[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that scavenger receptor A (SRA/CD204), a binding structure on dendritic cells (DCs) for large stress/heat shock proteins (HSPs; e.g., hsp110 and grp170), attenuated an antitumor response elicited by large HSP-based vaccines. In this study, we show that SRA/CD204 interacts directly with exogenous hsp110, and lack of SRA/CD204 results in a reduction in the hsp110 binding and internalization by DCs. However, SRA(-/-) DCs pulsed with hsp110 or grp170-reconstituted gp100 chaperone complexes exhibit a profoundly increased capability of stimulating melanoma Ag gp100-specific naive T cells compared with wild-type (WT) DCs. Similar results were obtained when SRA/CD204 was silenced in DCs using short hairpin RNA-encoding lentiviruses. In addition, hsp110-stimulated SRA(-/-) DCs produced more inflammatory cytokines associated with increased NF-κB activation, implicating an immunosuppressive role for SRA/CD204. Immunization with the hsp110-gp100 vaccine resulted in a more robust gp100-specific CD8(+) T cell response in SRA(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Lastly, SRA/CD204 absence markedly improved the therapeutic efficacy of the hsp110-gp100 vaccine in mice established with B16 melanoma, which was accompanied by enhanced activation and tumor infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. Given the presence of multiple HSP-binding scavenger receptors on APCs, we propose that selective scavenger receptor interactions with HSPs may lead to highly distinct immunological consequences. Our findings provide new insights into the immune regulatory functions of SRA/CD204 and have important implications in the rational design of protein Ag-targeted recombinant chaperone vaccines for the treatment of cancer.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2011; 187(6):2905-14. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1100703 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have demonstrated that the natural chaperone complexes of full-length tumor protein Ags (e.g., gp100) and large stress proteins (e.g., hsp110 and grp170) with exceptional Ag-holding capabilities augment potent tumor protective immunity. In this study, we assess the peptide-interacting property of these large chaperones and, for the first time, compare the immunogenicity of the recombinant chaperone vaccines targeting two forms of Ags (protein versus peptide). Both hsp110 and grp170 readily formed complexes with antigenic peptides under physiologic conditions, and the peptide association could be further stimulated by heat shock. The large chaperones displayed similar but distinct peptide-binding features compared with hsp70 and grp94/gp96. Immunization with hsp110- or grp170-tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2(175-192)) peptide complexes effectively primed CD8(+) T cells reactive with TRP2-derived, MHC class I-restricted epitope. However, the tumor protective effect elicited by the TRP2(175-192) peptide vaccine was much weaker than that achieved by full-length TRP2 protein Ag chaperoned by grp170. Furthermore, immunization with combined chaperone vaccines directed against two melanoma protein Ags (i.e., gp100 and TRP2) significantly improved overall anti-tumor efficacy when compared with either of the single Ag vaccine. Lastly, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with these dual Ag-targeted chaperone complexes resulted in an immune activation involving epitope spreading, which was associated with a strong growth inhibition of the established tumors. Our results suggest that high m.w. chaperones are superior to conventional chaperones as a vaccine platform to deliver large protein Ags, and provide a rationale for translating this recombinant chaperoning-based vaccine to future clinical investigation.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2010; 184(11):6309-19. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0903891 · 4.92 Impact Factor