[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment consists of extracellular-matrix and the cellular compartment including immune cells. Multiple myeloma (MM) cell and BM accessory cell interaction promotes MM survival via both cell-cell contact and cytokines. Immunomodulatory agents (IMiDs) target not only MM cells, but also MM cell-immune cell interactions and cytokine signaling. Here we examined the in vitro effects of IMiDs on cytokine signaling triggered by interaction of effector cells with MM cells and BM stroma cells. IMiDs diminished interleukin-2, interferonγ, and IL-6 regulator suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 expression in immune (CD4T, CD8T, natural-killer T, natural-killer) cells from both BM and PB of MM patients. In addition, coculture of MM cells with healthy PBMCs induced SOCS1 expression in effector cells; conversely, treatment with IMiDs down-regulated the SOCS1 expression. SOCS1 negatively regulates IL-6 signaling and is silenced by hypermethylation in MM cells. To define the mechanism of inhibitory-cytokine signaling in effector cells and MM cells, we next analyzed the interaction of immune cells with MM cells that were epigenetically modified to re-express SOCS1; IMiDs induced more potent CTL responses against SOCS1 re-expressing-MM cells than unmodified MM cells. These data therefore demonstrate that modulation of SOCS1 may enhance immune response and efficacy of IMiDs in MM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we demonstrate expression and examined the biologic sequelae of PI3K/p110delta signaling in multiple myeloma (MM). Knockdown of p110delta by small interfering RNA caused significant inhibition of MM cell growth. Similarly, p110delta specific small molecule inhibitor CAL-101 triggered cytotoxicity against LB and INA-6 MM cell lines and patient MM cells, associated with inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, CAL-101 did not inhibit survival of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. CAL-101 overcame MM cell growth conferred by interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1, and bone marrow stromal cell coculture. Interestingly, inhibition of p110delta potently induced autophagy. The in vivo inhibition of p110delta with IC488743 was evaluated in 2 murine xenograft models of human MM: SCID mice bearing human MM cells subcutaneously and the SCID-hu model, in which human MM cells are injected within a human bone chip implanted subcutaneously in SCID mice. IC488743 significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged host survival in both models. Finally, combined CAL-101 with bortezomib induced synergistic cytotoxicity against MM cells. Our studies therefore show that PI3K/p110delta is a novel therapeutic target in MM and provide the basis for clinical evaluation of CAL-101 to improve patient outcome in MM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aurora-A is a mitotic kinase that regulates mitotic spindle formation and segregation. In multiple myeloma (MM), high Aurora-A gene expression has been correlated with centrosome amplification and proliferation; thus, inhibition of Aurora-A in MM may prove to be therapeutically beneficial. Here we assess the in vitro and in vivo anti-MM activity of MLN8237, a small-molecule Aurora-A kinase inhibitor. Treatment of cultured MM cells with MLN8237 results in mitotic spindle abnormalities, mitotic accumulation, as well as inhibition of cell proliferation through apoptosis and senescence. In addition, MLN8237 up-regulates p53 and tumor suppressor genes p21 and p27. Combining MLN8237 with dexamethasone, doxorubicin, or bortezomib induces synergistic/additive anti-MM activity in vitro. In vivo anti-MM activity of MLN8237 was confirmed using a xenograft-murine model of human-MM. Tumor burden was significantly reduced (P = .007) and overall survival was significantly increased (P < .005) in animals treated with 30 mg/kg MLN8237 for 21 days. Induction of apoptosis and cell death by MLN8237 were confirmed in tumor cells excised from treated animals by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. MLN8237 is currently in phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials in patients with advanced malignancies, and our preclinical results suggest that MLN8237 may be a promising novel targeted therapy in MM.