[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) belongs to a family of serine-threonine kinases and plays a critical role in mitotic progression. Plk1 involves in initiation of mitosis, centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, and cytokinesis, which are well-reported as traditional functions of Plk1. In this review, we discuss the role of Plk1 during DNA damage response beyond the functions in mitotsis. When DNA damage is occurred in cells under various stress conditions, the checkpoint mechanism is activated to allow cells to have enough time for repair. In damage is repaired, cells progress continuously their division, which is called checkpoint recovery. If damage is too severe to repair, cells undergo apoptotic pathway. Lastly, if damage is not completely repaired, cells undergo a process called checkpoint adaptation, and resume cell division cycle with damaged DNA. Plk1 targets and regulates many key factors in the process of damage response, and we deal with these subjects in this review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) is essential for progression of mitosis and localizes to centrosomes, central spindles, midbody, and kinetochore. Ran, a small GTPase of the Ras superfamily, plays a role in microtubule dynamics and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although Ran-binding protein-1 (RanBP1) has been reported as a regulator of RanGTPase for its mitotic functions, the action mechanism between Ran and RanBP1 during mitosis is still unknown. Here, we demonstrated in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of RanBP1 by Plk1 as well as the importance of phosphorylation of RanBP1 in the interaction between Plk1 and Ran during early mitosis. Both phosphorylation-defective and N-terminal deletion mutant constructs of RanBP1 disrupted the interaction with Ran, and depletion of Plk1 also disrupted the formation of a complex between Ran and RanBP1. In addition, the results from both ectopic expression of phosphorylation-defective mutant construct and a functional complementation on RanBP1 deficiency with this mutant indicated that phosphorylation of RanBP1 by Plk1 might be crucial to microtubule nucleation and spindle assembly during mitosis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(38):33012-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) is phosphorylated on Thr210 for activation during mitosis. Here, we investigated the question of which kinase(s) is the specific upstream kinase of mitotic Plk1. Upstream kinases of Plk1 were purified from mitotic cell extracts through column chromatography procedures, and identified by mass spectrometry. Candidates for Plk1 kinase included p21-activated kinase, aurora A, and mammalian Ste20-like kinases. Immunoprecipitates of these proteins from mitotic cell extracts phosphorylated Plk1 on Thr210. Even if the activity of Aurora A was blocked with a specific inhibitor, Plk1 phosphorylation still occurred, suggesting that function of Plk1 could be controlled by these kinases for proper mitotic progression, as well as by Aurora A in very late G2 phase for the beginning of mitosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage during the cell division cycle can activate ATM/ATR and their downstream kinases that are involved in the checkpoint pathway, and cell growth is halted until damage is repaired. As a result of DNA damage induced in mitotic cells by doxorubicin treatment, cells accumulate in a G2-like phase, not in mitosis. Under these conditions, two mitosis-specific kinases, Cdk1 and Plk1, are inhibited by inhibitory phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. G2-specific phosphorylation of Cdc25 was increased during incubation after mitotic DNA damage. Inhibition of Plk1 through dephosphorylation was dependent on ATM/Chk1 activity. Depleted expression of ATM and Chk1 was achieved using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid constructs. In this condition, damaged mitotic cells did not accumulated in a G2-like stage, and entered into G1 phase without delay. Protein phosphatase 2A was responsible for dephosphorylation of mitotic Plk1 in response to DNA damage. In knockdown of PP2A catalytic subunits, Plk1 was not dephosphorylated, but rather degraded in response to DNA damage, and cells did not accumulate in G2-like phase. The effect of ATM/Chk1 inhibition was counteracted by overexpression of PP2A, indicated that PP2A may function as a downstream target of ATM/Chk1 at a mitotic DNA damage checkpoint, or may have a dominant effect on ATM/Chk1 function at this checkpoint. Finally, we have shown that negative regulation of Plk1 by dephosphorylation is important to cell accumulation in G2-like phase at the mitotic DNA damage checkpoint, and that this ATM/Chk1/PP2A pathway independent on p53 is a novel mechanism of cellular response to mitotic DNA damage.