immunized animals. These data indicate that, in MS NAWM, permanent disruption to axoglial domains in an environment of microglial inflammation is an early indicator of axonal injury that likely affects nerve conduction and may contribute to physiologic dysfunction.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 10/2010; 69(10):1017-33. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
804.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • • Centre for Neuroregeneration
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Research Centre for Social Sciences
      • • Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Weizmann Institute of Science
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
      Israel
  • 2008
    • NYU Langone Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • University of St Andrews
      • School of Biology
      Saint Andrews, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 1988–2000
    • Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 1995
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 1984–1994
    • University of Stirling
      Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1992
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1990
    • Columbia University
      • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York City, NY, United States