[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different feeding programs on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nicholas Large White female turkeys. Three different feeding programs were considered for a 12-wk period: 1) 3 diets fed for 4 wk each (starter 24% CP, grower 20% CP, and finisher diet 16% CP), 2) 2 diets fed for 6 wk each (starter-grower 22% CP and grower-finisher diet 18% CP), and 3) no change of diet for 12 wk (starter-grower-finisher diet 20% CP). From 0 to 4 wk of age, birds were fed an ad libitum common starter diet. Each dietary treatment was replicated 3 times, and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight and feed consumption were measured every 2 wk, whereas carcass characteristics were evaluated at 16 wk of age. Feed intake increased as the frequency of dietary changes decreased, and feed conversion was not different between programs 1 and 3. There were no significant differences in final BW among experimental groups. For a single feeding program, the proportion of neck, bone, and feet decreased, and a greater percentage of edible meat was registered as compared with the other 2 groups. Mean carcass, breast, and thigh weights of turkeys reared under multiple diets were not different compared with other groups. Positive correlations were noted between live weight and weight of carcass, breast, thigh, drumstick, wing, and abdominal fat of turkeys. Thus, a single cycle feeding regimen in Nicholas Large White female turkeys results in similar growth performance and carcass characteristics compared with other conventional feeding programs considered in the present study.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of research into the milking of mares of the Murgese breed are described. A comparison was made between hand and mechanical milking with two pulsation rates (120 and 140 cycles/min) with the objective of defining mechanical and operational solutions for the design or standardisation of machine milking of mares with special reference to the Murgese breed. The study was performed on four multiparous mares, after a suitable adaptation period. The trial lasted 45 days, during which the animals were milked twice a day. Research showed considerable advantages, both from productive and technical manipulation viewpoints, of milking this species by mechanical means, rather than by hand. Moreover, mechanical milking at 140 cycles/min provided better results than other techniques examined, as it is possible to obtain the best milk production, the smallest specific power consumption and, in addition, the highest working capacity and labour productivity. The adaptation of the animals to mechanical milking and the resultant production can be considered adequate. Mechanical and operating solutions are proposed for new plants, together with adaptations to ensure security in existing plants.
Veterinaria italiana 01/2005; 41(3):211-21. · 0.52 Impact Factor