[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent insulinotropic G-protein-coupled receptor ligand, for which morphoregulative roles in pancreatic islets have recently been suggested. Here, we evaluated the effects of pancreatic overexpression of PACAP on morphometric changes of islets in a severe type II diabetes model. Following cross-breeding of obese-diabetic model KKAy mice with mice overexpressing PACAP in their pancreatic β-cells, the resulting KKAy mice with or without PACAP transgene (PACAP/+:Ay/+ or Ay/+ mice) were fed with a high-fat diet up to the age of 11 months. Pancreatic sections from 5- to 11-month-old littermates were examined. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant suppression of islet mass expansion in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 11 months, but no significant difference between PACAP/+ and +/+ (wild-type) mice, as previously reported. The suppressed islet mass in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice was due to a decrease in islet density but not islet size. In addition, the density of tiny islets (<0.001 mm2) and of insulin-positive clusters in ductal structures were markedly decreased in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 5 months of age. In contrast, PACAP overexpression caused no significant effects on the level of aldehyde-fuchsin reagent staining (a measure of β-cell granulation) or the volume and localization of glucagon-positive cells in the pancreas. These results support previously reported inhibitory effects of PACAP on pancreatic islet mass expansion, and suggest it has persistent suppressive effects on pancreatic islet density which may be related with ductal cell-associated islet neogenesis in type II diabetes.
Frontiers in Endocrinology 03/2013; 4(7):27. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2013.00027
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inadequate compensatory insulin secretion is observed during the development of type 2 diabetes and deteriorates over time in a manner that is difficult to reverse. Here, we found that plasma glucose levels in genetically diabetic KKA(y) mice fed a high-fat diet were markedly increased in young mice. However, the levels started to decrease at 22 weeks of age and returned to normal levels at around 40 weeks of age. These changes were accompanied by a marked increase in insulin levels from week 25 onwards. Decreased energy intake and suppressed fat pad accumulation were observed at 44-45 weeks of age compared with those at 19-22 weeks of age. β cell-specific overexpression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an insulinotropic neuropeptide, decreased the insulin levels required to compensate for hyperglycemia. Glucose disposal was significantly enhanced despite impaired insulin sensitivity in 41-44-week-old A(y) mice without or with PACAP overexpression. In conclusion, the present results provide further evidence that PACAP is involved in the regulation of hyperinsulinemia and islet hyperplasia in type 2 diabetes. Our results also indicate that A(y) mice fed a high-fat diet constitute an animal model suitable to study compensatory islet hyperplasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our previous study, we reported that cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis is aggravated in pancreatic β-cell-specific pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) transgenic mice, showing that an increase in pancreatic PACAP is a risk factor for progression of acute pancreatitis. Accordingly, in this study, we examined the progression of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in PACAP knockout (KO) mice. Unexpectedly, after cerulein, about 60% of the KO mice showed severe hypothermia below 30°C by 12 h and most of them died within 72 h. In contrast, the remaining KO and wild-type mice showed normothermia with no mortality. Thus, KO mice could be classified into two groups as hypothermic (HT-KO) and normothermic (NT-KO) to cerulein. Only HT-KO mice subsequently showed severe mortality, although both HT-KO and NT-KO mice exhibited similar susceptibility of lungs to cerulein toxicity, comparable to that in wild-type mice. Regarding pancreatitis, HT-KO mice showed ameliorated pancreatic damage without any rise in serum enzyme activities, whereas NT-KO mice exhibited a similar degree of pancreatitis to wild-type mice. Taken together, the present results indicate that lack of pancreatic PACAP did not aggravate, but rather ameliorated, cerulein-induced pancreatitis. In addition, about half of KO mice showed a novel phenotype in which cerulein caused rapid and severe hypothermia, followed by death.