Haksoo Han

Yonsei University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (82)145.78 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium montmorillonite (PVA/NaMMT) nanocomposite films were prepared via a solution method, and their water sorption and water-resistant properties were investigated as a function of clay content. The water sorption and water resistance properties were strongly dependent on the chemical structure and film morphology originating from the NaMMT content. The water diffusion coefficient and water uptake of the PVA/NaMMT nanocomposite films were obtained by best fits to a Fickian diffusion model. The diffusion coefficient and water uptake in the PVA/NaMMT nanocomposite films varied between 8.16 × 10−10 and 3.60 × 10−10 cm2 s−1 and 35.6 and 29.9 wt%, respectively. Both the diffusion coefficient and water uptake decreased as the content of NaMMT in pure PVA was increased. Additionally, the water resistance pressure (mm) of the PVA/NaMMT nanocomposite films increased with increasing NaMMT content. Contact angle analyses showed that the chemical affinity to water and the surface energy of the nanocomposite films decreased with increasing NaMMT content. Furthermore, the well-dispersed and exfoliated structure in the nanocomposite films not only induced an increased tortuous path for water molecules to pass through, but also increased the molecular order. However, to enhance the water sorption properties and water resistance of hydrophilic PVA, further studies to increase the dispersion of clay particles and ensure desired morphological qualities such as crystallinity and molecular packing order in the PVA/clay nanocomposite films are required. POLYM. COMPOS., 2014. © 2014 Society of Plastics Engineers
    Polymer Composites 03/2014; · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of poly(urethane acrylate)/Cloisite 15A (PUA/C15A) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared via a UV-curing system, and their physical and barrier properties as a function of clay content were studied to investigate their possibility for use as packaging materials.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(6):1045–1052. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively high aspect ratio exfoliated graphite (EFG) particles with an average size of 7.4 µm and a nanometer sized thickness of 30–50 nm were successfully prepared by thermal treatment at 1050 °C and subsequent ultrasonication for application as a filler to improve the physical properties of eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC). A series of poly(propylene carbonate)/exfoliated graphite (PPC/EFG) nanocomposite films with different EFG contents were prepared via a solution blending method. The physical properties were strongly dependent upon the chemical and morphological structures originating from the differences in EFG composition. The morphological structures, thermal properties, mechanical properties and barrier properties of the nanocomposite films were investigated as a function of the EFG content. While all of the PPC/EFG nanocomposite films exhibited good dispersion of EFG to some extent, Fourier transform infrared and SEM results revealed that solution blending did not lead to strong interactions between PPC and EFG. As a result, poor dispersion occurred in composite films with a high EFG content. By loading EFG particles, the oxygen permeabilities, moisture permeabilities and water uptake at equilibrium decreased as the EFG content increased. Compared with pure PPC, PPC/EFG nanocomposite films have enhanced molecular ordering. Specifically, the 2% PPC/EFG composite film shows greater molecular ordering than the other composite films, which results in the highest mechanical strength. In future work, the compatibility and dispersion of the PPC matrix polymer and EFG filler particles should be increased by modifying the EFG surface or introducing additives. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry
    Polymer International 09/2013; 62(9). · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of ethyl-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) nanocomposite films with exfoliated graphite nanosheets (EGn) were prepared via a solution blending method and their physical and moisture barrier properties were investigated as a function of the EGn content. The physical properties were strongly dependent upon the chemical and morphological structures originating from the differences in EGn composition. The nanocomposite films showed no strong interactions between the polymer and EGn filler, and this resulted in poor dispersion in relatively high content EVOH/EGn nanocomposites. With increasing content of EGn particles, the water vapor transmission rate varied in the range of 1.29 to 3.14 cc/m2/day and the water uptake greatly decreased from 9.1 to 3.4 wt%. The water resistance capacity of EVOH was greatly enhanced and moisture diffusion in the pure EVOH film was retarded by introducing the EGn. However, thermal stabilities were not improved by incorporating EGn due to the poor interaction between EVOH polymer chains and the EGn surface.
    Macromolecular Research 01/2013; 21(9). · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, various polyimide films were synthesized via low temperature cure in order to understand changes in their physical properties when using 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) as a diamine and dianhydride molecules with different backbones on a single diamine such as 4,4'-Oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA), 4,4-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic dianhydride (6FDA), and 3,3', 4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA). After the synthesis of poly(amic acid), polyimide films were fabricated by adding 1,4-diazabicyclo [2.2.2]octane (DABCO), a low-temperature catalyst, at various wt% to poly(amic acid)s. Changes of optical and thermal properties were compared and analyzed between polyimide films without catalyst and polyimide films with catalyst by FT-IR, UV-Vis transmittance, DSC/TGA, and WAXD analysis. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis revealed that the mean intermolecular distance decreased with the use of a catalyst by the type of dianhydride. Thus, while the optical properties of the films improve by a low-temperature cure performed using a catalyst, their thermal properties decrease. These changes can be explained by the changes in the morphological structure of the films triggered by a catalyst-induced reduction in the mean intermolecular distance. Moreover, the results show that the type of dianhydride determines the degree of change in the optical and thermal properties in each types of polyimide, demonstrating that changes in the optical and thermal properties are directly associated with the backbone of the polyimide structure.
    Journal of the Korean Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 01/2013; 24(3).
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    ABSTRACT: In order to apply eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) into barrier packaging materials, six different PPC/exfoliated graphite (EFG) nanocomposite films with different EFG were successfully prepared by a solution blending method. Their water sorption behavior was gravimetrically investigated as a function of the EFG content and interpreted with respect to their chemical structure and morphology. The water sorption isotherms were reasonably well fitted by Fickian diffusion model, regardless of morphological heterogeneities. With increasing the EFG content, the diffusion coefficient and water uptake decreased from to and from 8.9 wt% to 4.2 wt%, respectively, which indicates that the moisture resistance capacity of PPC was greatly enhanced by incorporating EFG into PPC. The enhanced water barrier property of the PPC/EFG nanocomposite films with the high aspect ratio EFG makes them potential candidates for versatile packaging applications. However, to maximize the performance of the nanocomposite films, further researches are required to increase the compatibility of EFG in the PPC matrix.
    Journal of the Korean Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 01/2013; 24(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Ethanol chemical sensors have been developed by proficient exploitation of polypropylene carbonate (PPC) and PPC/cloisite 20B (clay) nanocomposite (NC) for the detection and quantification of ethanol in the environment. NC was synthesized by the addition of polypropylene carbonate (PPC) into 5 wt% of cloisite 20B. The physicochemical structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal and mechanical properties of PPC and NC were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nanoindentation analyzer, respectively. NC displayed high thermal and mechanical properties. TGA results revealed that the thermal decomposition temperature (Td50%) of PPC increased significantly, being 43 °C higher than that of pure PPC, while DSC measurements indicated that NC increased the glass transition temperature from 21 to 32 °C. Accordingly, NC showed a high elastic modulus and hardness as compared to PPC. By applying to ethanol sensing, both PPC and NC performed as the best ethanol chemi-sensors in terms of sensitivity. NC showed 3.24 times higher sensitivity (0.8231 μA cm−2 mM−1) as compared to pure PCC (0.2543 μA cm−2 mM−1).
    New Journal of Chemistry 10/2012; 36(11):2368-2375. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of polyurethane acrylate (PUA)/ZnO nanocomposite films with different ZnO contents were prepared via a UV-curing system. To ensure good dispersion in the PUA matrix, ZnO nanoparticles were modified with a silane coupling agent and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The morphological structures, thermal properties, mechanical properties and water transfer properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of their ZnO concentration. WAXD and SEM analyses showed that the surface-modified ZnO nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in the PUA matrix and the molecular ordering increased with increasing ZnO content. Compared with neat PUA, the hardness and elastic modulus in films increased from 0.03 to 0.056 GPa and from 2.75 to 3.55 GPa, respectively. Additionally, the water uptake and WVTR in the PUA/ZnO nanocomposite films decreased as the ZnO content nanoparticles increased, which may come from enhanced molecular ordering and hydrophobicity in films. UV light below approximately 450 nm can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a PUA matrix, indicating that these composite films exhibit good weather ability and UV-shielding effects. The enhanced physical properties achieved by incorporating modified ZnO nanoparticles can be advantageous in various applications, whereas the thermal stability of the composite films should be increased.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2012; 74(3):435-442. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental pollution is one of the global hot issues and need an urgent demand to detect and monitor the pollutants which affect the environment. Ethanol is one of the organic pollutants which cause severe harmful effect on environment due to its toxic nature. For the detection and quantification of organic pollutants, sensors are the promising and reliable technology which has vital role in the environmental and health monitoring. A lot of sensor materials have been exposed but the prospective for industrial development as sensors and environmental supplement are still limited due to its non eco-friendly nature. Therefore, environmental friendly and biodegradable ethanol chemical sensors have been fabricated by efficient utilization of poly propylene carbonate (PPC) and PPC/silica hybrid (H) for the detection and quantification of ethanol in the environment. PPC/silica hybrid membrane has been synthesized by intercalation of silica into PPC matrix using a sol-gel technique. The resulting membrane was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while the morphology of the hybrid was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Both PPC and H performed as best ethanol chemi-sensor in term of sensitivity. Hybrid membrane showed 2.08 times higher sensitivity (0.5698 µA.cm -2 .mM -1) than pure PCC (0.2534 µA.cm -2 .mM -1). Hybrid membrane also displayed 3.1 times lower limit of detection (LOD, 20.70 M) than pure PCC (64.29 M). Therefore, hybridization is an efficient route to fabricate proficient aqueous ethanol sensor.
    International journal of electrochemical science 01/2012; 7(7):4030-4038. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stable proton conducting composite membranes (CM1-CM3) based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) and various weight percent (35, 50 and 65 wt %) of inorganic hetero poly acids (IHA) were prepared by dissolving PBI in methanesulfonic acid and required amount of IHA was then added to PBI solution. IHA were prepared by acid-catalyzed condensation of various ratios of silicotungstic acid (TSA) (35, 50 and 65 wt %) and silica (TEOS) (65, 50 and 35 wt %) using sol-gel procedure. These materials were characterized morphologically, studied their intrinsic structures and intimate relation with proton conductivity. It was found that thermal properties and proton conductivity of the composite membrane are strongly dependent on the IHA which increased with increase of IHA content. The composite membrane containing 65 wt % of IHA showed highest thermal property and proton conductivity. Composite membrane containing 65 wt% of IHA displayed highest conductivity of 2.91x10 -1 S/cm at 150 °C. Thus introduction of IHA into PBI matrix is an efficient route to improve thermal properties and proton conductivity of PBI.
    International journal of electrochemical science 01/2012; 7:6276-6288. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrapod zinc oxide whiskers (TZnO-Ws) were successfully synthesized via a thermal oxidation method and confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. A series of poly(urethane acrylate) (PUA)/TZnO-W composite films with various TZnO-W contents were prepared via a UV curing method and their physical properties were investigated to understand their possible use as packaging materials. The morphological, thermal, mechanical, antibacterial and barrier properties of the PUA/TZnO-W composite films were interpreted as a function of TZnO-W content. The thermal stability, barrier properties and antibacterial properties of the composite films, which were strongly dependent upon their chemical and morphological structure, were enhanced as the TZnO-W content increased. The oxygen transmission rate and water vapor transmission rate decreased from 614 to 161 cm3 m−2 per day and 28.70 to 28.16 g m−2 per day, respectively. However, the mechanical strength of the films decreased due to the low interfacial interaction and poor dispersion with high TZnO-W loading. The enhanced barrier properties and good antibacterial properties of the PUA/TZnO-W composite films indicate that these materials are potentially suitable for many packaging applications. However, further studies are needed to increase the compatibility of polymer matrix and filler. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry
    Polymer International 01/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this contribution, chemical sensor for the detection of aqueous ammonia has been fabricated using UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PU) and nanohybrids (NH-1, NH-3 and NH-5). PU has been prepared by reacting polycaprolactone triol (PCLT) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) while the nanohybrids, NH-1, NH-3, and NH-5 have been synthesized by solution blending method using PU with 1, 3, and 5 wt% loading levels of C-20B. PU and their nanohybrids showed higher sensitivity investigated by I-V technique using aqueous ammonia as a target chemical. All the nanohybrids showed higher sensitivity as compared to neat PU. The sensitivity increased with increase in clay content and the nanohybrid containing 5 wt% of clay showed the highest sensitivity (8.5254 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0175 ± 0.001 μM, being 7.8 times higher than pure PU. The calibration plot for all the sensors was linear over the large range of 0.05 μM to 0.05 M. The response time of the fabricated sensor was <10.0 s. Therefore, one can fabricate efficient aqueous ammonia sensor by utilization of nanohybrid as an efficient electron mediator.
    Talanta 05/2011; 84(4):1005-10. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thermal cationic latent initiators, N-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoroantimonate (BMH1) and N-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoroantimonate (BMH2) were synthesized and applied to the thermal cationic polymerization of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). The performance of BMH1 and BMH2 was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which showed good thermal latent properties and excelled epoxy resin curing behavior. The morphology, thermal, mechanical, and water sorption properties of DGEBA resin cured by 1 wt% of BMH1 and BMH2 were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scaming electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), nanoindentation, and thin film diffusion analysis. The cured DGEBA/BMH1 system showed relatively higher thermal stability than the DGEBA/BMH2 system. The diffusion coefficient and water uptake were 14.2×10−9 cm2/s and 1.15 wt% for the DGEBA/BMH1 system and 11.5×10−9 cm2/s and 1.07 wt% for the DGEBA/BMH2 system, respectively. Therefore, DGEBA/BMH2 showed higher resistance to water sorption than DGEBA/BMH1. On the other hand, hardness and elastic modulus of DGEBA/BMH2 were higher than those of DGEBA/BMH1. This can be attributed to the difference in the end group of initiators as well as the degree of crosslinking in the cured resin network.
    Macromolecular Research 01/2011; 19(10):989-997. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organic-inorganic hybrids (H1-H5) based on environmentally friendly and biodegradable polymer, poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) were synthesized using the sol-gel technique. The synthesized hybrids were characterized structurally and morphologically by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). H1-H5 were examined in term of detailed thermal, mechanical, and anti-water sorption properties using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) nanoindentation, and thin film diffusion analysis, which revealed that H4 has the highest thermal, mechanical, and anti-water sorption properties. H4 greatly increased the thermal decomposition temperature (T d10%) and glass transition temperature, which are 45 and 11 °C higher than that of pure PPC. Accordingly, H4 showed a high storage modulus (2.54 × 109 Pa), elastic modulus (2.601 ± 0.110 GPa), hardness (0.175 ± 0.013 GPa), and lowest water absorption. This improvement in the thermal, mechanical, and anti-water absorption properties of PPC shows that PPC can be used as a packaging and bio-material. Keywordshybrid–poly(propylene carbonate)–tetraethoxysilane–thermal property–mechanical property–water absorption property
    Macromolecular Research 01/2011; 19(9):876-882. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of polypropylene carbonate (PPC)/ ZnO nanocomposite films with different ZnO contents were prepared via a solution blending method. The mor-phological structures, thermal properties, oxygen perme-ability, water sorption, and antibacterial properties of the films were investigated as a function of ZnO concentration. While all of the composite films with less than 5 wt % ZnO exhibited good dispersion of ZnO in the PPC matrix, FTIR and SEM results revealed that solution blending did not lead to a strong interaction between PPC and unmodified ZnO. As such, poor dispersion was induced in the compos-ite films with a high ZnO content. By incorporating inor-ganic ZnO filler nanoparticles, the diffusion coefficient, water uptake in equilibrium, and oxygen permeability decreased as the content of ZnO increased. The PPC/ZnO nanocomposite films also displayed a good inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria in the antimicrobial analysis. The enhancement in the physical properties achieved by incorpo-rating ZnO is advantageous in packaging applications, where antimicrobial and environmental-friendly properties, as well as good water and oxygen barrier characteristics are required. Furthermore, UV light below $ 350 nm can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a PPC ma-trix. ZnO nanoparticles can also improve the weatherability of a PPC film. In future research, the compatibility and disper-sion of the PPC matrix polymer and the inorganic ZnO filler nanoparticles should be increased. V C 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 01/2011; 122:1101-1108. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: UV-cured poly(urethane acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (PU-co-AA) films with five different compositions were prepared by reacting isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), polycaprolactone triol (PCLT), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), and different weight ratios of trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and acrylic acid (AA) as diluents. Their synthesis and physical properties including gel content, adhesion properties, morphological structure, thermal properties, and mechanical hardness were investigated as a function of the AA content. It was found that the physical properties of the PU-co-AA films are strongly dependent upon the AA content. Crosscut tests showed that PU-co-AA films with lower AA content showed 0% adhesion (0B), and the adhesion of films increased dramatically as the AA content increased to 40–50%. The pull-off measurements showed that the adhesion force of the PU-co-AA films to stainless steel substrates varied from 6 to 31kgf/cm2 and increased linearly with increasing AA content. PU-co-AA films with higher AA content can be good candidates for UV-curable coating of metal substrates such as stainless steel. However, the thermal stabilities and mechanical hardness decreased with increasing AA content, which results from the relatively linear and flexible structure of AA.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2011; 71(1):110-116. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organic–inorganic nanohybrids, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid/layered double hydroxide (CA/LDH), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid/layered double hydroxide (SA/LDH), and 3-amino-5-triflouromethylbenzoic acid/layered double hydroxide (FBA/LDH) have been synthesized by co-precipitation reaction of organic ultraviolet (UV) ray absorbents such as 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid, 3-amino-5-triflouromethylbenzoic and Zn2Al layered double hydroxide (LDH). Detailed structural and absorption properties of the nanohybrids were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR and UV-Vis transmittance spectra which revealed that organic UV absorbents have been intercalated into the interlayer spaces of LDH and all nanohybrids showed excellent UV ray absorption. All the nanohybrids showed a lower catalytic activity as compared to the net organic UV ray absorbents by applying air oxidation to castor oil.
    Materials Letters. 01/2011; 65(19–20):2923-2926.
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    ABSTRACT: Nanohybrids based on UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PU) and cloisite 20B (C-20B) have been synthesized by solution blending method using different loading levels of C-20B. The structures of PU/C-20B nanohybrids were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the intercalation of PU into layer silicates. The thermal properties of PU and PU/C-20B nanohybrids were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). TGA tests revealed that the thermal decomposition temperature (Td10%) of the nanohybrid containing 5 wt% of C-20B increased significantly, being 61 °C higher than that of pure PU while DSC measurements indicated that the introduction of 5 wt% of clay increased the glass transition temperature from 89.7 to 101 °C. Accordingly, the mechanical and anti-water absorption properties proved also to be enhanced greatly as evidenced by nanoindentation anylsis and water absorptions data in which the nanohybrid containing 5 wt% of clay have highest elastic modulus (4.508 GPa), hardness (0.230 GPa) and lowest water absorption capacity. Thus the formations of nanohybrids manifests through the enhancement of thermal, mechanical and anti-water absorption properties as compared with neat PU due to the nanometer-sized dispersion of layered silicate in polymer matrix.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2011; 71(1):36-42. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of benzoic acid derivatives 1-10 have been synthesised by two different methods. Compounds 1-6 were synthesised by a facile procedure for esterification using N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a coupling agent, methylene chloride as a solvent system and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). While 7-10 were synthesised by converting benzoic acid into benzoyl chloride by treating with thionyl chloride in the presence of benzene and performing a further reaction with amine in dried benzene. The structures of all the synthesised derivatives of benzoic acid (1-10) were assigned on the basis of extensive NMR studies. All of them showed inhibitory potential against tyrosinase. Among them, compound 7 was found to be the most potent (1.09 μM) when compared with the standard tyrosinase inhibitors of kojic acid (16.67 μM) and L-mimosine (3.68 μM). Finally in this paper, we have discussed the structure-activity relationships of the synthesised molecules.
    Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 12/2010; 25(6):812-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmaceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. A large number of secondary metabolites with various biological activities have been discovered but the potential for industrial development as drugs and nutritional supplements are limited. However, some bioactive substances derived from plants have diverse functional roles as secondary metabolites and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel pharmaceuticals. Recently, extensive studies have been conducted on the general aspects of the chemical structures, physical and biochemical properties and biotechnological applications of bioactive substances derived from various plants. In this research, we have summarized the pharmaceutical prospecting of natural compounds such as cycloartanes, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, fatty acids, lignans, sterols and other metabolites isolated from the genus Amberboa and their progresses in biotechnological applications as pharmaceuticals.
    Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 07/2010; 4:1039-1052.

Publication Stats

239 Citations
145.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2011
    • Najran University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Najrān, Saudi Arabia
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Chemistry Nano Science
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001
    • Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
      Troy, New York, United States