Ferhan Ayaydin

Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary

Are you Ferhan Ayaydin?

Claim your profile

Publications (39)131.16 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic cells exhibit a characteristic response to hyperthermic treatment, involving morphological and cytoskeletal alterations and the induction of heat shock protein synthesis. Small GTPases of the Ras superfamily are known to serve as molecular switches which mediate responses to extracellular stimuli. We addressed here how small GTPase Rac1 integrates signals from heat stress and simultaneously induces various cellular changes in mammalian cells. As evidence that Rac1 is implicated in the heat shock response, we first demonstrated that both mild (41.5°C) and severe (43°C) heat shock induced membrane translocation of Rac1. Following inhibition of the activation or palmitoylation of Rac1, the size of its plasma membrane-bound pool was significantly decreased while the heat shock-induced alterations in the cytoskeleton and cell morphology were prevented. We earlier documented that the size distribution pattern of cholesterol-rich rafts is temperature dependent and hypothesized that this is coupled to the triggering mechanism of stress sensing and signaling. Interestingly, when plasma membrane localization of Rac1 was inhibited, a different and temperature independent average domain size was detected. In addition, inhibition of the activation or palmitoylation of Rac1 resulted in a strongly decreased expression of the genes of major heat shock proteins hsp25 and hsp70 under both mild and severe heat stress conditions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89136. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor of the liver and it has limited treatment options. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo effects of two novel amino-trifluoro-phtalimide analogs, Ac-915 and Ac-2010. Both compounds bind lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and interact with several proteins with chaperone functions (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and protein disulfide isomerase) as determined by affinity chromatography and resonant waveguide optical biosensor technology. Both compounds inhibited protein disulfide isomerase activity and induced cell death of different HCC cells at sub or low micromolar ranges detected by classical biochemical end-point assay as well as with real-time label-free measurements. Besides cell proliferation inhibiton, analogs also inhibited cell migration even at 250 nM. Relative biodistribution of the analogs was analysed in native tissue sections of different organs after administration of drugs, and by using fluorescent confocal microscopy based on the inherent blue fluorescence of the compounds. The analogs mainly accumulated in the liver. The effects of Ac-915 and Ac-2010 were also demonstrated on the advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced HCC. Significantly less tumor development was found in the livers of the Ac-915- or Ac-2010-treated groups compared with control mice, characterized by less liver tumor incidence, fewer tumors and smaller tumor size. These results imply that these amino-trifluoro-phthalimide analogs could serve potent clinical candidates against HCC alone or in combination with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 11/2013; 12(1):175. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is the immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High or medium throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydia inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting we developed an automatic inclusion counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plugin of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a one log dynamic range with high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction such as interferon-gamma, DEAE-dextran and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent and aggressive primary tumor of the liver and it has limited treatment options. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo effects of two novel amino-trifluoro-phtalimide analogs, Ac-915 and Ac-2010. Both compounds bind lipid droplets and endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and interact with several proteins with chaperone functions (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90, and protein disulfide isomerase) as determined by affinity chromatography and resonant waveguide optical biosensor technology. Both compounds inhibited protein disulfide isomerase activity and induced cell death of different HCC cells at sub or low micromolar ranges detected by classical biochemical end-point assay as well as with real-time label-free measurements. Besides cell proliferation inhibiton, analogs also inhibited cell migration even at 250 nM. Relative biodistribution of the analogs was analysed in native tissue sections of different organs after administration of drugs, and by using fluorescent confocal microscopy based on the inherent blue fluorescence of the compounds. The analogs mainly accumulated in the liver. The effects of Ac-915 and Ac-2010 were also demonstrated on the advanced stages of hepatocarcinogenesis were also demonstrated in a transgenic mouse model of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced HCC. Significantly less tumor development was found in the livers of the Ac-915- or Ac-2010-treated groups compared with control mice, characterized by less liver tumor incidence, fewer tumors and smaller tumor size. These results imply that these amino-trifluoro-phthalimide analogs could serve potent clinical candidates against HCC alone or in combination with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2013; 12:175. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The formation of functional symbiotic nodules is the result of a coordinated developmental program between legumes and rhizobial bacteria. Genetic analyses in legumes have been used to dissect the signaling processes required for establishing the legume-rhizobial endosymbiotic association. Compared to the early events of the symbiotic interaction, less attention has been paid to plant loci required for rhizobial colonization and the functioning of the nodule. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a number of new genetic loci in Medicago truncatula that are required for the development of effective nitrogen fixing nodules. Approximately 38,000 EMS and fast neutron mutagenized Medicago truncatula seedlings were screened for defects in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Mutant plants impaired in nodule development and efficient nitrogen fixation were selected for further genetic and phenotypic analysis. Nine mutants completely lacking in nodule formation (Nod-) represented six complementation groups of which two novel loci have been identified. Eight mutants with ineffective nodules (Fix-) represented seven complementation groups, out of which five were new monogenic loci. The Fix- M. truncatula mutants showed symptoms of nitrogen deficiency and developed small white nodules. Microscopic analysis of Fix- nodules revealed that the mutants have defects in the release of rhizobia from infection threads, differentiation of rhizobia and maintenance of persistence of bacteria in nodule cells. Additionally, we monitored the transcriptional activity of symbiosis specific genes to define what transcriptional stage of the symbiotic process is blocked in each of the Fix- mutants. Based on the phenotypic and gene expression analysis a functional hierarchy of the FIX genes is proposed. The new symbiotic loci of M. truncatula isolated in this study provide the foundation for further characterization of the mechanisms underpinning nodulation, in particular the later stages associated with bacterial release and nodule function.
    BMC Plant Biology 10/2013; 13(1):157. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Singlet oxygen ((1) O2 ) is of special interest in plant stress physiology. Studies focused on internal, chlorophyll mediated production are often complemented with the use of artificial (1) O2 photosensitizers. Here we report a comparative study on the effects of Rose Bengal (RB), Methylene Violet (MVI), Neutral Red (NR) and Indigo Carmine (IC). These were infiltrated into tobacco leaves at concentrations generating the same fluxes of (1) O2 in solution. Following green light induced (1) O2 production from these dyes, leaf photosynthesis was characterized by Photosystem (PS) II and PS I electron transport and oxidative damage was monitored as degradation of D1, a PS II core protein. Cellular localizations were identified on the basis of the dyes' fluorescence using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found that RB and NR were both localized in chloroplasts but the latter had very little effect, probably due to its pH-dependent photosensitizing. Both RB and intracellular, non-plastid MVI decreased PS II electron transport but the effect of RB was stronger than that of MVI and only RB was capable of damaging the D1 protein. Intercellularly localized IC had no significant effect. Our results also suggest caution when using RB as photosensitizer because it affects PS II electron transport. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 08/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CRK5 is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase-related kinase family. Here, we show that inactivation of CRK5 inhibits primary root elongation and delays gravitropic bending of shoots and roots. Reduced activity of the auxin-induced DR5-green fluorescent protein reporter suggests that auxin is depleted from crk5 root tips. However, no tip collapse is observed and the transcription of genes for auxin biosynthesis, AUXIN TRANSPORTER/AUXIN TRANSPORTER-LIKE PROTEIN (AUX/LAX) auxin influx, and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers is unaffected by the crk5 mutation. Whereas AUX1, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 display normal localization, PIN2 is depleted from apical membranes of epidermal cells and shows basal to apical relocalization in the cortex of the crk5 root transition zone. This, together with an increase in the number of crk5 lateral root primordia, suggests facilitated auxin efflux through the cortex toward the elongation zone. CRK5 is a plasma membrane-associated kinase that forms U-shaped patterns facing outer lateral walls of epidermis and cortex cells. Brefeldin inhibition of exocytosis stimulates CRK5 internalization into brefeldin bodies. CRK5 phosphorylates the hydrophilic loop of PIN2 in vitro, and PIN2 shows accelerated accumulation in brefeldin bodies in the crk5 mutant. Delayed gravitropic response of the crk5 mutant thus likely reflects defective phosphorylation of PIN2 and deceleration of its brefeldin-sensitive membrane recycling.
    The Plant Cell 05/2013; · 9.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulation of gene expression in cells is mediated by protein-protein, DNA-protein and receptor-ligand interactions. PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domains are protein-protein interaction modules. PDZ-containing proteins function in the organization of multi-protein complexes controlling spatial and temporal fidelity of intracellular signaling pathways. In general, PDZ proteins possess multiple domains facilitating distinct interactions. The human Glutaminase Interacting Protein (hGIP) is an unusual PDZ protein comprising entirely of a single PDZ domain and plays pivotal roles in many cellular processes through its interaction with the C-terminus of partner proteins. Here, we report the identification by yeast two-hybrid screening of two new hGIP-interacting partners, DTX1 and STAU1. Both proteins lack the typical C-terminal PDZ recognition motif but contain a novel internal hGIP recognition motif recently identified in a phage display library screen. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed the in vivo association of hGIP with DTX1 and STAU1 in mammalian cells validating the previous discovery of S/T-X-V/L-D as a consensus internal motif for hGIP recognition. Similar to hGIP, DTX1 and STAU1 have been implicated in neuronal function. Identification of these new interacting partners furthers our understanding of GIP-regulated signaling cascades and these interactions may represent potential new drug targets in humans.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prion protein (PrP) - known for its central role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies - has been reported to possess two nuclear localization signals and localize in the nuclei of certain cells in various forms. Although these data are superficially contradictory, it is apparent that nuclear forms of the prion protein can be found in cells in either the healthy or the diseased state. Here we report that Shadoo (Sho) - a member of the prion protein superfamily - is also found in the nucleus of several neural and non-neural cell lines as visualized by using an YFP-Sho construct. This nuclear localization is mediated by the (25-61) fragment of mouse Sho encompassing an (RXXX)(8) motif. Bioinformatic analysis shows that the (RXXX)(n) motif (n=7-8) is a highly conserved and characteristic part of mammalian Shadoo proteins. Experiments to assess if Sho enters the nucleus by facilitated transport gave no decisive results: The inhibition of active processes that require energy in the cell, abolishes nuclear but not nucleolar accumulation. However, the (RXXX)(8) motif is not able to mediate the nuclear transport of large fusion constructs exceeding the size limit of the nuclear pore for passive entry. Tracing the journey of various forms of Sho from translation to the nucleus and discerning the potential nuclear function of PrP and Sho requires further studies.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Discovering new fluorochromes is significantly advanced by high-throughput screening (HTS) methods. In the present study a combination of small molecule microarray (SMM) prescreening and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was developed in order to discover novel cell staining fluorescent dyes. Compounds with high native fluorescence were selected from a 14,585-member library and further tested on living cells under the microscope. Eleven compartment-specific, cell-permeable (or plasma membrane-targeted) fluorochromes were identified. Their cytotoxicity was tested and found that between 1-10 micromolar range, they were non-toxic even during long-term incubations.
    Molecules 01/2013; 18(8):9999-10013. · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alteration/Deficiency in Activation 3 (ADA3) is a conserved component of several transcriptional adaptor and Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT) complexes that regulate RNA polymerase II-mediated gene expression. Within HAT complexes ADA3 is associated with ADA2 and the histone acetyltransferase GCN5. ADA3 plays roles in diverse cellular processes and also in malignancies by modulating GCN5 catalytic activity and/or by interactions with other regulators. To gain a better understanding of ADA3 function, we used a yeast two-hybrid approach to screen a human fetal cDNA library for proteins that interacted with human (h)ADA3. We identified three novel hADA3-interacting partners, a transcriptional regulator, AATF, and regulatory subunits of the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A (PPP1R7 and PPP2R5D, respectively). Analysis of truncated versions of hADA3 indicated that the carboxy-terminal ADA2-interacting domain was not required for these interactions. Fluorescent microscopy analysis and co-immunoprecipitation provided support for the co-localization and interaction of hADA3 with these proteins in human cells. Expression of the interacting proteins altered expression of an hADA3-regulated reporter gene, suggesting functional consequences for the interactions. The detected interactions of hADA3 might extend the spectrum of mechanisms by which ADA3 can contribute to the regulation of gene expression and shed light on processes mediated by these newly identified ADA3 partners.
    Biochemical Journal 11/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: New double (fluorescent and spin) sensor molecules containing 4-amino substituted 1,8-naphthalimide as a fluorophore and a sterically hindered amine (pre-nitroxide) or pyrroline nitroxide as a quencher and radical capturing moiety were synthesized. All sensors were substituted with a diethylaminoethyl side-chain to increase the water solubility. Steady state fluorescence properties of these compounds and their responses to ROS in vitro are reported with perspectives of plant physiology use in vivo.
    Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences 11/2012; · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Selective inhibition of gene expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) is widely applied in gene function analyses; however, experiments with ODNs in plants are scarce. In this work, we extend the use of ODNs in different plant species, optimizing the uptake, stability, and efficiency of ODNs with a combination of molecular biological and biophysical techniques to transiently inhibit the gene expression of different chloroplast proteins. We targeted the nucleus-encoded phytoene desaturase (pds) gene, encoding a key enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, the chlorophyll a/b-binding (cab) protein genes, and the chloroplast-encoded psbA gene, encoding the D1 protein. For pds and psbA, the in vivo stability of ODNs was increased by phosphorothioate modifications. After infiltration of ODNs into juvenile tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves, we detected a 25% to 35% reduction in mRNA level and an approximately 5% decrease in both carotenoid content and the variable fluorescence of photosystem II. In detached etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves, after 8 h of greening, the mRNA level, carotenoid content, and variable fluorescence were inhibited up to 75%, 25%, and 20%, respectively. Regarding cab, ODN treatments of etiolated wheat leaves resulted in an up to 59% decrease in the amount of chlorophyll b, a 41% decrease of the maximum chlorophyll fluorescence intensity, the cab mRNA level was reduced to 66%, and the protein level was suppressed up to 85% compared with the control. The psbA mRNA and protein levels in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves were inhibited by up to 85% and 72%, respectively. To exploit the potential of ODNs for photosynthetic genes, we propose molecular design combined with fast, noninvasive techniques to test their functional effects.
    Plant physiology 12/2011; 157(4):1628-41. · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cell-impermeant oligomer-(e.g. beta-amyloid-, or tubulin-) specific fluorescent dye, bis-ANS (4,4'-bis-1-anilinonaphtalene-8-sulfonate), was successfully used for labeling mechanically damaged but still viable neuron bodies, neurites and neurite cross sections in acute brain slices. Acute hippocampal brain slices of rats were co-stained with bis-ANS and the cell-impermeant, DNA-specific dye propidium iodide (PI) and were then analyzed using fluorescence and confocal microscopes. Both the neuron bodies and the neurites were found to exhibit increased fluorescence intensities, suggesting that using this method they can be detected more easily. In addition, bis-ANS showed good region - but not cell specific co-localization with the neuron-specific fluorescent dye Dil (1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate). These two dyes label different neuronal structures: Dil binds specifically to intact cell membranes while bis-ANS can enter cells with compromised cell membranes and then stain the microtubules in the cytoplasm. For a quick (10min) staining of acute brain slices with bis-ANS both HEPES and NaHCO(3) were needed in order to achieve high signal intensity. Labeling with bis-ANS fluorescent dye is an easy method for imaging the neuronal structures on the surface of acute brain slices.
    Brain research bulletin 07/2011; 86(3-4):217-21. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Legumes form endosymbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi which facilitate nutrient uptake. Both symbiotic interactions require a molecular signal exchange between the plant and the symbiont, and this involves a conserved symbiosis (Sym) signaling pathway. In order to identify plant genes required for intracellular accommodation of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and AM fungi, we characterized Medicago truncatula symbiotic mutants defective for rhizobial infection of nodule cells and colonization of root cells by AM hyphae. Here, we describe mutants impaired in the interacting protein of DMI3 (IPD3) gene, which has been identified earlier as an interacting partner of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein, a member of the Sym pathway. The ipd3 mutants are impaired in both rhizobial and mycorrhizal colonization and we show that IPD3 is necessary for appropriate Nod-factor-induced gene expression. This indicates that IPD3 is a member of the common Sym pathway. We observed differences in the severity of ipd3 mutants that appear to be the result of the genetic background. This supports the hypothesis that IPD3 function is partially redundant and, thus, additional genetic components must exist that have analogous functions to IPD3. This explains why mutations in an essential component of the Sym pathway have defects at late stages of the symbiotic interactions.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 06/2011; 24(11):1345-58. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the life cycle of plants, both embryogenic and post-embryogenic growth are essentially based on cell division and cell expansion that are under the control of inherited developmental programmes modified by hormonal and environmental stimuli. Considering either stimulation or inhibition of plant growth, the key role of plant hormones in the modification of cell division activities or in the initiation of differentiation is well supported by experimental data. At the same time there is only limited insight into the molecular events that provide linkage between the regulation of cell-cycle progression and hormonal and developmental control. Studies indicate that there are several alternative ways by which hormonal signalling networks can influence cell division parameters and establish functional links between regulatory pathways of cell-cycle progression and genes and protein complexes involved in organ development. An overview is given here of key components in plant cell division control as acceptors of hormonal and developmental signals during organ formation and growth. Selected examples are presented to highlight the potential role of Ca(2+)-signalling, the complex actions of auxin and cytokinins, regulation by transcription factors and alteration of retinoblastoma-related proteins by phosphorylation. Auxins and abscisic acid can directly influence expression of cyclin, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) genes and activities of CDK complexes. D-type cyclins are primary targets for cytokinins and over-expression of CyclinD3;1 can enhance auxin responses in roots. A set of auxin-activated genes (AXR1-ARGOS-ANT) controls cell number and organ size through modification of CyclinD3;1 gene expression. The SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) transcriptional factors determine root patterning by activation of the CYCD6;1 gene. Over-expression of the EBP1 gene (plant homologue of the ErbB-3 epidermal growth factor receptor-binding protein) increased biomass by auxin-dependent activation of both D- and B-type cyclins. The direct involvement of auxin-binding protein (ABP1) in the entry into the cell cycle and the regulation of leaf size and morphology is based on the transcriptional control of D-cyclins and retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR) interacting with inhibitory E2FC transcriptional factor. The central role of RBRs in cell-cycle progression is well documented by a variety of experimental approaches. Their function is phosphorylation-dependent and both RBR and phospho-RBR proteins are present in interphase and mitotic phase cells. Immunolocalization studies showed the presence of phospho-RBR protein in spots of interphase nuclei or granules in mitotic prophase cells. The Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation events can be accomplished by the calcium-dependent, calmodulin-independent or calmodulin-like domain protein kinases (CDPKs/CPKs) phosphorylating the CDK inhibitor protein (KRP). Dephosphorylation of the phospho-RBR protein by PP2A phosphatase is regulated by a Ca(2+)-binding subunit.
    Annals of Botany 03/2011; 107(7):1193-202. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deepening our knowledge on the regulation of the plant cell division cycle depends on techniques that allow for the enrichment of cell populations in defined cell cycle phases. Synchronization of cell division can be achieved using different plant tissues; however, well-established cell suspension cultures provide the largest amount of biological sample for further analysis. Here we describe the methodology of the establishment, propagation, and analysis of a Medicago sativa suspension culture that can be used for efficient synchronization of the cell division and also the application and removal of hydroxyurea blocking agent. A novel method is used for the estimation of cell portion that enters S phase during the assay. The protocol can be used in the case of other species as well.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 761:227-38. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plant retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins are primarily considered as key regulators of G(1)/S phase transition, with functional roles in a variety of cellular events during plant growth and organ development. Polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal region of the Arabidopsis RBR1 protein also specifically recognizes the alfalfa 115 kDa MsRBR protein, as shown by the antigen competition assay. The MsRBR protein was detected in all cell cycle phases, with a moderate increase in samples representing G(2)/M cells. Antibody against the human phospho-pRb peptide (Ser807/811) cross-reacted with the same 115 kDa MsRBR protein and with the in vitro phosphorylated MsRBR protein C-terminal fragment. Phospho-MsRBR protein was low in G(1) cells. Its amount increased upon entry into the S phase and remained high during the G(2)/M phases. Roscovitine treatment abolished the activity of alfalfa MsCDKA1;1 and MsCDKB2;1, and the phospho-MsRBR protein level was significantly decreased in the treated cells. Colchicine block increased the detected levels of both forms of MsRBR protein. Reduced levels of the MsRBR protein in cells at stationary phase or grown in hormone-free medium can be a sign of the division-dependent presence of plant RBR proteins. Immunolocalization of the phospho-MsRBR protein indicated spots of variable number and size in the labelled interphase nuclei and high signal intensity of nuclear granules in prophase. Structures similar to phospho-MsRBR proteins cannot be recognized in later mitotic phases. Based on the presented western blot and immunolocalization data, the possible involvement of RBR proteins in G(2)/M phase regulation in plant cells is discussed.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 12/2010; 62(6):2155-68. · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evolvability is an intrinsic feature of all living cells. However, newly emerging, evolved features can be undesirable when genetic circuits, designed and fabricated by rational, synthetic biological approaches, are installed in the cell. Streamlined-genome E. coli MDS42 is free of mutation-generating IS elements, and can serve as a host with reduced evolutionary potential. We analyze an extreme case of toxic plasmid clone instability, and show that random host IS element hopping, causing inactivation of the toxic cloned sequences, followed by automatic selection of the fast-growing mutants, can prevent the maintenance of a clone developed for vaccine production. Analyzing the molecular details, we identify a hydrophobic protein as the toxic byproduct of the clone, and show that IS elements spontaneously landing in the cloned fragment relieve the cell from the stress by blocking transcription of the toxic gene. Bioinformatics analysis of sequence reads from early shotgun genome sequencing projects, where clone libraries were constructed and maintained in E. coli, suggests that such IS-mediated inactivation of ectopic genes inhibiting the growth of the E. coli cloning host might happen more frequently than generally anticipated, leading to genomic instability and selection of altered clones. Delayed genetic adaptation of clean-genome, IS-free MDS42 host improves maintenance of unstable genetic constructs, and is suggested to be beneficial in both laboratory and industrial settings.
    Microbial Cell Factories 01/2010; 9:38. · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progress in plant cell cycle research is highly dependent on reliable methods for detection of cells replicating DNA. Frequency of S-phase cells (cells in DNA synthesis phase) is a basic parameter in studies on the control of cell division cycle and the developmental events of plant cells. Here we extend the microscopy and flow cytometry applications of the recently developed EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine)-based S-phase assay to various plant species and tissues. We demonstrate that the presented protocols insure the improved preservation of cell and tissue structure and allow significant reduction in assay duration. In comparison with the frequently used detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and tritiated-thymidine incorporation, this new methodology offers several advantages as we discuss here. Applications of EdU-based S-phase assay in microscopy and flow cytometry are presented by using cultured cells of alfalfa, Arabidopsis, grape, maize, rice and tobacco. We present the advantages of EdU assay as compared to BrdU-based replication assay and demonstrate that EdU assay -which does not require plant cell wall digestion or DNA denaturation steps, offers reduced assay duration and better preservation of cellular, nuclear and chromosomal morphologies. We have also shown that fast and efficient EdU assay can also be an efficient tool for dual parameter flow cytometry analysis and for quantitative assessment of replication in thick root samples of rice. In plant cell cycle studies, EdU-based S-phase detection offers a superior alternative to the existing S-phase assays. EdU method is reliable, versatile, fast, simple and non-radioactive and it can be readily applied to many different plant systems.
    Plant Methods 01/2010; 6(1):5. · 2.67 Impact Factor