Michael Young

Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales, United Kingdom

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Publications (28)135.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Regulator of Antimicrobial-Assisted Survival), encoded by Rv1219c in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bcg_1279c in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, plays an important role in mycobacterial survival in prolonged stationary phase and during murine infection. Here we demonstrate that long chain acyl-CoA derivatives (oleoyl-CoA and to lesser extent palmitoyl-CoA) modulate RaaS binding to DNA and the expression of the genes downstream that encode ATP-dependent efflux pumps. Moreover, exogenously added oleic acid influenced RaaS-mediated mycobacterial improvement of survival and the expression of the RaaS regulon. Our data suggest that long chain acyl-CoA derivatives serve as biological indicators of the bacterial metabolic state. Dysregulation of efflux pumps can be used eliminate non-growing mycobacteria.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobials targeting cell wall biosynthesis are generally considered inactive against non-replicating bacteria. Paradoxically, we found that in non-permissive growth conditions exposure of Mycobacterium bovis BCG bacilli to such antimicrobials enhanced their survival. We identified a transcriptional regulator, Raas (for regulator of antimicrobial-assisted survival) encoded by bcg1279 (rv1219c) as being responsible for the observed phenomenon. Induction of this transcriptional regulator resulted in reduced expression of specific ATP-dependent efflux pumps and promoted long-term survival of mycobacteria, while its deletion accelerated bacterial death in non-permissive growth conditions in vitro and during macrophage or mouse infection. These findings have implications for the design of antimicrobial drug combination therapies for persistent infectious diseases such as tuberculosis.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complex PCR applications for large genome-scale projects require fast, reliable and often highly sophisticated primer design software applications. Presently, such applications use pipelining methods to utilise many third party applications and this involves file parsing, interfacing and data conversion, which is slow and prone to error. A fully integrated suite of software tools for primer design would considerably improve the development time, the processing speed, and the reliability of bespoke primer design software applications. The PD5 software library is an open-source collection of classes and utilities, providing a complete collection of software building blocks for primer design and analysis. It is written in object-oriented C(++) with an emphasis on classes suitable for efficient and rapid development of bespoke primer design programs. The modular design of the software library simplifies the development of specific applications and also integration with existing third party software where necessary. We demonstrate several applications created using this software library that have already proved to be effective, but we view the project as a dynamic environment for building primer design software and it is open for future development by the bioinformatics community. Therefore, the PD5 software library is published under the terms of the GNU General Public License, which guarantee access to source-code and allow redistribution and modification. The PD5 software library is downloadable from Google Code and the accompanying Wiki includes instructions and examples: http://code.google.com/p/primer-design.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80156. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One third of the world population carries a latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, which may reactivate leading to active disease. Although TB latency has been known for many years it remains poorly understood. In particular, substances of host origin, which may induce the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, have not yet been described. In vitro models of dormant ("non-culturable") cells of Mycobacterium smegmatis (mc(2)155) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv were used. We found that the resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells in liquid medium was stimulated by adding free unsaturated fatty acids (FA), including arachidonic acid, at concentrations of 1.6-10 µM. FA addition enhanced cAMP levels in reactivating M. smegmatis cells and exogenously added cAMP (3-10 mM) or dibutyryl-cAMP (0.5-1 mM) substituted for FA, causing resuscitation of M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis dormant cells. A M. smegmatis null-mutant lacking MSMEG_4279, which encodes a FA-activated adenylyl cyclase (AC), could not be resuscitated by FA but it was resuscitated by cAMP. M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells hyper-expressing AC were unable to form non-culturable cells and a specific inhibitor of AC (8-bromo-cAMP) prevented FA-dependent resuscitation. RT-PCR analysis revealed that rpfA (coding for resuscitation promoting factor A) is up-regulated in M. smegmatis in the beginning of exponential growth following the cAMP increase in lag phase caused by FA-induced cell activation. A specific Rpf inhibitor (4-benzoyl-2-nitrophenylthiocyanate) suppressed FA-induced resuscitation. We propose a novel pathway for the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria involving the activation of adenylyl cyclase MSMEG_4279 by FAs resulted in activation of cellular metabolism followed later by increase of RpfA activity which stimulates cell multiplication in exponential phase. The study reveals a probable role for lipids of host origin in the resuscitation of dormant mycobacteria, which may function during the reactivation of latent TB.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82914. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phosphorylated Spo0A transcription factor controls the initiation of endospore formation in Clostridium acetobutylicum, but genes encoding key phosphorelay components, Spo0F and Spo0B, are missing in the genome. We hypothesized that the five orphan histidine kinases of C. acetobutylicum interact directly with Spo0A to control its phosphorylation state. Sequential targeted gene disruption and gene expression profiling provided evidence for two pathways for Spo0A activation, one dependent on a histidine kinase encoded by cac0323, the other on both histidine kinases encoded by cac0903 and cac3319. Purified Cac0903 and Cac3319 kinases autophosphorylated and transferred phosphoryl groups to Spo0A in vitro, confirming their role in Spo0A activation in vivo. A cac0437 mutant hyper-sporulated, suggesting that Cac0437 is a modulator that prevents sporulation and maintains cellular Spo0A∼P homeostasis during growth. Accordingly, Cac0437 has apparently lost the ability to autophosphorylate in vitro; instead it catalyses the ATP-dependent dephosphorylation of Spo0A∼P releasing inorganic phosphate. Direct phosphorylation of Spo0A by histidine kinases and dephosphorylation by kinase-like proteins may be a common feature of the clostridia that may represent the ancestral state before the great oxygen event some 2.4 billion years ago, after which additional phosphorelay proteins were recruited in the evolutionary lineage that led to the bacilli.
    Molecular Microbiology 03/2011; 80(3):641-54. · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist. BBSRC, RAEng/EPSRC
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Micrococcus luteus (NCTC2665, "Fleming strain") has one of the smallest genomes of free-living actinobacteria sequenced to date, comprising a single circular chromosome of 2,501,097 bp (G+C content, 73%) predicted to encode 2,403 proteins. The genome shows extensive synteny with that of the closely related organism, Kocuria rhizophila, from which it was taxonomically separated relatively recently. Despite its small size, the genome harbors 73 insertion sequence (IS) elements, almost all of which are closely related to elements found in other actinobacteria. An IS element is inserted into the rrs gene of one of only two rrn operons found in M. luteus. The genome encodes only four sigma factors and 14 response regulators, a finding indicative of adaptation to a rather strict ecological niche (mammalian skin). The high sensitivity of M. luteus to beta-lactam antibiotics may result from the presence of a reduced set of penicillin-binding proteins and the absence of a wblC gene, which plays an important role in the antibiotic resistance in other actinobacteria. Consistent with the restricted range of compounds it can use as a sole source of carbon for energy and growth, M. luteus has a minimal complement of genes concerned with carbohydrate transport and metabolism and its inability to utilize glucose as a sole carbon source may be due to the apparent absence of a gene encoding glucokinase. Uniquely among characterized bacteria, M. luteus appears to be able to metabolize glycogen only via trehalose and to make trehalose only via glycogen. It has very few genes associated with secondary metabolism. In contrast to most other actinobacteria, M. luteus encodes only one resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) required for emergence from dormancy, and its complement of other dormancy-related proteins is also much reduced. M. luteus is capable of long-chain alkene biosynthesis, which is of interest for advanced biofuel production; a three-gene cluster essential for this metabolism has been identified in the genome.
    Journal of bacteriology 11/2009; 192(3):841-60. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dormancy among nonsporulating actinobacteria is now a widely accepted phenomenon. In Micrococcus luteus, the resuscitation of dormant cells is caused by a small secreted protein (resuscitation-promoting factor, or Rpf) that is found in "spent culture medium." Rpf is encoded by a single essential gene in M. luteus. Homologs of Rpf are widespread among the high G + C Gram-positive bacteria, including mycobacteria and streptomycetes, and most organisms make several functionally redundant proteins. M. luteus Rpf comprises a lysozyme-like domain that is necessary and sufficient for activity connected through a short linker region to a LysM motif, which is present in a number of cell-wall-associated enzymes. Muralytic activity is responsible for resuscitation. In this report, we characterized a number of environmental isolates of M. luteus, including several recovered from amber. There was substantial variation in the predicted rpf gene product. While the lysozyme-like and LysM domains showed little variation, the linker region was elongated from ten amino acid residues in the laboratory strains to as many as 120 residues in one isolate. The genes encoding these Rpf proteins have been characterized, and a possible role for the Rpf linker in environmental adaptation is proposed. The environmental isolates show enhanced resistance to lysozyme as compared with the laboratory strains and this correlates with increased peptidoglycan acetylation. In strains that make a protein with an elongated linker, Rpf was bound to the cell wall, rather than being released to the growth medium, as occurs in reference strains. This rpf gene was introduced into a lysozyme-sensitive reference strain. Both rpf genes were expressed in transformants which showed a slight but statistically significant increase in lysozyme resistance.
    Microbial Ecology 10/2009; 59(2):296-310. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Science 09/2009; 325(5943):945. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge.
    Science 05/2009; 324(5923):85-9. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains five resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf)-like proteins, RpfA-E, that are implicated in resuscitation of this organism from dormancy via a mechanism involving hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan by Rpfs and partnering proteins. In this study, the rpfA-E genes were shown to be collectively dispensable for growth of M. tuberculosis in broth culture. The defect in resuscitation of multiple mutants from a 'non-culturable' state induced by starvation under anoxia was reversed by genetic complementation or addition of culture filtrate from wild-type organisms confirming that the phenotype was associated with rpf-like gene loss and that the 'non-culturable' cells of the mutant strains were viable. Other phenotypes uncovered by sequential deletion mutagenesis revealed a functional differentiation within this protein family. The quintuple mutant and its parent that retained only rpfD displayed delayed colony formation and hypersensitivity to detergent, effects not observed for mutants retaining only rpfE or rpfB. Furthermore, mutants retaining rpfD or rpfE were highly attenuated for growth in mice with the latter persisting better than the former in late-stage infection. In conjunction, these results are indicative of a hierarchy in terms of function and/or potency with the Rpf family, with RpfB and RpfE ranking above RpfD.
    Molecular Microbiology 03/2008; 67(3):672-84. · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to enter into a dormant state has resulted in one third of the world’s population being infected with latent tuberculosis. As such, the study of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to latency and reactivation is of utmost importance. M. tuberculosis encodes five resuscitation promoting factors, RpfA-E, which share homology with Micrococcus luteus Rpf, a muralytic enzyme implicated in reactivation of this organism from a dormant state. We have undertaken the combinatorial deletion of up to four of the five rpf genes from M. tuberculosis H37Rv to produce a set of deletion mutants that include three quadruple mutant strains that retain only rpfB, rpfD or rpfE. These strains were assessed for growth and survival in vitro and in macrophages and for virulence in mice. Our data indicated that although the quadruple mutants displayed normal growth and survival in liquid media and in human PBMCs, they showed reduced growth kinetics on solid media. Moreover, all three strains showed markedly reduced virulence in mice, with those carrying only rpfB or rpfD being unable to maintain chronic infection in vivo. These findings, together with preliminary data on the expression of the remaining rpf genes in the set of deletion mutant strains, suggest that the Rpf proteins of M. tuberculosis may have discrete functions. Wellcome Trust (#065578)/ HHMI / NIH (RO1 AI 54338 and AI54361)/ Medical Research Council of South Africa /Columbia University-Southern African Fogarty AIDS International Research and Training Program (# 5 D43 TW00231, FIC, NIH)
    01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: The culturability of several actinobacteria is controlled by resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs). These are proteins containing a c. 70-residue domain that adopts a lysozyme-like fold. The invariant catalytic glutamate residue found in lysozyme and various bacterial lytic transglycosylases is also conserved in the Rpf proteins. Rpf from Micrococcus luteus, the founder member of this protein family, is indeed a muralytic enzyme, as revealed by its activity in zymograms containing M. luteus cell walls and its ability to (i) cause lysis of Escherichia coli when expressed and secreted into the periplasm; (ii) release fluorescent material from fluorescamine-labelled cell walls of M. luteus; and (iii) hydrolyse the artificial lysozyme substrate, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-N,N',N''-triacetylchitotrioside. Rpf activity was reduced but not completely abolished when the invariant glutamate residue was altered. Moreover, none of the other acidic residues in the Rpf domain was absolutely required for muralytic activity. Replacement of one or both of the cysteine residues that probably form a disulphide bridge within Rpf impaired but did not completely abolish muralytic activity. The muralytic activities of the Rpf mutants were correlated with their abilities to stimulate bacterial culturability and resuscitation, consistent with the view that the biological activity of Rpf results directly or indirectly from its ability to cleave bonds in bacterial peptidoglycan.
    Molecular Microbiology 02/2006; 59(1):84-98. · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains five genes, rpfA through rpfE, that bear significant homology to the resuscitation-promoting factor (rpf) gene of Micrococcus luteus, whose product is required to resuscitate the growth of dormant cultures of M. luteus and is essential for the growth of this organism. Previous studies have shown that deletion of any one of the five rpf-like genes did not affect the growth or survival of M. tuberculosis in vitro. In conjunction with the results of whole-genome expression profiling, this finding was indicative of their functional redundancy. In this study, we demonstrate that the single deletion mutants are phenotypically similar to wild-type M. tuberculosis H37Rv in vivo. The deletion of individual rpf-like genes had no discernible effect on the growth or long-term survival of M. tuberculosis in liquid culture, and the ability to resuscitate spontaneously from a nonculturable state in a most probable number assay was also unaffected for the three strains tested (the DeltarpfB, DeltarpfD, and DeltarpfE strains). In contrast, two multiple strains, KDT8 (DeltarpfA-mutation DeltarpfC DeltarpfB) and KDT9 (DeltarpfA DeltarpfC DeltarpfD), which lack three of the five rpf-like genes, were significantly yet differentially attenuated in a mouse infection model. These mutants were also unable to resuscitate spontaneously in vitro, demonstrating the importance of the Rpf-like proteins of M. tuberculosis in resuscitation from the nonculturable state. These results strongly suggest that the biological functions of the five rpf-like genes of M. tuberculosis are not wholly redundant and underscore the potential utility of these proteins as targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Infection and Immunity 06/2005; 73(5):3038-43. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Micrococcus luteus growth and resuscitation from starvation-induced dormancy is controlled by the production of a secreted growth factor. This autocrine resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) is the founder member of a family of proteins found throughout and confined to the actinobacteria (high G + C Gram-positive bacteria). The aim of this work was to search for and characterise a cognate gene family in the firmicutes (low G + C Gram-positive bacteria) and obtain information about how they may control bacterial growth and resuscitation. In silico analysis of the accessory domains of the Rpf proteins permitted their classification into several subfamilies. The RpfB subfamily is related to a group of firmicute proteins of unknown function, represented by YabE of Bacillus subtilis. The actinobacterial RpfB and firmicute YabE proteins have very similar domain structures and genomic contexts, except that in YabE, the actinobacterial Rpf domain is replaced by another domain, which we have called Sps. Although totally unrelated in both sequence and secondary structure, the Rpf and Sps domains fulfil the same function. We propose that these proteins have undergone "non-orthologous domain displacement", a phenomenon akin to "non-orthologous gene displacement" that has been described previously. Proteins containing the Sps domain are widely distributed throughout the firmicutes and they too fall into a number of distinct subfamilies. Comparative analysis of the accessory domains in the Rpf and Sps proteins, together with their weak similarity to lytic transglycosylases, provide clear evidence that they are muralytic enzymes. The results indicate that the firmicute Sps proteins and the actinobacterial Rpf proteins are cognate and that they control bacterial culturability via enzymatic modification of the bacterial cell envelope.
    BMC Genomics 02/2005; 6:39. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The question of whether it is possible to automate the scientific process is of both great theoretical interest and increasing practical importance because, in many scientific areas, data are being generated much faster than they can be effectively analysed. We describe a physically implemented robotic system that applies techniques from artificial intelligence to carry out cycles of scientific experimentation. The system automatically originates hypotheses to explain observations, devises experiments to test these hypotheses, physically runs the experiments using a laboratory robot, interprets the results to falsify hypotheses inconsistent with the data, and then repeats the cycle. We applied this system to the determination of gene function using deletion mutants of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and auxotrophic growth experiments. We built and tested a detailed logical model (involving genes, proteins and metabolites) of the aromatic amino acid synthesis pathway. In biological experiments that automatically reconstruct parts of this model, we show that an intelligent experiment selection strategy is competitive with human performance and significantly outperforms, with a cost decrease of 3-fold and 100-fold (respectively), both cheapest and random-experiment selection. We have now scaled up this approach to discover novel biology. To achieve this we combined our logical reasoning approach with bioinformatics. We have built a logical model of all known S. cerevisiae metabolism. In this model there are still reactions where the gene encoding the enzyme is unknown. We demonstrate that we can automatically hypothesize these genes, and generate “wet” biological evidence that either confirms or contradicts this hypothesis. This approach can also be used to automatically test biological genome annotations.
    Discovery Science, 8th International Conference, DS 2005, Singapore, October 8-11, 2005, Proceedings; 01/2005
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    ABSTRACT: A number of actinomycetes isolates were recovered from coastal sediments in Aberystwyth (Wales, United Kingdom) with standard isolation techniques. Most of them were putatively assigned to the genera Streptomyces and Micromonospora on the basis of their morphological characteristics, and there appeared to be no difference whether the isolation media contained distilled water or seawater. A group of 20 Micromonospora isolates was selected to undergo further polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Three approaches were used to analyze the diversity of these isolates, 16S rDNA sequencing, fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that all of these isolates should be classified to the genus Micromonospora, and they were analyzed with a group of other Micromonospora 16S rDNA sequences available from the Ribosomal Database Project. The relationships of the 20 isolates were observed after hierarchical clustering, and almost identical clusters were obtained with these three techniques. This has obvious implications for high-throughput screening for novel actinomycetes because FT-IR spectroscopy, which is a rapid and reliable whole-organism fingerprinting method, can be applied as a very useful dereplication tool to indicate which environmental isolates have been cultured previously.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 12/2004; 70(11):6619-27. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conditions were investigated that promote the formation of 'non-culturable' (NC) cells of Mycobacterium (Myc.) smegmatis in stationary phase. After cultivation in a rich medium, or under conditions that may be considered optimal for bacterial growth, or starvation for carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus, bacteria failed to enter a NC state. However, when grown under suboptimal conditions, resulting in a reduced growth rate or maximal cell concentration (e.g. in modified Hartman's-de Bont medium), bacteria adopted a stable NC state after 3-4 days incubation in stationary phase. Such conditions are not specific as purF and devR mutants of Myc. smegmatis also showed (transient) loss of culturability following growth to stationary phase in an optimized medium, but under oxygen-limited conditions. The behaviour of the same mutants in oxygen-sufficient but nutrient-inappropriate medium (modified Hartman's-de Bont medium) was similar to that of the wild-type (adoption of a stable NC state). It is hypothesized that adoption of a NC state may represent an adaptive response of the bacteria, grown under conditions when their metabolism is significantly compromised due to the simultaneous action of several factors, such as usage of inappropriate nutrients or low oxygen availability or impairment of a particular metabolic pathway. NC cells of wild-type Myc. smegmatis resume growth when transferred to a suitable resuscitation medium. Significantly, resuscitation was observed when either recombinant Rpf protein or supernatant derived from a growing bacterial culture was incorporated into the resuscitation medium. Moreover, co-culture with Micrococcus (Mcc.) luteus cells (producing and secreting Rpf) also permitted resuscitation. Isogenic strains of Myc. smegmatis harbouring plasmids containing the Mcc. luteus rpf gene also adopt a similar NC state after growth to stationary phase in modified Hartman's-de Bont medium. However, in contrast to the behaviour noted above, these strains resuscitated spontaneously when transferred to the resuscitation medium, presumably because they are able to resume endogenous synthesis of Mcc. luteus Rpf. Resuscitation was not observed in the control strain harbouring a plasmid lacking Mcc. luteus rpf. In contrast to wild-type, the NC cells of purF and devR mutants obtained under oxygen-limited conditions resuscitate spontaneously, presumably because the heterogeneous population contains some residual viable cells that continue to make Rpf-like proteins.
    Microbiology 07/2004; 150(Pt 6):1687-97. · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial culturability can be ephemeral. Cells are not merely either dead or alive but can adopt physiological states in which they appear to be (transiently) non-culturable under conditions in which they are known normally to be able to grow and divide. The reacquisition of culturability from such states is referred to as resuscitation. We here develop the idea that this "transient non-culturability" is a consequence of a special survival strategy, and summarise the morphological, physiological and genetic evidence underpinning such behaviour and its adaptive significance.
    Advances in Microbial Physiology 02/2003; 47:65-129. · 6.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: contents - Physiological diversity and niche adaptation in marine Synechococcus Adoption of the Transiently Non-culturable State - a Bacterial Survival Strategy? The Biodiversity of Microbial Cytochromes P450 The Tat protein translocation pathway and its role in microbial physiology Microbial Globins
    01/2003;

Publication Stats

921 Citations
135.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • Aberystwyth University
      • • Department of Computer Science
      • • Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences
      Aberystwyth, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      • Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
      Jerusalem, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1993–2009
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom