Euan J Dickson

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (19)112.01 Total impact

  • Annals of surgery. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains controversial because the risk for uncontrolled postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) must be balanced against the potential morbidity associated with prolonged and possibly unnecessary drainage. This study investigated the utility of the level of serum amylase on the night of surgery [postoperative day (PoD) 0 serum amylase] to predict POPF. A total of 185 patients who underwent PD were studied. Occurrences of POPF were graded using the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified a threshold value of PoD 0 serum amylase associated with clinically significant POPF (ISGPF Grades B and C) in a test cohort (n = 45). The accuracy of this threshold value was then tested in a validation cohort (n = 140). Overall, 43 (23.2%) patients developed clinically significant POPF. The threshold value of PoD 0 serum amylase for the identification of clinically significant POPF was ≥130 IU/l (P = 0.003). Serum amylase of <130 IU/l had a negative predictive value of 88.8% for clinically significant POPF (P < 0.001). Serum amylase of ≥130 IU/l on PoD 0 and a soft pancreatic parenchyma were independent risk factors for clinically significant POPF. Postoperative day 0 serum amylase of <130 IU/l allows for the early and accurate categorization of patients at least risk for clinically significant POPF and may identify patients suitable for early drain removal.
    HPB 11/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Post-acute pancreatic collections (PAPCs) may require intervention when persistent, large or symptomatic. An open cystgastrostomy is an effective treatment option particularly for larger, solid predominant collections. A laparoscopic cystgastrostomy (LCG) as initially described, could be technically challenging. This report describes the evolution of the operative technique and the results from LCG in a tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the unit's prospectively populated database was conducted. All patients who underwent a surgical cystgastrostomy (SCG) were identified. Patient demographics, outcome and complications were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Forty-four patients underwent SCG: 8 open and 36 laparoscopic. Of the 36 LCG, 6 required open conversion, although with evolution of the technique all of the last 17 cases were completed laparoscopically. The median interquartile range (IQR) length of stay in patients completed laparoscopically was 6 (2-10) compared with 15.5 days (8-19) in those patients who were converted (P = 0.0351). The only peri-operative complication after a LCG was a self-limiting upper gastrointestinal bleed. With a median (IQR) follow-up of 891 days (527-1495) one patient required re-intervention for a residual collection with no recurrent collections identified. CONCLUSION: LCG is a safe and effective procedure in patients with large, solid predominant PAPCs. With increased experience and technical expertise conversion rates can be lowered and outcome optimized.
    HPB 03/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSEIndividuals with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater demonstrate a broad range of outcomes, presumably because these cancers may arise from any one of the three epithelia that converge at that location. This variability poses challenges for clinical decision making and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS We assessed the potential clinical utility of histomolecular phenotypes defined using a combination of histopathology and protein expression (CDX2 and MUC1) in 208 patients from three independent cohorts who underwent surgical resection for adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. RESULTS: one, patients with histomolecular nonpancreaticobiliary (intestinal) carcinoma without LN metastases who had an excellent prognosis; two, those with histomolecular pancreaticobiliary carcinoma with LN metastases who had a poor outcome; and three, the remainder of patients (nonpancreaticobiliary, LN positive or pancreaticobiliary, LN negative) who had an intermediate outcome. CONCLUSION Histopathologic and molecular criteria combine to define clinically relevant histomolecular phenotypes of adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and potentially represent distinct diseases with significant implications for current therapeutic strategies, the ability to interpret past clinical trials, and future trial design.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Surgery followed by chemotherapy is the primary modality of cure for patients with resectable pancreatic cancer but is associated with significant morbidity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in predicting post-operative adverse events and fitness for chemotherapy after major pancreatic surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy or total pancreatectomy for pancreatic head lesions and had undergone pre-operative CPET were included in this retrospective study. Data on patient demographics, comorbidity and results of pre-operative evaluation were collected. Post-operative adverse events, hospital stay and receipt of adjuvant therapy were outcome measures. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included. Patients with an anaerobic threshold less than 10 ml/kg/min had a significantly greater incidence of a post-operative pancreatic fistula [International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) Grades A-C, 35.4% versus 16%, P = 0.028] and major intra-abdominal abscesses [Clavien-Dindo (CD) Grades III-V, 22.4% versus 7.8%, P = 0.042] and were less likely to receive adjuvant therapy [hazard ratio (HR) 6.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-31.75, P = 0.026]. A low anaerobic threshold was also associated with a prolonged hospital stay (median 20 versus 14 days, P = 0.005) but not with other adverse events. DISCUSSION: CPET predicts a post-operative pancreatic fistula, major intra-abdominal abscesses as well as length of hospital stay after major pancreatic surgery. Patients with a low anaerobic threshold are less likely to receive adjuvant therapy.
    HPB 02/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The poor overall survival associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) despite complete resection suggests that occult metastatic disease is present in most at the time of surgery. Resection margin involvement (R1) following resection is an established poor prognostic factor. However, the definition of an R1 resection varies and the impact of margin clearance on outcome has not been examined in detail. METHODS: In a cohort of 217 consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC with curative intent at a single institution between 1996 and 2011, the prognostic significance of the proximity of margin clearance was investigated. Microscopic margin clearance was stratified by 0.5 mm increments from tumor present at the margin to >2.0 mm. Groups were dichotomized into clear and involved groups according to the different R1 definitions. Multivariate survival analysis was used to establish independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: For the 38 patients (17.5 %) where the tumor was >1.5 mm from the closest involved margin, there was a significantly prolonged overall median survival (63.1 months; 95 % confidence interval, 32.5-93.8) compared to R1 resections (16.9 months; 95 % confidence interval, 14.5-19.4; P < 0.0001, log-rank test). This cutoff represented the optimum distance for predicting long-term survival. As margin clearance increased, R1 status became a more powerful independent predictor of outcome; however, margin clearance did not relate to site of tumor recurrence. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that margin clearance by at least 1.5 mm identifies a subgroup of patients which may potentially achieve long-term survival. This study further confirms the need to achieve standardization across pancreatic specimen reporting. Stratification of patients into future clinical trials based upon the degree of margin clearance may identify those patients likely to benefit from adjuvant therapy.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Pancreatology 01/2013; 13(1):e3. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Pancreatology 01/2013; 13(1):e16. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor-associated inflammatory cell infiltrate is recognized to have prognostic value in various common solid tumors. However, the prognostic value of the tumor inflammatory cell infiltrate has not been established in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) nor has its relationship with the systemic inflammatory response. Retrospective study was made of 173 patients who underwent surgery between 1997 and 2009. Routine pathology specimens were scored according to density of the tumor inflammatory cell infiltrate, and biochemical data were collected preoperatively. Low-grade tumor inflammatory cell infiltrate was associated with earlier tumor recurrence (P < 0.001) and particularly in the liver (P = 0.027). It was also associated with T3 tumors (P < 0.05), lymph node involvement (P < 0.05), and resection margin involvement (P < 0.05). On univariate survival analysis, age <65 years (P < 0.05), mGPS (P < 0.001), increased tumor stage (P < 0.01), nodal involvement (P < 0.01), size (P < 0.05), grade (P < 0.05), perineural invasion (P < 0.05), venous invasion (P < 0.01), resection margin involvement (P ≤ 0.001), vascular reconstruction (P < 0.05), and no adjuvant chemotherapy (P < 0.05) were associated with poor survival. In contrast, high-grade tumor inflammatory cell infiltrate was associated with better survival (P < 0.001). On multivariate survival analysis, mGPS [hazard ratio (HR): 1.77, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI): 1.19-2.62, P = 0.005], tumor stage (HR: 2.21, 95 % CI: 1.16-4.23, P = 0.016), resection margin involvement (HR: 2.19, 95 % CI: 1.41-3.44, P = 0.001), venous invasion (HR: 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.22-2.63, P = 0.003), tumor inflammatory cell infiltrate (HR: 0.37, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.55, P = 0.0001), and adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.04) were independently prognostic. The results of the study show, for the first time, that the presence of a high-grade tumor inflammatory cell infiltrate is an independent predictor of prolonged overall survival following resection for PDAC. Furthermore, measures of the local and the systemic inflammatory response were inversely associated.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2012; 19(11):3581-90. · 4.12 Impact Factor
  • Pancreatology 01/2012; 12(3):e4. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Pancreatology 01/2012; 12(3):e5. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNA) have potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in cancer. We sought to establish the relationship between miRNA expression and clinicopathologic parameters, including prognosis, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Global miRNA microarray expression profiling of prospectively collected fresh-frozen PDAC tissue was done on an initial test cohort of 48 patients, who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2003 and 2008 at a single institution. We evaluated association with tumor stage, lymph node status, and site of recurrence, in addition to overall survival, using Cox regression multivariate analysis. Validation of selected potentially prognostic miRNAs was done in a separate cohort of 24 patients. miRNA profiling identified expression signatures associated with PDAC, lymph node involvement, high tumor grade, and 20 miRNAs were associated with overall survival. In the initial cohort of 48 PDAC patients, high expression of miR-21 (HR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.21-8.58) and reduced expression of miR-34a (HR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.06-0.37) and miR-30d (HR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12-0.79) were associated with poor overall survival following resection independent of clinical covariates. In a further validation set of 24 patients, miR-21 and miR-34a expression again significantly correlated with overall survival (P = 0.031 and P = 0.001). Expression patterns of miRNAs are significantly altered in PDAC. Aberrant expression of a number of miRNAs was independently associated with reduced survival, including overexpression of miR-21 and underexpression of miR-34a. Summary: miRNA expression profiles for resected PDAC were examined to identify potentially prognostic miRNAs. miRNA microarray analysis identified statistically unique profiles, which could discriminate PDAC from paired nonmalignant pancreatic tissues as well as molecular signatures that differ according to pathologic features. miRNA expression profiles correlated with overall survival of PDAC following resection, indicating that miRNAs provide prognostic utility.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2011; 18(2):534-45. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outcome prediction after resection with curative intent for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains a challenge. There is increasing evidence that the presence of an ongoing systemic inflammatory response is associated with poor outcome in patients undergoing resection for a variety of common solid tumors. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the prognostic value of tumor- and patient-related factors including the systemic inflammatory response in patients undergoing potentially curative surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas. The prognostic impact of tumor factors such as stage and host factors, including the systemic inflammatory response (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score [mGPS]), were evaluated in a prospective study of 135 patients who underwent elective pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from January 2002 to April 2009. In addition to the established tumor-related pathological factors (in particular margin involvement; hazard ratio [HR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65-4.84, P < 0.001), an elevated mGPS (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.43-3.57, P < 0.001) was independently associated with lower overall survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Additionally, in an adjuvant therapy subgroup of 74 patients, both margin involvement and an elevated mGPS remained independently associated with reduced overall survival. We have prospectively validated the influence of tumor-related and patient-related factors. Margin involvement and the preoperative mGPS were the most important determinants of overall survival in patients undergoing potentially curative pancreaticoduodenectomy. Furthermore, both had independent prognostic value in those patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. In the future, this may be considered a stratification factor for entry onto therapeutic trials.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2011; 18(8):2318-28. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), identification of peripancreatic fat tumor invasion promotes a tumor to stage T3. We sought to understand better the impact of histological peripancreatic fat invasion on prognosis and site of recurrence in a cohort of patients with PDAC. We analyzed the patient demographics, outcome, and recurrence data that had been prospectively collected in 189 consecutive PDAC undergoing potentially curative pancreaticoduodenectomy between 1996 and 2009. Pathological features were reassessed for all patients. Survival outcome was compared using Kaplan-Meier/Cox proportional hazards analysis. The primary site of recurrence was defined as either locoregional or distant metastases. The median survival of this PDAC cohort was 18.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.7-22.2). Histological peripancreatic fat invasion was evident in 51 (27%) patients and was associated with lymph node metastases (p = 0.004) and larger tumor size (p = 0.015). The presence of peripancreatic fat invasion was associated with reduced overall survival following resection (12.4 months [95% CI 9.9-15.0]) when compared to those patients with no evidence of fat invasion (22.6 months [95% CI 18.5-26.7]; p < 0.0001). By multivariate survival analysis, independent predictors of overall survival included tumor grade (p = 0.002), lymph node involvement (p = 0.025), resection margin status (p = 0.003), venous invasion (p = 0.045), and peripancreatic fat invasion (p = 0.007). Invasion into the pancreatic fat was significantly associated with the primary site of recurrence being locoregional failure (p = 0.002). Peripancreatic fat invasion was identified as being an independent predictor of poor outcome following pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC. Additionally, the presence of peripancreatic fat invasion was associated with locoregional disease as the primary site of recurrence. This may have implications for the staging of PDAC and potentially require incorporation into future staging systems to improve outcome stratification.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2010; 15(3):512-24. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prognostic influence of residual tumor at or within 1 mm of the mobilization margins (R1Mobilization) compared with transection margins (R1Transection) following pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The prognostic strength of R1 status increases with frequency of margin positivity and is enhanced by protocol driven pathology reporting. Currently, margins are treated uniformly with tumor at or close to any margin considered of equal prognostic significance. The resection involves a mobilization phase freeing the posterior margin and anterior surface then a transection phase requiring lympho-vascular division forming the medial resection and pancreatic transection margin. The comparative assessment of the relative importance of tumor involvement of these different margins has not previously been investigated. Retrospective analysis of 148 consecutive resections for PDAC from 1996-2007 was performed. The individual (pancreatic transection, medial, posterior, and anterior surface) margins were separately identified and analyzed by a senior pathologist. An R1 resection was defined as microscopic evidence of tumor < or = 1 mm from a resection margin. R1Mobilization tumor extension included both R1Anterior and R1Posterior cases; while R1Transection included pancreatic neck/body transection, R1Medial and adjacent transection margins. R1 status was confirmed in 109 patients (74%). The medial (46%) and posterior (44%) margins were most commonly involved. R1 status was found to an independent predictor of poor outcome (P < 0.001). R1Mobilization involvement only (n = 48) was associated with a significantly longer median survival of 18.9 months (95% CI, 13.7-24.8) versus 11.1 months (95% CI, 7.1-15.0) for those with R1Transection tumor involvement (n = 61) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the survival of the R1Mobilization compared with R0 group (P = 0.52). Following pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC, involvement of the transection margins in contrast to mobilization margins defines a group whose outcome is significantly worse. This may impact upon the allocation of adjuvant therapy within the setting of randomized controlled trials.
    Annals of surgery 06/2010; 251(6):1003-10. · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor