John Dickerson

Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, United States

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Publications (20)76.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for treatment interventions to address the high prevalence of disordered eating throughout adolescence and early adulthood. We developed an adolescent-specific manualized CBT protocol to treat female adolescents with recurrent binge eating and tested its efficacy in a small, pilot randomized controlled trial. We present lessons learned in recruiting adolescents, a description of our treatment approach, acceptability of the treatment for teens and parents, as well as results from the pilot trial. Participants in the CBT group had significantly fewer posttreatment eating binges than those in a treatment as usual/delayed treatment (TAU-DT) control group; 100% of CBT participants were abstinent at follow-up. Our results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of this adolescent adaptation of evidence-based CBT for recurrent binge eating. The large, robust effect size estimate observed for the main outcome (NNT=2) places this among the larger effects observed for any mental health intervention.
    Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 05/2013; 20(2):147-161. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Of 1 million cases of child maltreatment identified every year in the United States, one-fifth result in foster care. Many of these children suffer from significant emotional and behavioral conditions. Decision-makers must allocate highly constrained budgets to serve these children. Recent evidence suggests that Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers can reduce negative outcomes for these children, but the relative benefits and costs of the program have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess net benefit, over 24 months, of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers compared to regular foster care. Data were from a randomized controlled trial of 117 young children entering a new foster placement. A subsample exhibited placement instability (n = 52). Intervention services including parent training, lasted 9–12 months. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers significantly increased permanent placements for the placement instability sample. Average total cost for the new intervention sample was significantly less than for regular foster care (full sample: $27,204 vs. $30,090; P = .004; placement instability sample: $29,595 vs. $36,061; P = .045). Incremental average net benefit was positive at all levels of willingness to pay of zero or greater, indicating that the value of benefits exceeded costs. Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers has significant benefit for preschool children in foster care with emotional and behavioral disorders compared to regular foster care services. At even modest levels of willingness to pay, benefits exceed costs indicating a strong likeliness that this program is an efficient choice for improving outcomes for young children with emotional and behavioral disorders in foster care.
    Children and Youth Services Review 01/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims Adolescent depression is common and leads to many negative personal, social, and economic consequences for youth and their families; unfortunately, most youth who experience major depression do not receive any treatment. Depression prevention programs can reduce these negative consequences, but they must be affordable to be widely disseminated and useful for health care systems. Decision-makers need to weigh relative costs and benefits of providing efficacious prevention programs to depressed adolescents, but little cost-effectiveness analysis exists. The Prevention of Depression trial (POD) was a brief prevention program that compared a group cognitive- behavioral preventive (CBP) intervention to usual care (UC) to reduce depression risk in at-risk youth; the intervention decreased the number of days with depression. We present an incremental cost- effectiveness analysis of the group CBP program relative to UC, from the societal perspective, for 9 months following the intervention. Methods POD was conducted in four U.S. academic and community clinics. Participants were 316 youth aged 13-17 with a past history of depression and/or current elevated, but sub-diagnostic, depressive symptoms. They were randomly assigned to the CBP group consisting of 8 weekly, 90- minute group sessions followed by 6 monthly continuation sessions or to UC alone. The main clinical outcome measures were depression-free days (DFD) and quality-adjusted life-years based on DFD (DFD-QALYs). Costs of intervention, non-protocol services, and families were included. Results CBP achieved 13 additional DFD (p=.008), 0.022 more DFD-QALYs (p=.008). CBP cost $591 (SD=286) on average. Cost per DFD was $59 (ICER = $59; 95% CI: 11-263), $35,434 per DFD-QALY (ICER=$35,434; 95% CI: 6,350 - 157,594). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analyses suggest a 69% probability that CBP is more cost-effective at a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY. CBP had a higher net benefit for youth whose parent's depression was in remission at baseline. Discussion The societal cost-effectiveness of POD is comparable to or better than that of many health care services currently covered under most insurance programs. The program is particularly cost effective for the sub-group of youth whose parent's depression was in remission at baseline.
    Clinical Medicine &amp Research 08/2012; 10(3):183.
  • Frances Lynch, John Dickerson
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims Care of children with mental health and developmental conditions (MHC) is often demanding and expensive, imposing both financial and time costs on families. Because costs to families are relatively difficult to quantify, most studies have focused on studying family costs using health system data which are more readily available. Few studies have collected cost data directly from families. Methods This study presents results of psychometric analyses of a new instrument that directly measures family costs, the Family Economic Impact Interview (FEII). Reliability and validity of the FEII was evaluated as part of a developmental study which recruited a random sample of 70 parents of children with MHC between the ages of 3 and 12 years old from a large integrated health system. Parents were invited to participate in two interviews within a two week time period. Kappa statistics were calculated to evaluate the agreement between categorical variables. Results We used standard cut off values (values over .75 - excellent agreement, values between .40 and .75 - good agreement, and values less than .40 - poor agreement). Reliability of parents' reports of time spent in activities related to MHC were also good. In 20 of 24 time use categories, kappas ranged from .60 to 1.00. Validity of the FEII was assessed by examining the relationship between the degree of emotional burden a parent perceived from MHC and the amount of family costs measured by the FEII. We used regression analyses to examine whether there was a significant relationship between the main FEII outcomes and family emotional burden. Discussion As hypothesized, we found significant positive association between emotional burden of care and family costs (p<.001). Preliminary analyses of the FEII indicate that a wide range of parents' can complete the FEII, that parents' can reliably report a variety of family costs including out-of-pocket financial costs and time costs, and that many families with children with MHC experience a wide range of costs - many of which have not been measured in previous studies.
    Clinical Medicine &amp Research 08/2012; 10(3):181.
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    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2012; 12(1). · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify symptom dimensions of depression that predict recovery among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment-resistant adolescents undergoing second-step treatment. The Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial included 334 SSRI treatment-resistant youth randomized to a medication switch, or a medication switch plus CBT. This study examined five established symptom dimensions (Child Depression Rating Scale-Revised) at baseline as they predicted recovery over 24 weeks of acute and continuation treatment. The two indices of recovery that were evaluated were time to remission and number of depression-free days. Multivariate analyses examining all five depression symptom dimensions simultaneously indicated that anhedonia was the only dimension to predict a longer time to remission, and also the only dimension to predict fewer depression-free days. In addition, when anhedonia and CDRS-total score were evaluated simultaneously, anhedonia continued to uniquely predict longer time to remission and fewer depression-free days. Anhedonia may represent an important negative prognostic indicator among treatment-resistant depressed adolescents. Further research is needed to elucidate neurobehavioral underpinnings of anhedonia, and to test treatments that target anhedonia in the context of overall treatment of depression.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 04/2012; 51(4):404-11. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most clinic-based weight control treatments for youth have been designed for preadolescent children by using family-based care. However, as adolescents become more autonomous and less motivated by parental influence, this strategy may be less appropriate. This study evaluated a primary care-based, multicomponent lifestyle intervention specifically tailored for overweight adolescent females. Adolescent girls (N = 208) 12 to 17 years of age (mean ± SD: 14.1 ± 1.4 years), with a mean ± SD BMI percentile of 97.09 ± 2.27, were assigned randomly to the intervention or usual care control group. The gender and developmentally tailored intervention included a focus on adoptable healthy lifestyle behaviors and was reinforced by ongoing feedback from the teen's primary care physician. Of those randomized, 195 (94%) completed the 6-month posttreatment assessment, and 173 (83%) completed the 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was reduction in BMI z score. The decrease in BMI z score over time was significantly greater for intervention participants compared with usual care participants (-0.15 in BMI z score among intervention participants compared with -0.08 among usual care participants; P = .012). The 2 groups did not differ in secondary metabolic or psychosocial outcomes. Compared with usual care, intervention participants reported less reduction in frequency of family meals and less fast-food intake. A 5-month, medium-intensity, primary care-based, multicomponent behavioral intervention was associated with significant and sustained decreases in BMI z scores among obese adolescent girls compared with those receiving usual care.
    PEDIATRICS 03/2012; 129(3):e611-20. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antidepressant (AD) dispensing for depression in youth declined in the years following the 2003-04 Food and Drug Administration actions regarding increased risk of suicidal behavior. To extend observation of youth AD dispensing and associated characteristics through 2009 to determine if AD dispensing continues to decline, has stabilized, or has rebounded. Design: Retrospective time series design. Sample: Youth (n=57,782) ages 10 to 17 inclusive. Both new (incident) and refill AD dispensing continued to decline through 2009, with no sign of leveling off. However, among youth who started AD treatment the cumulative supply of AD medication remained consistent across the pre- and postperiods, suggesting that cumulative treatment episode duration has not been degraded--possibly as a function of greater days supply with each new refill in the postperiod. Prescribers dramatically curtailed preauthorized refills in the postwarning period. Declines in AD dispensing to depressed youth may not reflect less intensive treatment for those youth who persist beyond the initial dispense. Lower rates of preauthorized refills may have been an attempt by prescribers to encourage return visits to evaluate response and adverse consequences.
    Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 02/2012; 22(1):11-20. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial recent research examines the efficacy of many types of complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies. However, outcomes associated with the "real-world" use of CAM has been largely overlooked, despite calls for CAM therapies to be studied in the manner in which they are practiced. Americans seek CAM treatments far more often for chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) than for any other condition. Among CAM treatments for CMP, acupuncture and chiropractic (A/C) care are among those with the highest acceptance by physician groups and the best evidence to support their use. Further, recent alarming increases in delivery of opioid treatment and surgical interventions for chronic pain--despite their high costs, potential adverse effects, and modest efficacy--suggests the need to evaluate real world outcomes associated with promising non-pharmacological/non-surgical CAM treatments for CMP, which are often well accepted by patients and increasingly used in the community. This multi-phase, mixed methods study will: (1) conduct a retrospective study using information from electronic medical records (EMRs) of a large HMO to identify unique clusters of patients with CMP (e.g., those with differing demographics, histories of pain condition, use of allopathic and CAM health services, and comorbidity profiles) that may be associated with different propensities for A/C utilization and/or differential outcomes associated with such care; (2) use qualitative interviews to explore allopathic providers' recommendations for A/C and patients' decisions to pursue and retain CAM care; and (3) prospectively evaluate health services/costs and broader clinical and functional outcomes associated with the receipt of A/C relative to carefully matched comparison participants receiving traditional CMP services. Sensitivity analyses will compare methods relying solely on EMR-derived data versus analyses supplementing EMR data with conventionally collected patient and clinician data. Successful completion of these aggregate aims will provide an evaluation of outcomes associated with the real-world use of A/C services. The trio of retrospective, qualitative, and prospective study will also provide a clearer understanding of the decision-making processes behind the use of A/C for CMP and a transportable methodology that can be applied to other health care settings, CAM treatments, and clinical populations. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01345409.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2011; 11:118. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare health-care utilization between participants who met DSM-IV criteria for binge eating disorder (BED) and those engaged in recurrent binge eating (RBE) and to evaluate whether objective binge eating (OBE) days, a key measurement for diagnosing BED, predicted health-care costs. We obtained utilization and cost data from electronic medical records to augment patient reported data for 100 adult female members of a large health maintenance organization who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to treat binge eating. Total costs did not differ between the BED and RBE groups (β = -0.117, z = -0.48, p = .629), nor did the number of OBE days predict total costs (β = -0.017, z = -1.01, p = .313). Findings suggest that the medical impairment, as assessed through health care costs, caused by BED may not be greater than impairment caused by RBE. The current threshold number of two OBE days/week as a criterion for BED may need to be reconsidered.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 09/2011; 44(6):524-30. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to replicate and extend results of a previous blended efficacy and effectiveness trial of a low-intensity, manual-based guided self-help form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-GSH) for the treatment of binge eating disorders in a large health maintenance organization (HMO) and to compare them with usual care. To extend previous findings, the investigators modified earlier recruitment and assessment approaches and conducted a randomized clinical trial to better reflect procedures that may be reasonably carried out in real-world practices. The intervention was delivered by master's-level interventionists to 160 female members of a health maintenance organization who met diagnostic criteria for recurrent binge eating. Data collected at baseline, immediately posttreatment, and at six- and 12-month follow-ups were used in intent-to-treat analyses. At the 12-month follow-up, CBT-GSH resulted in greater remission from binge eating (35%, N=26) than usual care (14%, N=10) (number needed to treat=5). The CBT-GSH group also demonstrated greater improvements in dietary restraint (d=.71) and eating, shape, and weight concerns (d=1.10, 1.24, and .98, respectively) but not weight change. Replication of the pattern of previous findings suggests that CBT-GSH is a robust treatment for patients with recurrent binge eating. The magnitude of changes was significantly smaller than in the original study, however, suggesting that patients recruited and assessed with less intensive procedures may respond differently from their counterparts enrolled in trials requiring more comprehensive procedures.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 04/2011; 62(4):367-73. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many youth with depression do not respond to initial treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and this is associated with higher costs. More effective treatment for these youth may be cost-effective. To evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness over 24 weeks of combined cognitive behavior therapy plus switch to a different antidepressant medication vs medication switch only in adolescents who continued to have depression despite adequate initial treatment with an SSRI. Randomized controlled trial. Six US academic and community clinics. Three hundred thirty-four patients aged 12 to 18 years with SSRI-resistant depression. Participants were randomly assigned to (1) switch to a different medication only or (2) switch to a different medication plus cognitive behavior therapy. Clinical outcomes were depression-free days (DFDs), depression-improvement days (DIDs), and quality-adjusted life-years based on DFDs (DFD-QALYs). Costs of intervention, nonprotocol services, and families were included. Combined treatment achieved 8.3 additional DFDs (P = .03), 0.020 more DFD-QALYs (P = .03), and 11.0 more DIDs (P = .04). Combined therapy cost $1633 more (P = .01). Cost per DFD was $188 (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] = $188; 95% confidence interval [CI], -$22 to $1613), $142 per DID (ICER = $142; 95% CI, -$14 to $2529), and $78,948 per DFD-QALY (ICER = $78,948; 95% CI, -$9261 to $677,448). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analyses suggest a 61% probability that combined treatment is more cost-effective at a willingness to pay $100,000 per QALY. Combined treatment had a higher net benefit for subgroups of youth without a history of abuse, with lower levels of hopelessness, and with comorbid conditions. For youth with SSRI-resistant depression, combined treatment decreases the number of days with depression and is more costly. Depending on a decision maker's willingness to pay, combined therapy may be cost-effective, particularly for some subgroups. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00018902.
    Archives of general psychiatry 03/2011; 68(3):253-62. · 12.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the long-term outcome of participants in the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study, a randomized trial of 334 adolescents (aged 12-18 years) with DSM-IV-defined major depressive disorder initially resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment who were subsequently treated for 12 weeks with another SSRI, venlafaxine, another SSRI + cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), or venlafaxine + CBT. Responders then continued with the same treatment through week 24, while nonresponders were given open treatment. For the current study, patients were reassessed 48 (n = 116) and 72 (n = 130) weeks from intake. Data were gathered from February 2001 to February 2007. Standardized diagnostic interviews and measures of depression, suicidal ideation, related psychopathology, and level of functioning were periodically administered. Remission was defined as ≥ 3 weeks with ≤ 1 clinically significant symptom and no associated functional impairment (score of 1 on the adolescent version of the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation [A-LIFE]), and relapse, as ≥ 2 weeks with probable or definite depressive disorder (score of 3 or 4 on the A-LIFE). Mixed-effects regression models were applied to estimate remission, relapse, and functional recovery. By 72 weeks, an estimated 61.1% of the randomized youths had reached remission. Randomly assigned treatment (first 12 weeks) did not influence remission rate or time to remission, but the group assigned to SSRIs had a more rapid decline in self-reported depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation than those assigned to venlafaxine (P < .03). Participants with more severe depression, greater dysfunction, and alcohol or drug use at baseline were less likely to remit. The depressive symptom trajectory of the remitters diverged from that of nonremitters by the first 6 weeks of treatment (P < .001). Of the 130 participants in remission at week 24, 25.4% relapsed in the subsequent year. While most adolescents achieved remission, more than one-third did not, and one-fourth of remitted patients experienced a relapse. More effective interventions are needed for patients who do not show robust improvement early in treatment. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00018902.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2010; 72(3):388-96. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adoption of effective treatments for recurrent binge-eating disorders depends on the balance of costs and benefits. Using data from a recent randomized controlled trial, we conducted an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of a cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help intervention (CBT-GSH) to treat recurrent binge eating compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Participants were 123 adult members of an HMO (mean age = 37.2 years, 91.9% female, 96.7% non-Hispanic White) who met criteria for eating disorders involving binge eating as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination (C. G. Fairburn & Z. Cooper, 1993). Participants were randomized either to treatment as usual (TAU) or to TAU plus CBT-GSH. The clinical outcomes were binge-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); total societal cost was estimated using costs to patients and the health plan and related costs. Compared to those receiving TAU only, those who received TAU plus CBT-GSH experienced 25.2 more binge-free days and had lower total societal costs of $427 over 12 months following the intervention (incremental CEA ratio of -$20.23 per binge-free day or -$26,847 per QALY). Lower costs in the TAU plus CBT-GSH group were due to reduced use of TAU services in that group, resulting in lower net costs for the TAU plus CBT group despite the additional cost of CBT-GSH. Findings support CBT-GSH dissemination for recurrent binge-eating treatment.
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 06/2010; 78(3):322-33. · 4.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated an Internet-delivered, cognitive behavioral skills training program versus a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control condition targeting depression symptoms in young adults aged 18 to 24 years. Potential participants were mailed a recruitment brochure; if interested, they accessed the study website to complete an online consent and baseline assessment. Intervention participants could access the website at their own pace and at any time. Reminder postcards were mailed periodically to encourage return use of the intervention. The pure self-help intervention was delivered without contact with a live therapist. The primary depression outcome measure was the Patient Health Questionnaire, administered at 0, 5, 10, 16, and 32 weeks after enrollment. A small but significant between-group effect was found from Week 0 to Week 32 for the entire sample (N = 160, d = .20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.50), with a moderate effect among women (n = 128, d .42, 95%C1 = 0.09-0.77). Greater depression reduction was associated with two measures of lower website usage, total minutes, and total number of page hits. Although intervention effects were modest, they were observed against a background of substantial TAU depression pharmacotherapy and psychosocial services. Highly disseminable, low-cost, and self-help interventions such as this have the potential to deliver a significant public health benefit.
    Cognitive behaviour therapy 06/2009; 38(4):222-34.
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes website use and behavioral outcomes in a multi-component lifestyle intervention promoting healthy diet and exercise. A 2-year randomized clinical trial to improve bone density in 228 adolescent girls, the intervention included a website designed to enhance intervention adherence, retention of participants, and behavioral outcomes. Measures included diet and exercise recalls, surveys, and web-usage data. Website use was associated with increases in calcium intake (ss = 69.72, p =.01, ES = 0.15) and high-impact activity (ss = 10.93, p =.04, ES =.13). Use of web pages related to behavioral feedback and communications was not significantly associated with behavioral outcomes. The most visited website pages had content related to incentive points, caption contests, and fun facts. Web elements of a multi-component intervention may promote retention and engagement in target behaviors. Such websites may be most acceptable to adolescent participants if they blend fun and behavioral elements, rather than exclusively focusing on behavioral changes.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 01/2009; 34(5):539-50. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined healthcare services used by adults diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED) in a large health maintenance organization in the Pacific Northwest. Electronic medical records were used to collect information on all out-patient and in-patient visits and medication dispenses, from 2002 to 2004, for adults aged 18-55 years who received an ED diagnosis during 2003. Healthcare services received the year prior to, and following, the receipt of an ED diagnosis were examined. Cases were matched to five comparison health plan members who had a health plan visit close to the date of the matched case's ED diagnosis. Incidence of EDs (0.32% of the 104,130 females, and 0.02% of the 93,628 males) was consistent with prior research employing treatment-based databases, though less than community-based samples. Most cases (50%) were first identified during a primary-care visit and psychiatric co-morbidity was high. Health services use was significantly elevated in all service sectors among those with an ED when compared with matched controls both in the year preceding and that following the receipt of the incident ED diagnosis. Contrary to expectations, healthcare utilization was found to be similarly high across the spectrum of EDs (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified). The elevation in health service use among women both before and after diagnosis suggests that EDs merit identification and treatment efforts commensurate with other mental health disorders (e.g. depression) which have similar healthcare impact.
    Psychological Medicine 12/2007; 38(10):1465-74. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the efficacy of a health plan-based lifestyle intervention to increase bone mineral density in adolescent girls. Two-year randomized, controlled trial. Large health maintenance organization. Girls 14 to 16 years old with body mass index below the national median. Intervention Behavioral intervention (bimonthly group meetings, quarterly coaching telephone calls, and weekly self-monitoring) designed to improve diet and increase physical activity. Total bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Behavioral outcomes included intake of calcium, vitamin D, soda, and fruits and vegetables; high-impact and strength-training physical activity; measures of strength and fitness; and biomarkers (osteocalcin and naltrexone). Compared with control subjects, girls in the intervention group had significantly higher bone mineral density in the spine and trochanter regions during the first study year, which was maintained during the second study year. The naltrexone biomarker demonstrated a greater relative decrease in the intervention group compared with the control group, with nonsignificant changes in osteocalcin consistent with more bone building in the intervention group. Participants in the intervention group reported significantly greater consumption of calcium in both study years, vitamin D in the first year, and fruits and vegetables in both years. We found no effect on soda consumption or target exercise rates. A comprehensive health care-based lifestyle intervention can effectively improve dietary intake and increase bone mineral gains in adolescent girls. To our knowledge, this study is the first to significantly improve bone mass in adolescent girls in a non-school-based intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00067600.
    Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 01/2007; 160(12):1269-76. · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • Yearbook of Psychiatry and Applied Mental Health 01/2007; 2007:57-58.
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is common in adolescent offspring of depressed parents and can be prevented, but adoption of prevention programs is dependent on the balance of their incremental costs and benefits. To examine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a group cognitive behavioral intervention to prevent depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a recent randomized controlled trial. Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a large health maintenance organization. Teens 13 to 18 years old at risk for depression. Usual care (n = 49) or usual care plus a 15-session group cognitive therapy prevention program (n = 45). Clinical outcomes were converted to depression-free days and quality-adjusted life-years. Total health maintenance organization costs, costs of services received in other sectors, and family costs were combined with clinical outcomes in a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the intervention with usual care for 1 year after the intervention. Average cost of the intervention was $1632, and total direct and indirect costs increased by $610 in the intervention group. However, the result was not statistically significant, suggesting a possible cost offset. Estimated incremental cost per depression-free day in the base-case analysis was $10 (95% confidence interval, -$13 to $52) or $9275 per quality-adjusted life-year (95% confidence interval, -$12 148 to $45 641). Societal cost-effectiveness of a brief prevention program to reduce the risk of depression in offspring of depressed parents is comparable to that of accepted depression treatments, and the program is cost-effective compared with other health interventions commonly covered in insurance contracts.
    Archives of General Psychiatry 12/2005; 62(11):1241-8. · 13.77 Impact Factor