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ABSTRACT: Commission 10 aims at the study of various forms of solar activity, including networks, plages, pores, spots, fibrils, surges, jets, filaments/prominences, coronal loops, flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar cycle, microflares, nanoflares, coronal heating etc., which are all manifestation of the interplay of magnetic fields and solar plasma. Increasingly important is the study of solar activities as sources of various disturbances in the interplanetary space and near-Earth “space weather”. Over the past three years a major component of research on the active Sun has involved data from the RHESSI spacecraft. This review starts with an update on current and planned solar observations from spacecraft. The discussion of solar flares gives emphasis to new results from RHESSI, along with updates on other aspects of flares. Recent progress on two theoretical concepts, magnetic reconnection and magnetic helicity is then summarized, followed by discussions of coronal loops and heating, the magnetic carpet and filaments. The final topic discussed is coronal mass ejections and space weather. The discussions on each topic is relatively brief, and intended as an outline to put the extensive list of references in context. The review was prepared jointly by the members of the Organizing Committee, and the names of the primary contributors to the various sections are indicated in parentheses. This article has been published in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. XXVIA, 2006. © 2007 International Astronomical Union. Used with Permission.