Daisuke Tsuchikawa

Showa University, Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (8)19.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuroprotective peptide expressed in the central nervous system. Although many studies have shown a neuroprotective effect of PACAP, the mechanism of PACAP in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) is yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of PACAP in a mouse SCI model where PACAP was delivered via a biodegradable hydrogel. When PACAP or saline was delivered immediately after SCI, the functional motor recovery 14 days after SCI was significantly improved in the PACAP group compared with that in the saline group. Expression levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) for collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), a factor related to axonal regeneration, were increased in the PACAP group 14 days after SCI compared with those in the saline group. A significantly increased number of CRMP2-positive cells were observed around the injury lesion in the PACAP group, while CRMP2 co-labeling with neuronal and oligodendrocyte markers was detected in intact spinal cord. Fourteen days after SCI, anterograde tracing revealed that a significantly increased number of neuronal fibers extended caudally from the lesion epicenter in the PACAP group. These results suggest that PACAP stimulates functional motor recovery after SCI through axonal regeneration mediated by CRMP2.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 07/2014; 54(3). DOI:10.1007/s12031-014-0338-z · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been known as a neuroprotectant agent in several retinal injury models. However, a detailed mechanism of this effect is still not well understood. In this study, we examined the retinoprotective effects and associated underlying mechanisms of action of PACAP in the mouse N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced retinal injury model, focusing on the relationship between PACAP and retinal microglia/macrophage (MG/MΦ) status. Adult male C57BL/6 mice received an intravitreal injection of NMDA to induce retinal injury. Three days after NMDA injection, the number of MG/MΦ increased significantly in the retinas. The concomitant intravitreal injection of PACAP suppressed NMDA-induced cell loss in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and significantly increased the number of MG/MΦ. These outcomes associated with PACAP were attenuated by cotreatment with PACAP6-38, while the beneficial effects of PACAP were not seen in interleukin-10 (IL-10) knockout mice. PACAP significantly elevated the messenger RNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta 1 and IL-10 in the injured retina, with the immunoreactivities seen to overlap with markers of MG/MΦ. These results suggest that PACAP enhances the proliferation and/or infiltration of retinal MG/MΦ and modulates their status into an acquired deactivation subtype to favor conditions for neuroprotection.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 05/2013; 51(2). DOI:10.1007/s12031-013-0017-5 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neuroprotectant. We previously showed that PACAP receptor (PAC1R) immunoreactivity was elevated in reactive astrocytes after stab wound injury. However, the pattern of PAC1R expression in astrocytes after brain injury is still unknown. In this study, PAC1R expression was evaluated in mouse hippocampal astrocytes after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. PAC1R mRNA levels in the hippocampus peaked on day 7, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) mRNA levels increased from day 3 to day 7 after ischemia. We then observed co-localization of PAC1R and GFAP by double immunostaining. GFAP-immunopositive cells showed signs of hypertrophy 3 days after the ischemia, and by day 7 had fine processes, were hypertrophied, and are known as reactive astrocytes. A low number of PAC1R-immunopositive astrocytes were detectable in the hippocampal area until 3 days after ischemia. PAC1R-positive astrocytes were widely distributed in the hippocampus between day 7 and day 14 after ischemia, and they were converging around the damaged CA1 pyramidal cell layer by day 28. These results suggest that PAC1R might be expressed in the middle to late stage of reactive astrocytes and PACAP plays an important role in the reactive astrocytes after brain injury.
    Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement 04/2013; 118:55-9. DOI:10.1007/978-3-7091-1434-6_9
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuroprotective peptide expressed in the central nervous system. To date, changes in the expression and effect of endogenous PACAP have not been clarified with respect to spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression pattern and function of endogenous PACAP on the contusion model of SCI using heterozygous PACAP knockout (PACAP(+/-)) and wild-type mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction methods revealed that the level of PACAP mRNA increased gradually for 14 days after SCI and that PAC1R mRNA levels also increased for 7 days compared with intact control mice. PACAP and PAC1R immunoreactivities colabeled with a neuronal marker in the intact spinal cord. Seven days after SCI, PAC1R immunoreactivity was additionally co-expressed with an astrocyte marker. Wild-type mice gradually recovered motor function after 14 days, but PACAP(+/-) mice showed significantly impaired recovery from 3 days compared with wild-type mice. The injury volume at day 7 in PACAP(+/-) mice, and the number of single-stranded DNA-immunopositive cells as a marker of neuronal cell death at day 3 were significantly higher than values measured in wild-type mice. These data suggest that endogenous PACAP is upregulated by SCI and has a neuroprotective effect on the damaged spinal cord.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 06/2012; 48(3):508-17. DOI:10.1007/s12031-012-9817-2 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts a neuroprotective action against ischemic damage. This action is mediated by the interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway. However, as the expression patterns of PACAP receptors and IL-6 following ischemia are not understood, we evaluated them in the mouse hippocampus in response to ischemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Real-time PCR determination of PAC1R mRNA expression in the hippocampus was significantly elevated on day 7 after ischemia. VPAC1R mRNA expression was significantly decreased 3 days after the ischemic episode, while VPAC2R mRNA expression showed a nonsignificant tendency to increase on day 7. IL-6 mRNA expression was significantly increased on day 3 and peaked on day 7 after ischemia. The mRNA expression of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein, which is a neuroprotective factor stimulated by PACAP, remained virtually unchanged in response to ischemia. IL-6 immunoreactivity was detected in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer and colocalized with the neuronal marker NeuN on day 1 after ischemia. On day 3, irregularly shaped IL-6-immunopositive cells colocalized with the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein but not with the microglial marker Iba1. PAC1R immunoreactivity co-labeled with IL-6 immunoreactivity. These results suggest that PACAP could stimulate IL-6 secretion by neurons during the acute phase after an ischemic episode and thereafter by astrocytes during the subacute phase.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 06/2012; 48(3):518-25. DOI:10.1007/s12031-012-9819-0 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain ischemia, also termed cerebral ischemia, is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand, leading to tissue death (cerebral infarction) due to poor oxygen supply (cerebral hypoxia). Our group is interested in the protective effects of neuropeptides for alleviating brain ischemia, as well as the underlying mechanisms of their action. The present study was initiated to investigate molecular responses at the level of gene expression in ischemic brain tissue. To achieve this, we used a mouse permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) model in combination with high-throughput DNA microarray analysis on an Agilent microarray platform. Briefly, the right (ipsilateral) and left (contralateral) hemispheres of PMCAO model mice were dissected at two time points, 6 and 24 hours post-ischemia. Total RNA from the ischemic (ipsilateral) hemisphere was subjected to DNA microarray analysis on a mouse whole genome 4x44K DNA chip using a dye-swap approach. Functional categorization using the gene ontology (GO, MGD/AMIGO) of numerous changed genes revealed expression pattern changes in the major categories of cellular process, biological regulation, regulation of biological process, metabolic process and response to stimulus. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis on randomly selected highly up- or downregulated genes validated, in general, the microarray data. Using two time points for this analysis, major and minor trends in gene expression and/or functions were observed in relation to early- and late-response genes and differentially regulated genes that were further classified into specific pathways or disease states. We also examined the expression of these genes in the contralateral hemisphere, which suggested the presence of bilateral effects and/or differential regulation. This study provides the first ischemia-related transcriptome analysis of the mouse brain, laying a strong foundation for studies designed to elucidate the mechanisms regulating ischemia and to explore the neuroprotective effects of agents such as target neuropeptides.
    Disease Models and Mechanisms 03/2012; 5(2):270-83. DOI:10.1242/dmm.008276 · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide originally isolated from ovine hypothalamus. Recently, we have shown that the PACAP receptor (PAC1-R) is expressed in reactive astrocytes following an in vivo stub wound brain injury. However, the functional role of PACAP has not yet been clarified. In order to investigate the effect of PACAP on the proliferation of reactive astrocytes, a scratch wound paradigm was applied to astrocytic monolayers. Following injury, there was an increase in PAC1-R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the astrocytes surrounding the scratch line. PACAP at concentrations of 10(-15) to 10(-7) M was applied immediately after scratching, and the proliferating astrocytes were visualized by multiple immunofluorescence labeling. The percentage of cells that colabeled for Ki67 (a marker of proliferating cells) and GFAP increased in the 10(-11)- and 10(-13)-M PACAP-treated groups. The proliferating astrocytes induced by PACAP treatment mainly occurred in the proximal wound area where many reactive astrocytes were observed. Pretreatment with the PACAP receptor antagonist PACAP6-38 significantly suppressed the PACAP-induced effects. These results strongly suggest that PACAP plays an important role in the proliferation of reactive astrocytes following nerve injury.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 01/2011; 43(1):16-21. DOI:10.1007/s12031-010-9404-3 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinal excitotoxicity is one of the major causes of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in glaucoma. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic peptide with potent neuroprotective activity; however, whether it exerts such an effect in the retina and the mechanism by which RGCs are protected is still not well understood. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous and endogenous PACAP on RGC death induced by N-methyl-D: -aspartate acid (NMDA). The vitreous body of anesthetized adult male mice (C57/BL6J) was injected with NMDA (40 nmol in a 2 μL saline solution). The number of RGCs decreased from days 1 to 7 after NMDA injection, and the number of dUTP end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, an indicator of cell death, peaked at day 3. However, when PACAP38 (10(-8), 10(-10), 10(-12), 10(-14), or 10(-16)M) was co-administered with NMDA, the 10(-10)M dose resulted in significantly increased RGC survival at day 7, and a decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive RGCs at day 3. We next investigated the neuroprotective effect of endogenous PACAP using PACAP heterozygote(+/-) mice. Under normal circumstances, there was no significant difference in the number of RGCs in the PACAP(+/-) mice compared with their wild-type counterparts. However, the number of RGCs significantly decreased in the PACAP(+/-) mice 7 days after NMDA injection, relative to their wild-type counterparts. The number of TUNEL-positive RGCs peaked at day 1 in the PACAP(+/-) mice. These effects in the PACAP(+/-) mice were reversed by intravitreous injection of 10(-10)M PACAP38. This suggests that exogenous PACAP is able to counteract NMDA-induced toxicity, and that endogenous PACAP exerts a neuroprotective effect in the retina.
    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 01/2011; 43(1):22-9. DOI:10.1007/s12031-010-9434-x · 2.34 Impact Factor