[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Premedication is rarely used in avian species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of premedication on the quality of sevoflurane induction and anaesthesia in parrots. We hypothesised that premedication would facilitate handling and decrease the minimum anaesthetic dose (MAD). Thirty-six adult parrots were randomly distributed in three groups: group S (n = 12) was premedicated with NaCl 0.9%; group KS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine; and group KDS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg.kg-1 diazepam, delivered intramuscularly. After induction using 4.5% sevoflurane introduced through a facemask, the MAD was determined for each animal. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and cloacal temperature (CT) were recorded before premedication (T0), 15 minutes after premedication (T1), and after MAD determination (T2). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at T0 and T2. The quality of anaesthesia was evaluated using subjective scales based on animal behaviour and handling during induction, maintenance, and recovery. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Tukey's or Dunn's tests.
The minimal anaesthetic doses obtained were 2.4 +/- 0.37%, 1.7 +/- 0.39%, and 1.3 +/- 0.32% for groups S, KS, and KDS, respectively. There were no differences in HR, RR, or CT among groups, but SAP was significantly lower in group S. Sedation was observed in both the premedicated S-KS and S-KDS groups. There were no differences in the quality of intubation and recovery from anaesthesia among the three groups, although the induction time was significantly shorter in the pre-medicated groups, and the KS group showed less muscle relaxation.
Ketamine alone or the ketamine/diazepam combination decreased the MAD of sevoflurane in parrots (Amazona aestiva). Ketamine alone or in combination with diazepam promoted a good quality of sedation, which improved handling and reduced the stress of the birds. All protocols provided safe anaesthesia in this avian species.
BMC Veterinary Research 07/2013; 9(1):142. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Acute normovolaemic anaemia (ANA) frequently occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and major surgeries. We investigated whether fluids (with different compositions) used to replace blood elicit any degree of systemic or lung inflammatory response. Methods: We evaluated systemic and pulmonary inflammatory responses in a swine model of acute normovolaemic anaemia induced by 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES, n=7), 0.9% saline solution (SS, n=7), and gelatine (GEL, n=7). Cytokine levels and neutrophil oxidative burst were analysed in the blood at baseline, 0, 60, and 120 min after haemodilution (TBL, TA, T60A, and T120A, respectively) as well as 60 (T60BI) and 120 min (T120BI) after autologous blood reinfusion. Lung histology and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and E-selectin were analysed at T120BI. Results: TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 levels at T60A were significantly higher in the GEL (p<0.05) and SS (p<0.05) groups than in the Control group. IL-1β was increased significantly in the GEL group (p<0.05) at T60H. Stimulated neutrophil oxidative burst in the blood was increased significantly only in the GEL group at TA (p<0.05). The GEL group presented higher COX-2 and E-selectin expression, followed by the saline and starch groups. The presence of inflammatory cell infiltration, oedema, congestion, and alveoli collapse was increased in the SS and GEL groups. Conclusion: In this animal model of acute normovolaemic haemodilution, fluid solutions of hydroxyethyl starch, normal saline, and modified fluid gelatine were shown to be effective in replacing blood during ANA. However, compared to HES, GEL and NS elicited a more intense systemic and lung inflammatory response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion has been proposed as a negative indicator of quality in cardiac surgery. Hospital length of stay (LOS) may be a surrogate of poor outcome in transfused patients. METHODS: Data from 502 patients included in Transfusion Requirements After Cardiac Surgery (TRACS) study were analyzed to assess the relationship between RBC transfusion and hospital LOS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and enrolled in the TRACS study. RESULTS: According to the status of RBC transfusion, patients were categorized into the following three groups: 1) 199 patients (40%) who did not receive RBC, 2) 241 patients (48%) who received 3 RBC units or fewer (low transfusion requirement group), and 3) 62 patients (12%) who received more than 3 RBC units (high transfusion requirement group). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, the following factors were predictive of a prolonged hospital length of stay: age higher than 65 years, EuroSCORE, valvular surgery, combined procedure, LVEF lower than 40% and RBC transfusion of > 3 units. CONCLUSION: RBC transfusion is an independent risk factor for increased LOS in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This finding highlights the adequacy of a restrictive transfusion therapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01021631.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 03/2013; 8(1):54. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atelectasis is a major cause of hypoxemia after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and is commonly ascribed to general anesthesia, high inspiratory oxygen concentration and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of heart-induced pulmonary compression after CABG with CPB.
Seventeen patients without pre-operative cardiac failure who were scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft underwent pre- and postoperative thoracic computed tomography. The cardiac mass, the pressure exerted on the lungs by the right and left heart and the fraction of collapsed lower lobe segments below and outside of the heart limits were evaluated on a computed tomography section 1 cm above the diaphragmatic cupola.
In the postoperative period, cardiac mass increased by 32% (117±31 g versus 155±35 g, p<0.001), leading to an increase in the pressure that was exerted on the lungs by the right (2.2±0.6 g.cm(-2) versus 3.2±1.2 g.cm(-2), p<0.05) and left heart (2.4±0.7 g.cm(-2) versus 4.2±1.8 g.cm(-2), p<0.001). The proportion of collapsed lung segments beneath the heart markedly increased [from 6.7% to 32.9% on the right side (p<0.001) and from 6.2% to 29% on the left side (p<0.001)], whereas the proportion of collapsed lung segments outside of the heart limits slightly increased [from 0.7% to 10.8% on the right side (p<0.001) and from 1.5% to 12.6% on the left side (p<0.001)].
The pressure that is exerted by the heart on the lungs increased postoperatively and contributed to the collapse of subjacent pulmonary segments.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e78643. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. METHODS:: Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. RESULTS:: Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption, lung edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lung inflammation. PEEP titration significantly improved arterial oxygenation but simultaneously increased lung inflammation in juxta-diaphragmatic lung regions. Recruitment maneuver during PEEP titration did not induce additional increase in lung inflammation and alveolar hyperinflation. CONCLUSION:: In a porcine model of acid aspiration-induced lung injury, PEEP titration aimed at optimizing arterial oxygenation, substantially increased lung inflammation. Recruitment maneuvers further improved arterial oxygenation without additional effects on inflammation and hyperinflation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organ transplant recipients with refractory rejection or intolerance to the prescribed immunosuppressant may respond to rescue therapy with tacrolimus. We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of children undergoing heart transplantation who required conversion from a cyclosporine-based, steroid-free therapy to a tacrolimus-based regimen.
We performed a prospective, observational, cohort study of 28 children who underwent conversion from cyclosporine-based, steroid-free therapy to a tacrolimus-based therapy for refractory or late rejection or intolerance to cyclosporine.
There was complete resolution of refractory rejection episodes and adverse side effects in all patients. The incidence rate (×100) of rejection episodes before and after conversion was 7.98 and 2.11, respectively (P ≤ .0001). There was a 25% mortality rate in patients using tacrolimus after a mean period of 60 months after conversion.
Tacrolimus is effective as rescue therapy for refractory rejection and is a therapeutic option for pediatric patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are no studies that describe the impact of the cumulative fluid balance on the outcomes of cancer patients admitted to intensive care units ICUs. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between fluid balance and clinical outcomes in these patients.
One hundred twenty-two cancer patients were prospectively evaluated for survival during a 30-day period. Univariate (Chi-square, t-test, Mann-Whitney) and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify the admission parameters associated with mortality.
The mean cumulative fluid balance was significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors [1675 ml/24 h (471-2921) vs. 887 ml/24 h (104-557), P = 0.017]. We used the area under the curve and the intersection of the sensibility and specificity curves to define a cumulative fluid balance value of 1100 ml/24 h. This value was used in the univariate model. In the multivariate model, the following variables were significantly associated with mortality in cancer patients: the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score at admission [Odds ratio (OR) 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.05-1.26), P = 0.003], the Lung Injury Score at admission [OR 2.23; 95% CI (1.29-3.87), P = 0.004] and a positive fluid balance higher than 1100 ml/24 h at ICU [OR 5.14; 95% CI (1.45-18.24), P = 0.011].
A cumulative positive fluid balance higher than 1100 ml/24 h was independently associated with mortality in patients with cancer. These findings highlight the importance of improving the evaluation of these patients' volemic state and indicate that defined goals should be used to guide fluid therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxemia is a frequent complication after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), usually attributed to atelectasis. Using computed tomography (CT), we investigated postoperative pulmonary alterations and their impact on blood oxygenation. Eighteen non-hypoxemic patients (15 men and 3 women) with normal cardiac function scheduled for CABG under CPB were studied. Hemodynamic measurements and blood samples were obtained before surgery, after intubation, after CPB, at admission to the intensive care unit, and 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Pre- and postoperative volumetric thoracic CT scans were acquired under apnea conditions after a spontaneous expiration. Data were analyzed by the paired Student t-test and one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean age was 63 ± 9 years. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly reduced after anesthesia induction, reaching its nadir after CPB and partially improving 12 h after surgery. Compared to preoperative CT, there was a 31% postoperative reduction in pulmonary gas volume (P < 0.001) while tissue volume increased by 19% (P < 0.001). Non-aerated lung increased by 253 ± 97 g (P < 0.001), from 3 to 27%, after surgery and poorly aerated lung by 72 ± 68 g (P < 0.001), from 24 to 27%, while normally aerated lung was reduced by 147 ± 119 g (P < 0.001), from 72 to 46%. No correlations (Pearson) were observed between PaO2/FiO2 ratio or shunt fraction at 24 h postoperatively and postoperative lung alterations. The data show that lung structure is profoundly modified after CABG with CPB. Taken together, multiple changes occurring in the lungs contribute to postoperative hypoxemia rather than atelectasis alone.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 06/2011; 44(6):598-605. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The natural history and consequences of severe H1N1 influenza infection among cancer patients are not yet fully characterized. We describe eight cases of H1N1 infection in cancer patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a referral cancer center.
Clinical data from all patients admitted with acute respiratory failure due to novel viral H1N1 infection were reviewed. Lung tissue was submitted for viral and bacteriological analyses by real-time RT-PCR, and autopsy was conducted on all patients who died.
Eight patients were admitted, with ages ranging from 55 to 65 years old. There were five patients with solid organ tumors (62.5%) and three with hematological malignancies (37.5%). Five patients required mechanical ventilation and all died. Four patients had bacterial bronchopneumonia. All deaths occurred due to multiple organ failure. A milder form of lung disease was present in the three cases who survived. Lung tissue analysis was performed in all patients and showed diffuse alveolar damage in most patients. Other lung findings were necrotizing bronchiolitis or extensive hemorrhage.
H1N1 viral infection in patients with cancer can cause severe illness, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. More data are needed to identify predictors of unfavorable evolution in these patients.
Annals of Oncology 12/2010; 21(12):2333-41. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perioperative red blood cell transfusion is commonly used to address anemia, an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality after cardiac operations; however, evidence regarding optimal blood transfusion practice in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is lacking.
To define whether a restrictive perioperative red blood cell transfusion strategy is as safe as a liberal strategy in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery.
The Transfusion Requirements After Cardiac Surgery (TRACS) study, a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical noninferiority trial conducted between February 2009 and February 2010 in an intensive care unit at a university hospital cardiac surgery referral center in Brazil. Consecutive adult patients (n = 502) who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were eligible; analysis was by intention-to-treat.
Patients were randomly assigned to a liberal strategy of blood transfusion (to maintain a hematocrit ≥30%) or to a restrictive strategy (hematocrit ≥24%).
Composite end point of 30-day all-cause mortality and severe morbidity (cardiogenic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or acute renal injury requiring dialysis or hemofiltration) occurring during the hospital stay. The noninferiority margin was predefined at -8% (ie, 8% minimal clinically important increase in occurrence of the composite end point).
Hemoglobin concentrations were maintained at a mean of 10.5 g/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.4-10.6) in the liberal-strategy group and 9.1 g/dL (95% CI, 9.0-9.2) in the restrictive-strategy group (P < .001). A total of 198 of 253 patients (78%) in the liberal-strategy group and 118 of 249 (47%) in the restrictive-strategy group received a blood transfusion (P < .001). Occurrence of the primary end point was similar between groups (10% liberal vs 11% restrictive; between-group difference, 1% [95% CI, -6% to 4%]; P = .85). Independent of transfusion strategy, the number of transfused red blood cell units was an independent risk factor for clinical complications or death at 30 days (hazard ratio for each additional unit transfused, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.1-1.4]; P = .002).
Among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the use of a restrictive perioperative transfusion strategy compared with a more liberal strategy resulted in noninferior rates of the combined outcome of 30-day all-cause mortality and severe morbidity.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01021631.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2010; 304(14):1559-67. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate serum potassium level variation in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock (HS).
Eight pigs were studied in a controlled hemorrhage model of HS. Blood withdrawal began at a 50 mL/min to 70 mL/min rate, adjusted to reach a mean arterial pressure (MAP) level of 60 mm Hg in 10 minutes. When MAP reached 60 mm Hg, the blood withdrawal rate was adjusted to maintain a MAP decrease rate of 10 mm Hg every 2 minutes to 4 minutes. Arterial and mixed venous blood samples were collected at MAP levels of 60 mm Hg, 50 mm Hg, 40 mm Hg, 30 mm Hg, 20 mm Hg, and 10 mm Hg and analyzed for oxygen saturation, Po2, Pco2, potassium, lactate, bicarbonate, hemoglobin, pH, and standard base excess.
Significant increase in serum potassium occurred early in all animals. The rate of rise in serum potassium and its levels accompanied the hemodynamic deterioration. Hyperkalemia (K >5 mmol/L) incidence was 12.5% at 60 mm Hg and 50 mm Hg, 62.5% at 40 mm Hg, 87.5% at 30 mm Hg, and 100% at 20 mm Hg. Strong correlations were found between potassium levels and lactate (R = 0.82), SvO2 (R = 0.87), DeltapH (R = 0.83), and DeltaPco2 (R = 0.82).
Serum potassium increase accompanies the onset of HS. The rise in serum potassium was directly related to the hemodynamic deterioration of HS and strongly correlated with markers of tissue hypoxia.
The Journal of trauma 06/2010; 68(6):1335-41. · 2.35 Impact Factor