Renukaradhya Gourapura

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States

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Publications (2)3.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 11/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.11.034 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Hadi M Yassine, Chang-Won Lee, Renukaradhya Gourapura, Yehia M Saif
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A viruses are enveloped viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae that encompasses four more genera: Influenza B, Influenza C, Isavirus and Thogotovirus. Type A viruses belong to the only genus that is highly infectious to a variety of mammalian and avian species. They are divided into subtypes based on two surface glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). So far, 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes have been identified worldwide, making a possible combination of 144 subtypes between both proteins. Generally, individual viruses are host-specific, however, interspecies transmission of influenza A viruses is not uncommon. All of the HA and NA subtypes have been isolated from wild birds; however, infections in humans and other mammalian species are limited to a few subtypes. The replication of individual influenza A virus in a specific host is dependent on many factors including, viral proteins, host system and environmental conditions. In this review, the key findings that contribute to the transmission of influenza A viruses amongst different species are summarized.
    Animal Health Research Reviews 06/2010; 11(1):53-72. DOI:10.1017/S1466252310000137