[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under controlled conditions. Furthermore, more research including other important pathogens, such as gastro-intestinal nematodes, will be necessary to complete this picture.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110123. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110123 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The wild boar is an important reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in south-western Spain. Some risk factors such as wild boar density or age have been associated with the presence of high prevalences of bTB in wild boar. However, the influence of other risk factors such as co-infections with other pathogens has not yet been studied. This work aims to assess the influence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) infection on bTB prevalence and bTB lesional patterns observed in wild boar. The presence of bTB-like lesions was evaluated in 551 hunted wild boar from 11 different game estates in south-western Spain, with a known history of bTB. Tuberculosis prevalences in each estate were calculated based on the percentage of animals found with bTB-like lesions. The percentage of animals with generalized bTB lesional patterns (bTB lesions in more than one organ) was also assessed. The prevalence of PCV-2 was studied in each estate using a specific PCR assay. The relationship between PCV-2 and bTB prevalences and between PCV-2 infections and the presence of generalized lesional patterns in wild boar were analysed. A statistical relationship between the prevalences of bTB and PCV-2 was found, with bTB prevalences being higher in estates where prevalences of PCV-2 were high. On the other hand, animals infected with PCV-2 were more likely to develop a generalized lesional pattern. Porcine circovirus type 2 prevalences seem to be associated with prevalences of bTB in wild boar. PCV-2 infection may aggravate the development and severity of bTB, favouring the presence of generalized lesional patterns and raising the risk of contagion in these estates. The implementation of sanitary measures that focus on the control of PCV-2 infection may be necessary as a preliminary measure in bTB control programmes for wild boar.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aeromonas hydrophila has been repeatedly reported as an animal pathogen. This study describes a case of a wild boar piglet in Spain with severe purulent pneumonia caused by A. hydrophila. To confirm the presence of A. hydrophila in the respiratory tract of wild boars from the same region, lung samples from 34 adult hunted animals and nasal samples from 12 live animals were collected and cultured in selective medium. Lung lesions were studied in hunted wild boars to determine the presence of A. hydrophila and to assess its role as a possible respiratory pathogen in wild boars. A. hydrophila was isolated in 10.87% of the animals studied (8.82% of the dead animals and 16% of the live animals). However, its presence in the lungs of adults could not be correlated with the lesions found. Thus, the role of A. hydrophila as a respiratory pathogen is likely to be influenced by other factors, such as age, immunologic status, or coinfection with other pathogens. As a zoonotic pathogen, the presence of A. hydrophila in wild boars may pose a potential risk to people who consume their flesh.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 12/2013; 44(4):1090-3. DOI:10.1638/2013-0009R2.1 · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pasteurella multocida is a common pathogen of swine that causes specific diseases with great economic impact. However, the importance of this pathogen in wild boar is still unknown. In the current work, an outbreak of systemic pasteurellosis in wild boar with a high mortality rate is described. A total of 23 wild boar of all ages were found dead over a 5-day period on a game estate in southwest Spain (11.11% mortality). Three animals were necropsied and showed subcutaneous edema, a generalized congestion, and fibrin deposits in the peritoneal cavity. Hemorrhages, general congestion, and intravascular thrombosis were microscopically observed. Pasteurella multocida type B was isolated from all of the studied organs. Outbreaks of systemic pasteurellosis have been described in domestic pigs from Asia and Australia, but not to date in Europe. This outbreak suggests that systemic pasteurellosis affecting wild boar populations may be an important cause of mortality.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 09/2013; 25(6). DOI:10.1177/1040638713504411 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methods such as real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) have not been developed for the rapid detection and diagnosis of Dermatophilus congolensis (D. congolensis) infections. In this work, a D. congolensis specific SYBR Green RT-PCR assay was evaluated. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was 1 pg of DNA per PCR reaction. There were no cross-reactions with nucleic acids extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus and Austwickia chelonae.Finally the RT-PCR was also tested with clinical samples collected from naturally infected animals with D. congolensis. The results showed that the assay provides a fast and suitable method to diagnose dermatophilosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a reservoir for a large number of pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and humans has been widely studied in the last few years. However, the impact of some of these pathogens on the health of wild boar populations is still being determined. This article presents a clinical case of severe bilateral keratoconjunctivitis affecting a 2-mo-old piglet from a semi-free range population in Spain. Histopathologic and microbiologic analysis revealed lesions in the cornea, choroid, and optical nerve, and Chlamydia suis was detected in the eyes bilaterally. The visual handicap resulting from this type of lesion greatly affects the survival of this affected piglet.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 03/2013; 44(1):159-62. DOI:10.2307/23361466 · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine brucellosis is a disease caused by Brucella suis, which is characterized by reproductive disorders in pigs. The number of cases of swine brucellosis has risen in many European countries, likely because of the presence of a wild reservoir of B. suis in wild boar. This study aimed at evaluating factors that may influence the probability of infection with Brucella spp. in wild boar and at assessing the impact of a previous contact with Brucella spp. on reproductive parameters of wild boar. Two hundred and four wild boar living in Extremadura (south-western Spain) were studied. The presence of anti-Brucella antibodies was determined using an indirect ELISA, while the presence of living bacteria in genital organs was evaluated through microbiological cultures. Sex, age, density of wild boar in summer and presence of outdoor pigs were selected as possible risk factors for being seropositive for Brucella spp. in wild boar. In addition, reproductive parameters such as breeding status or potential fertility in females and testis weight in males were estimated and related to the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies. A total of 121 animals were seropositive, resulting in a prevalence of 59.3% (95% CI). In addition, seven isolates of B. suis biovar 2 were obtained. Wild boar density in summer, as well as age and sex, was proposed as factors to explain the probability of Brucella seroconversion, although wild boar density in summer was the key factor. Current measures of reproductive parameters were not influenced by a previous contact with Brucella spp. Isolation of B. suis confirms that wild boar could represent a risk to domestic pig health in the study area. Wild boar density seems to have a great influence in the probability of infections with B. suis and suggests that density management could be useful to control Brucella infection in wild boar.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 01/2013; DOI:10.1111/tbed.12060 · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis infections in fallow deer have been reported in different countries and play an important role in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), together with other deer species. There is little knowledge of the pathogenesis of bTB in fallow deer. The aim of this study was to perform a histopathological characterisation of the granulomas induced by M. bovis in this species and the immunohistochemical distribution of different cell subsets (CD3+, CD79+, macrophages) and chemical mediators (iNOS, TNF-α, IFN-γ) in the different developmental stages of granulomas. Stage I/II granulomas showed a marked presence of macrophages (MAC387+) expressing high iNOS levels while stage III/IV granulomas showed a decrease in the number of these cells forming a rim surrounding the necrotic foci. This was correlated with the presence of IFN-γ expressing cell counts, much higher in stage I/II than in stage III/IV. The number of B cells increased alongside the developmental stage of the granuloma, and interestingly the expression of TNF-α was very low in all the stages. This characterisation of the lesions and the local immune response may be helpful as basic knowledge in the attempts to increase the vaccine efficacy as well as for disease severity evaluation and for the development of improved diagnostic tools. Immunohistochemical methods using several commercial antibodies in fallow deer tissues are described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential role of wild animals in the maintenance and spread of tuberculosis (TB) infection in domestic livestock is of particular importance in countries where eradication programs have substantially reduced the incidence of bovine tuberculosis but sporadic outbreaks still occur. Mycobacterium bovis is the agent mainly isolated in wildlife in Spain, but recently, infections by Mycobacterium caprae have increased substantially. In this study, we have analysed 43 mandibular lymph nodes samples containing TB-like lesions from 43 hunted wild boar from Madrid and Extremadura (central and south-western regions of Spain). After isolation, identification and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates, we found that 23 mandibular lymph nodes involved M. caprae infections and 20 M. bovis. The lesions were compared for histopathology (different granuloma stage and number of multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs)), and acid-fast bacilli (AFBs) were quantified in the Ziehl-Neelsen-stained slides. Granulomas produced by M. caprae showed more stage IV granulomas, more MNGCs and higher AFBs counts than those induced by M. bovis. In conclusion, lesions caused by M. caprae would be more prone to the excretion of bacilli, and infected animals result as a high-risk source of infection for other animals.
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 04/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1865-1682.2012.01321.x · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Swine erysipelas (SE) is a disease caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and is one of the best-known and most serious diseases affecting domestic pigs. However, few studies exist concerning the susceptibility of wild boars to this disease and the role of this species as a reservoir. This study investigates and describes an outbreak of SE that occurred on a semi-intensive wild boar breeding farm housing 40 boars in Extremadura (SW Spain) on 11-18 February 2010. Seven animals died, of which four were examined post-mortem. Of these, three (two females and one male) were approximately 3 months old, and one was 1 year old (male). Lesions were consistent with acute septicaemia, consisting of cutaneous erythema/cyanosis and petechial haemorrhages in kidneys, urinary bladder, lungs and meninges. The 1-year-old male also had proliferative polyarthritis. Histopathology confirmed the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and vasculitis. Additionally, a bilateral acute panuveitis with concurrent necrotizing vasculitis and diffuse corneal oedema, neither of which have been described before in this disease, were found in the 3-month-old male boar. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from all four animals in pure cultures from several tissues. Of these four animals, antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae, using an indirect ELISA test, were only detected in the 1-year-old male boar with polyarthritis. Posteriorly, of nine live adults tested for antibodies, four (including an adult male with polyarthritis) were positive.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intensification of game management may increase the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in wildlife despite eradication programs implemented in cattle herds in the same areas. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between wild game management practices and the presence of tuberculosis in red deer populations in Southwestern Spain. Five hundred and fifty-one animals were examined by necropsy to detect tuberculosis-like lesions in the main lymph nodes. Prevalence, as determined by TB-like lesions, was estimated to be 5.1% of animals, with 77% of TB-like lesions confirmed by PCR. Our results suggest that population density, in addition to factors which promote the local aggregation of animals, is factors associated with increased prevalence of TB in red deer populations. We suggest that management practices including supplementary feeding, fencing, water ponds and interaction with domestic livestock should be revised in order to prevent TB in wild deer both.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2011; 98(1):58-63. DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.11.008 · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in different red deer populations and to investigate role of red deer densities, livestock, and habitat on seroprevalence. The serosurvey revealed 5 positive cases out of 137 sera (3.64%) that occurred in two of the three study areas. This study documents the first cases of Coxiella burnetii in red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula. A relationship between deer density and Coxiella seroprevalence was not found. Results revealed that indirect transmission through ticks between livestock and red deer might be associated with higher prevalence. The timing of shelter area usage may influence the contact between ticks and red deer by favoring transmission. Coxiella burnetii in red deer may be associated with infertility or early abortions with reabsorption. Further research is needed to evaluate its epidemiology and effect on the disease dynamics of red deer in the southwest Iberian peninsula.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 09/2010; 41(3):468-73. DOI:10.2307/40962249 · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cats are frequent carriers of Microsporum canis and veterinary students are at high risk of exposure and acquisition of the organism a la infección.
An outbreak of zoonotic ringworm carried by a litter of stray cats is described. Four veterinary students, four dogs, and six cats living in five separate locations were affected. All had direct or indirect contact with the infected kitten litter. We tried to identify the causal dermatophyte.
Conventional and mycological culture methods were used.
Microscopic features of scrapings and hairs treated with 20% KOH strongly suggested a M. canis etiology, and a diagnosis of ringworm was empirically supported by successful treatment of humans and animals. Nevertheless, cultures failed to show the expected morphology.
Culture features of our strain are compared with those described by other authors for dysgonic M. canis strains. Epidemiological features are also discussed.
Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 03/2010; 27(2):62-5. DOI:10.1016/j.riam.2009.12.007 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum nanum in a traditional Iberian extensive farm is described. The morbidity was 100% among lactating sows; however, suckling and weaning pigs, as well as boars never developed the lesions seen in the sows. The clinical aspects of porcine ringworm caused by this fungus are discussed and the ecology of the organism is reviewed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 represents a major public health concern worldwide, with cattle recognized as their main natural reservoir. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and the pheno-genotypic characteristics of STEC O157:H7 in a herd with 268 cattle of the fighting bulls breed (De Lidia breed) managed under extensive conditions in the South-West of Spain. Rectal-anal swabs of all animals were collected and examined for STEC O157:H7 by performing an immunomagnetic concentration and separation procedure combined with PCR, and the resulting isolates were characterized by both phenotypic and genotypic methods. Overall, STEC O157:H7 was isolated from seven animals (2.6%) in the herd. The PCR procedure indicated that all seven isolates displayed stx(2), eae-gamma1, ehxA, O157 rfbE, and fliCh7 genes. They belonged to phage types 4 (one isolate) and 42 (two isolates), and four isolates reacted with typing phages but did not conform to a recognized pattern. Among the seven isolates there were five indistinguishable PFGE patterns and other two which differed only in < or =2 restriction fragments, supporting the existence of horizontal transmission among animals in the herd. The present study demonstrates that cattle managed under extensive conditions in Spain can excrete STEC O157:H7 with their faeces. To our knowledge this is the first isolation of this pathogen from De Lidia cattle.
Research in Veterinary Science 09/2009; 88(2):208-10. DOI:10.1016/j.rvsc.2009.07.014 · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most essential systems applied to the eradication of bovine tuberculosis by Mycobacterium bovis is the epidemiologic surveillance of animals slaughtered in abattoir by means of inspection and sample taking of lesions compatible with tuberculosis, confirming the existence of the disease through culture and molecular detection, which takes weeks before a result can be obtained. An interesting alternative is to develop high-throughput molecular systems for the direct detection of M. bovis on biological samples. In this sense, our research has developed a molecular detection system by means of a real-time based PCR process which is applied directly to bovine biological samples and it allows to differentiate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium avium complex and other atypical mycobacteria that are interesting from the veterinary point of view. The sensitivity was analyzed by applying a conventional extraction system based on guanidine thiocyanate and a robotized system based on the selective magnetic capture of mycobacterial DNA. The molecular detection system showed a high specificity and a detection threshold of only two to three genomes. The sensitivity depended on the DNA extraction system being used and on the kind of lesions on which it was used; the sensitivity ranged from 61.11% for samples with non-visible lesions to 80.64% for chronic lesions, with an average sensitivity of 73.87% when using the manual extraction system and between 27.77 and 74.19% (average sensitivity 47.74%) when using the automated robotic system. In conclusion, our multiplex real-time PCR assay represents a fully controlled, high-throughput diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of Myobacterium presence directly in animal clinical specimens, which could be a practical tool in the context of bovine tuberculosis abattoir surveillance programs and granuloma submission programs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important group of emerging pathogens, with ruminants recognised as their main natural reservoir. The aim of this work was to establish the prevalence of non-O157 STEC in free-ranging wild ruminants in the Extremadura region of Spain and to characterise them phenogenotypically. Faecal samples were collected from 243 wild ruminants, including Cervus elaphus, Capreolus capreolus, Dama dama and Ovis musimon and were examined for STEC using both phenotypic (Vero cells) and genotypic (PCR and PFGE) methods. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli were isolated from 58 (23.9%) of the samples and a total of 65 isolates were characterised. A PCR method indicated that 11 (16.9%) strains carried the stx(1) gene, 44 (67.7%) carried the stx(2) gene and 10 (15.4%) carried both these genes. The ehxA gene was detected in 37 (57%) of the isolates but none contained either the eae or saa genes. The isolates were from a total of 12 'O' serogroups, although 80% were restricted to the O2, O8, O128, O146, O166 and O174 serogroups. The most commonly isolated STEC bacteria, which were from the O146 serogroup, exhibited a high degree of polymorphism as indicated by PFGE. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates of serogroups O20, O25, O166, O171, O174 and O176 had not previously been found in wild ruminants. This is the first study to confirm that wild ruminants in Spain are a reservoir of STEC and are thus a potential source of human infection.
The Veterinary Journal 04/2008; 180(3):384-8. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.01.011 · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease that affects cattle and wildlife worldwide. These animal hosts can serve as reservoirs of infection, thus increasing the risk of human exposure and infection. Tuberculous meningoencephalitis complicating disseminated tuberculosis is described in a 7-mo-old wild boar (Sus scrofa).