Filomena I I Cosentino

Sleep Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, Texas, United States

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Publications (41)105.31 Total impact

  • Sleep Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2015.09.002 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Changes to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been reported in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and restless legs syndrome (RLS), although no direct comparison study is available. The aim of this new investigation is to assess and compare cortical excitability of OSAS and RLS patients using the same methodology and under the same experimental conditions. Methods: Fourteen patients with OSAS and 12 with RLS were compared to 14 age-matched controls. All patients were untreated and had a severe degree of disease. Resting motor threshold (rMT), cortical silent period (CSP) and motor evoked potentials MEPs, as well as intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation at interstimulus interval (ISI) of 3 and 10 ms, respectively, were explored from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, during wakefulness. Results: rMT was higher in OSAS than in RLS and controls. CSP was shorter in RLS only when compared to apneic patients, whereas it was similar between OSAS and controls. OSAS subjects exhibited slightly prolonged central motor conductivity, whereas MEP amplitude was smaller in both patient groups. The ICI ratio at ISI of 3 ms was decreased in RLS patients only. Conclusions: Distinct changes of responses at TMS were found, probably connected with the different neurophysiological substrates underlying OSAS and RLS and could not be interpreted as a mere reflection of the effects of sleep architecture alteration. TMS can be considered an additional tool for the understanding of clinical and pathophysiological aspects of sleep disorders, and possibly for the evaluation of the effect of therapy.
    Sleep Medicine 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.08.016 · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Raffaele Ferri · Filomena I.I. Cosentino · Mauro Manconi · Francesco Rundo · Oliviero Bruni · Marco Zucconi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Study Objectives: To analyze the electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral content in untreated patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) during the sleep onset period (SOP) and during the quiet wakefulness preceding sleep, in order to test the hypothesis that a state of hyperarousal might be present during the SOP with RLS. Setting: Sleep Research Centre. Patients: Twenty-seven untreated consecutive patients with RLS (mean age = 53.6 y), 11 untreated consecutive patients with primary insomnia (mean age = 58.9 y), and 14 normal controls (mean age = 50.3 y). Methods: SOP was defined as the 10-min period centered with the occurrence of the first sleep spindle in the EEG, and then subdivided into SOP-1 (period of 5 min before the first spindle) and SOP-2 (period of 5 min following). Leg movements occurring during SOP were counted and used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Also, one period of 1 min of artifact-free quiet wakefulness after lights off was identified. EEG spectral analysis was run during these periods using the C3/A2 or C4/A1 channel. Measurements and Results: Increased EEG alpha and beta bands and/or beta/delta ratio in RLS versus normal controls, during both wakefulness preceding sleep and SOP (both parts SOP-1 and SOP-2) were found, which were, however, smaller than the increases found in patients with insomnia. Conclusion: The results of this study support the hypothesis of the presence of a state of hyperarousal in restless legs syndrome (RLS) during the sleep onset period. Treatment for RLS might need to take these findings into consideration.
    Sleep 08/2014; 37(8):1375-81. DOI:10.5665/sleep.3934 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical assessment and management of sleep disturbances in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia has important clinical and social implications. Poor sleep results in an increased risk of morbidities and mortality in demented patients and is a source of stress for caregivers. Sleep disturbances show high prevalence in mild cognitive impairment and dementia patients and they are often associated one to another in the same patient. A careful clinical evaluation of sleep disorders should be performed routinely in the clinical setting of individuals with cognitive decline. The Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) reviewed evidence from original research articles, meta-analyses and systematic reviews published up to December 2013. The evidence was classified in quality levels (I, II, III) and strength of recommendations (A, B, C, D, E). Where there was a lack of evidence, but clear consensus, good practice points were provided. These recommendations may not be appropriate for all circumstances and should therefore be adopted only after a patient's individual characteristics have been carefully evaluated.
    Neurological Sciences 07/2014; 35(9). DOI:10.1007/s10072-014-1873-7 · 1.45 Impact Factor

  • Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2013; 124(11):e203-e204. DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.06.092 · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Raffaele Ferri · Filomena I I Cosentino · Fabio Pizza · Debora Aricò · Giuseppe Plazzi ·
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    ABSTRACT: In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) might precede PD or develop with or after the onset of PD. No previous study has explored differences between these two groups. The aim of this study was therefore to compare clinical features and REM sleep chin electromyographic patterns between patients in whom RBD heralded PD and those in whom RBD occurrence coincided with or followed the clinical manifestations of PD. Twenty-seven consecutive PD patients (mean age 67.9 years) were enrolled. Detailed clinical, laboratory, and polysomnographic studies were obtained in all participants. Sixteen of the 27 patients were affected by RBD. These had a significantly higher stage of PD and took significantly higher doses of dopaminergic therapy; their disease duration tended to be longer, and their cognitive status tended to be lower. PD patients in whom RBD preceded PD (n = 6) did not differ from PD patients without RBD in disease parameters, while PD patients in whom RBD developed with or after PD (n = 10) showed a significantly higher disease stage, took significantly higher dopaminergic therapy, and had a longer disease duration. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that patients in whom RBD precedes, or does not precede, PD might constitute two possibly distinct clinical and physiopathological groups, based on different progressive neuropathological sequences of events.
    Sleep And Breathing 08/2013; 18(2). DOI:10.1007/s11325-013-0887-3 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    Filomena I I Cosentino · Angela Distefano · Giuseppe Plazzi · Carlos H Schenck · Raffaele Ferri ·
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    ABSTRACT: A patient is reported in whom signs and symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and narcolepsy have been associated for almost two decades with a late development of parkinsonism and rheumatoid arthritis. A 78-year-old male patient in whom RBD was first diagnosed was followed-up by clinical examination, videopolysomnography, multiple sleep latency test, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and dopamine transporter imaging by single-photon emission computerized tomography. The patient was found to present for almost two decades, in addition to RBD, also narcolepsy. Moreover, a late development of parkinsonism and the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis were detected and clinically and instrumentally characterized. Patients predisposed to RBD and later parkinsonism might be susceptible to a variety of triggers that, in our patient, might have been represented by a possible latent autoimmune process leading to the development of narcolepsy with cataplexy and rheumatoid arthritis, later.
    Behavioural neurology 04/2013; 2014. DOI:10.3233/BEN-120340 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze the night-to-night variability of REM sleep electromyographic (EMG) features of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) by using the automatic quantitative method known as atonia index (AI), and to evaluate the improvement in sensitivity and specificity of AI for the diagnosis of RBD when a second recording night is available. Sleep research center. N/A. A group of 17 idiopathic RBD patients was recruited for whom 2 all-night polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were available. Thirty normal controls were also recruited and subgrouped into Young (< 45 years of age) or Aged (> 45 years). Chin EMG analysis was run on all recordings; night-to-night variability of both AI and number of chin EMG activations/h during REM sleep was additionally quantified as the absolute difference between the 2 nights standardized as the percentage of their mean. Night-to-night variability of AI was higher in RBD patients (19.7%) than in the 2 groups of controls (Young 1.8% and Aged 2.8%). The values of variability of chin EMG activations were much higher than those of AI, especially in the Aged controls. Sensitivity of AI ≤ 0.9 for RBD was always higher than 82% and reached 88.9% for the combined-night analysis; specificity was also high, with a value of 92.3% for the combined-value analysis. The night-to-night variability of AI seems to be very low in normal controls and remains under 20% in RBD patients; that of the number of EMG activations is higher. However, even a single PSG recording provides high values of sensitivity and specificity when a threshold value of AI ≤ 0.9 is used to define abnormal chin EMG levels during REM sleep that increase only moderately when a second night recording is available. Ferri R; Marelli S; Cosentino FII; Rundo F; Ferini-Strambi L; Zucconi M. Night-to-night variability of automatic quantitative parameters of the chin EMG amplitude (atonia index) in REM sleep behavior disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(3):253-258.
    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 03/2013; 9(3):253-258. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.2490 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms are abnormal in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that these sources are also sensitive to the progression of early stage AD over the course of one year. The resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 88 mild AD patients at baseline (Mini Mental State Evaluation, MMSE I = 21.7 ± 0.2 standard error, SE) and at approximately one-year follow up (13.3 months ± 0.5 SE; MMSE II = 20 ± 0.4 SE). All patients received standard therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. EEG recordings were also performed in 35 normal elderly (Nold) subjects as controls. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Compared to the Nold subjects, the mild AD patients were characterized by a power increase of widespread delta sources and by a power decrease of posterior alpha sources. In the mild AD patients, the follow-up EEG recordings showed increased power of widespread delta sources as well as decreased power of widespread alpha and posterior beta 1 sources. These results suggest that the resting state EEG sources were sensitive, at least at group level, to the cognitive decline occurring in the mild AD group over a one-year period, and might represent cost-effective and non-invasive markers with which to enrich cohorts of AD patients that decline faster for clinical studies.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2013; 34(4). DOI:10.3233/JAD-121750 · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Fabio Pizza · Raffaele Ferri · Francesca Poli · Stefano Vandi · Filomena I I Cosentino · Giuseppe Plazzi ·
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated nocturnal sleep abnormalities in 19 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IH) in comparison with two age- and sex- matched control groups of 13 normal subjects (C) and of 17 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), the latter considered as the extreme of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Sleep macro- and micro- (i.e. cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) structure as well as quantitative analysis of EEG, of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and of muscle tone during REM sleep were compared across groups. IH and NC patients slept more than C subjects, but IH showed the highest levels of sleep fragmentation (e.g. awakenings), associated with a CAP rate higher than NC during lighter sleep stages and lower than C during slow wave sleep respectively, and with the highest relative amount of A3 and the lowest of A1 subtypes. IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH.
    Journal of Sleep Research 10/2012; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01061.x · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • Raffaele Ferri · Stephany Fulda · Filomena I I Cosentino · Fabio Pizza · Giuseppe Plazzi ·
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    ABSTRACT: To compare REM sleep chin EMG quantitative features between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with or without REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Twenty-seven consecutive PD patients (mean age 67.9 years) and 19 normal controls (mean age 67.5 years) were enrolled. Detailed clinical, laboratory, and polysomnographic studies were obtained in all participants and characteristics of chin electromyographic amplitude during rapid eye movements sleep were analyzed by means of an automatic quantitative approach (Atonia Index). Sixteen of the 27 patients were affected by RBD. An Atonia Index below 0.90 showed high sensitivity (0.938) and specificity (0.909) for the diagnosis of RBD within the group of PD patients. This study recommends the Atonia Index as an objective measure to support and aid the diagnosis of RBD in PD.
    Sleep Medicine 03/2012; 13(6):707-13. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.01.003 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Sleep disturbances are common in the elderly and in persons with cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to describe frequency and characteristics of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing, REM behavior disorder and restless legs syndrome in a large cohort of persons with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods: 431 consecutive patients were enrolled in 10 Italian neurological centers: 204 had Alzheimer's disease, 138 mild cognitive impairment, 43 vascular dementia, 25 frontotemporal dementia and 21 Lewy body dementia or Parkinson's disease dementia. Sleep disorders were investigated with a battery of standardized questions and questionnaires. Results: Over 60% of persons had one or more sleep disturbances almost invariably associated one to another without any evident and specific pattern of co-occurrence. Persons with Alzheimer's disease and those with mild cognitive impairment had the same frequency of any sleep disorder. Sleep-disordered breathing was more frequent in vascular dementia. REM behavior disorder was more represented in Lewy body or Parkinson's disease dementia. Conclusion: A careful clinical evaluation of sleep disorders should be performed routinely in the clinical setting of persons with cognitive decline. Instrumental supports should be used only in selected patients
    Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 03/2012; 33(1-1):50-58. DOI:10.1159/000335363 · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately one third of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) also show periodic leg movements (PLM) during relaxed wake fulness (PLMW). In contrast with the large amount of data published on periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), PLMW have received less attention from the scientific community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations/differences of time-structure and response to a dopamine-agonist between PLMW and PLMS in patients with RLS. Ninety idiopathic RLS patients and 28 controls were recruited. Subjects underwent clinical and neurophysiological evaluation, hematological screening, and one or two consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. A subset of patients received 0.25mg of pramipexole or placebo before the second recording. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and LM activity was analyzed during sleep and during the epochs of wakefulness occurring during the first recording hour. RLS patients had higher LM activity during wakefulness than controls, but with a similar periodicity. Even if correlated, the ability of the PLMW index to predict the PLMS index decreased with increasing LM activity. Intermovement intervals during wakefulness showed one peak only at approximately 4s, gradually decreasing with increasing interval in both patients and controls. The effect of pramipexole was very limited and involved the small periodic portion of LM activity during wakefulness. PLMW index and PLMS index were correlated; however, the magnitude of this correlation was not sufficient to suggest that PLMW can be good predictors of PLMS. Short-interval LM activity during wakefulness and sleep might be linked to the severity of sleep disruption in RLS patients and the differences between their features obtained during wakefulness or sleep might be relevant for the diagnosis of sleep disturbances in RLS.
    Sleep Medicine 02/2012; 13(5):529-35. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2011.08.007 · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Bartolo Lanuzza · Debora Aricò · Filomena I.I. Cosentino · Federica Provini · Raffaele Ferri ·

    Sleep Medicine 02/2012; 13(5):550-3. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2011.08.006 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a neurotrophic factor that exerts neuroprotective effects against β-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration. Recently, a specific impairment of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway has been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. TGF-β1 is also involved in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders, which may occur in 30-40% of AD patients. The TGF-β1 gene contains single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at codon +10 (T/C) and +25 (G/C), which are known to influence the level of expression of TGF-β1. We investigated TGF-β1 +10 (T/C) and +25 (G/C) SNPs and allele frequencies in 131 sporadic AD patients and in 135 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Genotypes of the TGF-β1 SNPs at codon +10 (T/C) and +25 (G/C) did not differ between AD patients and controls, whereas the allele frequencies of codon +10 polymorphism showed a significant difference (P = 0.0306). We also found a different distribution of the +10 (C/C) phenotype (continuity-corrected χ(2) test with one degree of freedom = 4.460, P = 0.0347) between late onset AD (LOAD) patients and controls (P = 0.0126), but not between early onset AD (EOAD) patients and controls. In addition, the presence of the C/C genotype increased the risk of LOAD regardless of the status of apolipoprotein E4 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.19-4.59). Compared to patients bearing the T/T and C/T polymorphisms, LOAD TGF-β1 C/C carriers also showed > 5-fold risk to develop depressive symptoms independently of a history of depression (OR = 5.50; 95% CI = 1.33-22.69). An association was also found between the TGF-β1 C/C genotype and the severity of depressive symptoms (HAM-D(17) ≥ 14) (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the CC genotype of the TGF-β1 gene increases the risk to develop LOAD and is also associated with depressive symptoms in AD.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2011; 22(4):281-9. DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.08.006 · 4.37 Impact Factor
  • F I I Cosentino · D Aricò · B Lanuzza · A Raggi · G Sciortino · M Tripodi · R Bella · M Zucconi · R Ferri ·
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) might represent a condition at risk of cardiovascular (and cerebrovascular) disease; the role of sleep periodic leg movements, sleep deprivation, and presence of common risk factors for heart disease in these patients remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the eventual presence of risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in RLS. Eighty-seven consecutive patients affected by idiopathic RLS were included in this study together with 81 controls. Blood count, chemistry, and kidney function tests were obtained. We detected subjects suffering from diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, heart diseases, disk herniation, neuropathy, blood diseases, liver diseases, artery diseases, dyslipidemia, or hypertension. Polysomnography was recorded in 66 patients, and cerebral neuroimaging was obtained in 59 patients with RLS. None of the differences in blood test parameters was statistically significant; however, hypertension was found to be more frequent in controls and dyslipidemia was more frequent in patients with RLS, but this was explained by its higher frequency in patients also affected by obstructive sleep apnea. A diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease was posed for 14 patients with RLS (16.1%), but no predictive factor for its presence was found at the binomial logistic regression. Our findings argue against the presence of an altered lipid metabolism as a risk factor for the development of cerebrovascular disease in patients with RLS, even if they do support the idea that cerebrovascular disease might be frequent in this condition.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 07/2011; 125(5):319-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2011.01563.x · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms do not deteriorate with the increase of white matter vascular lesion in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects [1], although white matter is impaired along Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested whether this is true even in AD subjects. Closed-eye resting state EEG data were recorded in 40 healthy elderly (Nold), 96 amnesic MCI, and 83 AD subjects. White matter vascular lesions were indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects (about 42% of cases following ADNI standards). The MCI subjects were divided into two sub-groups based on the median of the white matter lesion, namely MCI+ (people with highest vascular load; n = 48) and MCI- (people with lowest vascular load; n = 48). The same was true for the AD subjects (AD+, n = 42; AD-, n = 41). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). LORETA software estimated cortical EEG sources. When compared to Nold group, MCI and AD groups showed well known abnormalities of delta and alpha sources. Furthermore, amplitude of occipital, temporal, and limbic alpha 1 sources were higher in MCI+ than MCI- group. As a novelty, amplitude of occipital delta sources was lower in AD+ than AD- group. Furthermore, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic alpha sources were higher in amplitude in AD+ than AD- group. Amplitude of these sources was correlated to global cognitive status (i.e., Mini Mental State Evaluation score). These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, resting state posterior delta and alpha EEG rhythms do not deteriorate with the increase of white-matter vascular lesion. These rhythms might be more sensitive to AD neurodegenerative processes and cognitive status rather than to concomitant lesions to white matter.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2011; 26(2):331-46. DOI:10.3233/JAD-2011-101710 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the occurrence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC). A case-control study assessing the frequency of comorbidity of RLS and NC in three European sleep disorder centers. Three sleep research centers recruited 184 NC patients and 235 age-matched controls. N/A. NC patients and controls underwent a face-to-face interview investigating demographics, medical and drug history, sleep habits, and sleep disorders, in particular RLS based on the 4 international criteria and on a frequency > or =2 times/week, with a detailed description of RLS symptoms when present. RLS was significantly more prevalent among NC patients (14.7%) than in controls (3.0%). The age at onset of RLS in NC patients fits with the age at onset in idiopathic RLS, and RLS appeared more than 10 years after NC onset. Unlike idiopathic RLS, RLS in NC subjects was not more prevalent in women and was less familial (15.4% of cases). Lastly, NC patients with RLS showed a moderate disease severity and an almost daily occurrence of symptoms, which were also diurnal in 35% of cases. Older age, higher blood ferritin levels, and sleep paralysis seem to have a predictive value for RLS in NC. The higher ferritin levels indicate that different pathophysiological mechanisms underlie secondary RLS associated with NC. This study highlights the association between RLS and NC. The nature of this association is still investigational, but it does indicate that RLS must be addressed in the evaluation and management of nocturnal sleep impairment in NC patients.
    Sleep 05/2010; 33(5):689-94. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Alberto Raggi · Filomena I I Cosentino · Bartolo Lanuzza · Raffaele Ferri ·
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    ABSTRACT: Wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep are not always mutually exclusive conditions, as commonly assumed. In some cases, the declaration of any state may be incomplete and states can fluctuate rapidly, resulting in peculiar behavioural syndromes such as narcolepsy, REM sleep behaviour disorder and status dissociatus. We briefly introduce this topic and discuss three suggestive clinical cases.
    Behavioural neurology 01/2010; 22(3-4):91-9. DOI:10.3233/ben-2009-0248 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Contradictory data have been published on the influence of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aims of this study were to confirm the presence of specific neuropsychological changes in OSA patients carrying the APOE epsilon4 allele and to clarify if these changes are due to the sole presence of this allele or to its interactions with OSA pathology. The APOE genotype was examined in 123 patients with OSA and in 121 controls, together with a series of neuropsychological tests. OSA and control subjects had similar APOE genotype and allele distribution, but when neuropsychological tests were considered, OSA patients showed significantly lower values for verbal long-term (delayed free recall at the Rey auditory-verbal learning test) and working memory (bisyllabic words). Moreover, spatial span was found to be lower in OSA epsilon4 allele carriers than in non-carriers; this difference was not observed in controls. This study confirms the presence of a verbal memory impairment in OSA patients and provides evidence for a significant interaction of APOE epsilon4 allele and OSA on frontal lobe function in adults, possibly mediated by the presence of specific frontal lobe neuroanatomical changes in these patients.
    Sleep Medicine 12/2008; 9(8):831-9. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2007.10.015 · 3.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

401 Citations
105.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2004
    • Sleep Therapy and Research Center
      San Antonio, Texas, United States