[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classic galactosemia is a human autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the GALT gene - GAL7 in yeast - which encodes the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. Here we show that the unfolded protein response pathway is triggered by galactose in two yeast models of galactosemia: lithium-treated cells and the gal7Δ mutant. The synthesis of galactose-1-phosphate is essential to trigger the unfolded protein response under these conditions because the deletion of the galactokinase-encoding gene GAL1 completely abolishes unfolded protein response activation and galactose toxicity. Impairment of the unfolded protein response in both yeast models makes cells even more sensitive to galactose, unmasking its cytotoxic effect. These results indicate that endoplasmic reticulum stress is induced under galactosemic conditions and underscores the importance of the unfolded protein response pathway to the cellular adaptation in these models of classic galactosemia.
Disease Models and Mechanisms 09/2013; · 4.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deletion of SIT4 phosphatase decreased the pyruvate decarboxylase activity which is essential for directing the glucose flux to ethanol production. Concomitantly a reduction of the fermentative capacity was observed. As pyruvate decarboxylase expression was not altered its post-translational phosphorylation was studied. Immunoblot analyses using anti-phosphoserine antibodies against the affinity-purified Pdc1p showed that Pdc1p is a phosphoenzyme. Dephosphorylation of Pdc1p by alkaline phosphatase inhibited activity by 50%. Moreover, phosphorylation of Pdc1p was dependent on the growth phase, being hyperphosphorylated in the logarithmic phase which showed to be dependent on the presence of SIT4. A comparison of the kinetic parameters of pyruvate decarboxylase in total protein extracts from WT yeast and the Δsit4 mutant revealed that the apparent Km values of the cofactor thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) were 81 μM and 205 μM, respectively, with Vmax values of 0.294 and 0.173 μmol·mg(-1) ·min(-1) , respectively. Treatment of the purified enzyme with alkaline phosphatase increased the Km for TPP from 20 to 84 μM and for pyruvate from 2.3 to 4.6 mM while the Vmax changed from 0.806 to 0.673 μmol.mg(-1) min(-1) . These results suggest that the Pdc1p phosphorylation dependent on SIT4 occurs at residues that change the apparent affinity for TPP and pyruvate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a stress that exerts broad effects on microorganisms with characteristics similar to those of common environmental stresses. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms that can enhance alcoholic fermentation of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Brazilian spirit fermentation vats. Accordingly, we performed a time course microarray analysis on a S. cerevisiae strain submitted to mild sublethal pressure treatment of 50 MPa for 30 min at room temperature, followed by incubation for 5, 10 and 15 min without pressure treatment. The obtained transcriptional profiles demonstrate the importance of post-pressurisation period on the activation of several genes related to cell recovery and stress tolerance. Based on these results, we over-expressed genes strongly induced by HHP in the same wild yeast strain and identified genes, particularly SYM1, whose over-expression results in enhanced ethanol production and stress tolerance upon fermentation. The present study validates the use of HHP as a biotechnological tool for the fermentative industries.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of the loss of the Ser-Thr protein phosphatase Sit4, an important post-translational regulator, on the steady-state levels of the low-affinity glucose transporter Hxt1p and observed a delay in its appearance after high glucose induction, slow growth, and diminished glucose consumption. By analyzing the known essential pathway necessary to induce Hxt1p, we observed a partial inhibition of casein kinase I activity. In both WT and sit4Δ strains, the transcript was induced with no significant difference at 15 min of glucose induction; however, after 45 min, a clear difference in the level of expression was observed being 45% higher in WT than in sit4Δ strain. As at early time of induction, the HXT1 transcript was present but not the protein in the sit4Δ strain we analyzed association of HXT1 with ribosomes, which revealed a significant difference in the association profile; in the mutant strain, the HXT1 transcript associated with a larger set of ribosomal fractions than it did in the WT strain, suggesting also a partial defect in protein synthesis. Overexpression of the translation initiation factor TIF2/eIF4A led to an increase in Hxt1p abundance in the WT strain only. It was concluded that Sit4p ensures that HXT1 transcript is efficiently transcribed and translated thus increasing protein levels of Hxt1p when high glucose levels are present.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heme is a ubiquitous molecule that has a number of physiological roles. The toxic effects of this molecule have been demonstrated in various models, based on both its pro-oxidant nature and through a detergent mechanism. It is estimated that about 10 mM of heme is released during blood digestion in the blood-sucking bug's midgut. The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease, proliferates in the midgut of the insect vector; however, heme metabolism in trypanosomatids remains to be elucidated. Here we provide a mechanistic explanation for the proliferative effects of heme on trypanosomatids. Heme, but not other porphyrins, induced T. cruzi proliferation, and this phenomenon was accompanied by a marked increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in epimastigotes when monitored by ROS-sensitive fluorescent probes. Heme-induced ROS production was time- and concentration-dependent. In addition, lipid peroxidation and the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) adducts with parasite proteins were increased in epimastigotes in the presence of heme. Conversely, the antioxidants urate and GSH reversed the heme-induced ROS. Urate also decreased parasite proliferation. Among several protein kinase inhibitors tested only specific inhibitors of CaMKII, KN93 and Myr-AIP, were able to abolish heme-induced ROS formation in epimastigotes leading to parasite growth impairment. Taken together, these data provide new insight into T. cruzi- insect vector interactions: heme, a molecule from the blood digestion, triggers epimastigote proliferation through a redox-sensitive signalling mechanism.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e25935. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is frequently associated with gain-of-function mutations in zinc finger-containing transcription factors Pdr1p and Pdr3p. These regulatory proteins activate the expression of several ATP-binding cassette transporter genes, leading to elevated drug resistance. Here, we report that loss of the type 2A-related serine/threonine protein phosphatase Sit4p renders yeast cells sensitive to cycloheximide, azoles, daunorubicin and rhodamine 6G. This effect is a consequence of the decreased transcriptional levels of mainly PDR3 and its target genes, PDR5, SNQ2 and YOR1, which encode multidrug efflux pumps. The multidrug sensitivity of sit4 mutant cells is suppressed by the PDR1-3 mutant allele, which encodes a hyperactive form of Pdr1p. Sit4p is known to associate with regulatory proteins Sap155p, Sap4p, Sap185p and Sap190p. We found that the sap155 mutant strain is sensitive to azoles, but not to cycloheximide, while the sap155sap4 and sap185sap190 mutant strains are sensitive to both drugs. This finding indicates that the Sit4p-Sap protein complex subtly modulates the expression of drug efflux pumps. Drug resistance conferred by the expression of the Candida albicans CDR1 gene, an ortholog of PDR5 in S. cerevisiae, is also positively modulated by Sit4p. These data uncover a new regulatory pathway that connects multidrug resistance to Sit4p function.
FEMS Yeast Research 09/2010; 10(6):674-86. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In virtually every cell, neutral lipids are stored in cytoplasmic structures called lipid droplets (LDs) and also referred to as lipid bodies or lipid particles. We developed a rapid high-throughput assay based on the recovery of quenched BODIPY-fluorescence that allows to quantify lipid droplets. The method was validated by monitoring lipid droplet turnover during growth of a yeast culture and by screening a group of strains deleted in genes known to be involved in lipid metabolism. In both tests, the fluorimetric assay showed high sensitivity and good agreement with previously reported data using microscopy. We used this method for high-throughput identification of protein phosphatases involved in lipid droplet metabolism. From 65 yeast knockout strains encoding protein phosphatases and its regulatory subunits, 13 strains revealed to have abnormal levels of lipid droplets, 10 of them having high lipid droplet content. Strains deleted for type I protein phosphatases and related regulators (ppz2, gac1, bni4), type 2A phosphatase and its related regulator (pph21 and sap185), type 2C protein phosphatases (ptc1, ptc4, ptc7) and dual phosphatases (pps1, msg5) were catalogued as high-lipid droplet content strains. Only reg1, a targeting subunit of the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p, and members of the nutrient-sensitive TOR pathway (sit4 and the regulatory subunit sap190) were catalogued as low-lipid droplet content strains, which were studied further. We show that Snf1, the homologue of the mammalian AMP-activated kinase, is constitutively phosphorylated (hyperactive) in sit4 and sap190 strains leading to a reduction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. In conclusion, our fast and highly sensitive method permitted us to catalogue protein phosphatases involved in the regulation of LD metabolism and present evidence indicating that the TOR pathway and the SNF1/AMPK pathway are connected through the Sit4p-Sap190p pair in the control of lipid droplet biogenesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13692. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 A resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site.YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e11163. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sup35 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms a prion that generates the [PSI(+)] phenotype. Its NM region governs prion status, forming self-seeding amyloid fibers in vivo and in vitro. A tryptophan mutant of Sup35 (NM(F117W)) was used to probe its aggregation. Four indicators of aggregation, Trp 117 maximum emission, Trp polarization, thio-T binding, and light scattering increase, revealed faster aggregation at 4 degrees C than at 25 degrees C, and all indicators changed in a concerted fashion at the former temperature. Curiously, at 25 degrees C the changes were not synchronized; the first two indicators, which reflect nucleation, changed more quickly than the last two, which reflect fibril formation. These results suggest that nucleation is insensitive to temperature, whereas fibril extension is temperature dependent. As expected, aggregation is accelerated when a small fraction (5%) of the nuclei produced at 4 or 25 degrees C are added to a suspension containing the soluble NM domain, although these nuclei do not seem to propagate any structural information to the growing fibrils. Fibrils grown at 4 degrees C were less stable in GdmCl than those grown at higher temperature. However, they were both resistant to high pressure; in fact, both sets of fibrils responded to high pressure by adopting an altered conformation with a higher capacity for thio-T binding. From these data, we calculated the change in volume and free energy associated with this conformational change. AFM revealed that the fibrils grown at 4 degrees C were statistically smaller than those grown at 25 degrees C. In conclusion, the introduction of Trp 117 allowed us to more carefully dissect the effects of temperature on the aggregation of the Sup35 NM domain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lithium induces a 'galactosemia-like' phenotype as a consequence of inhibition of phosphoglucomutase, a key enzyme in galactose metabolism. Induced galactose toxicity is prevented by deletion of GAL4, which inhibits the transcriptional activation of genes involved in galactose metabolism and by deletion of the galactokinase (GAL1), indicating that galactose-1-phosphate, a phosphorylated intermediate of the Leloir pathway, is the toxic compound. As an alternative to inhibiting entry and metabolism of galactose, we investigated whether deviation of galactose metabolism from the Leloir pathway would also overcome the galactosemic effect of lithium. We show that cells overexpressing the aldose reductase GRE3, which converts galactose to galactitol, are more tolerant to lithium than wild-type cells when grown in galactose medium and they accumulate more galactitol and less galactose-1-phosphate. Overexpression of GRE3 also suppressed the galactose growth defect of the 'galactosemic'gal7- and gal10-deleted strains, which lack galactose-1-P-uridyltransferase or UDP-galactose-4-epimerase activities, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of GRE3 was independent of the inositol monophosphatases INM1 and INM2. We propose that lithium induces a galactosemic state in yeast and that inhibition of the Leloir pathway before the phosphorylation step or stimulation of galactitol production suppresses lithium-induced galactose toxicity.
FEMS Yeast Research 10/2008; 8(8):1245-53. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyphal development in Candida albicans contributes to virulence, and inhibition of filamentation is a target for the development of antifungal agents. Lithium is known to impair Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth in galactose-containing media by inhibition of phosphoglucomutase, which is essential for galactose metabolism. Lithium-mediated phosphoglucomutase inhibition is reverted by Mg(2+). In this study we have assessed the effect of lithium upon C. albicans and found that growth is inhibited preferentially in galactose-containing media. No accumulation of glucose-1-phosphate or galactose-1-phosphate was detected when yeasts were grown in the presence of galactose and 15 mM LiCl, though we observed that in vitro lithium-mediated phosphoglucomutase inhibition takes place with an IC(50) of 2 mM. Furthermore, growth inhibition by lithium was not reverted by Mg(2+). These results show that lithium-mediated inhibition of growth in a galactose-containing medium is not due to inhibition of galactose conversion to glucose-6-phosphate but is probably due to inhibition of a signaling pathway. Deletion of the Ser-Thr protein phosphatase SIT4 and treatment with rapamycin have been shown to inhibit filamentous differentiation. We observed that C. albicans filamentation was inhibited by lithium in solid medium containing either galactose as the sole carbon source or 10% fetal bovine serum. These results suggest that suppression of hyphal outgrowth by lithium could be related to inhibition of the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway.
FEMS Yeast Research 07/2008; 8(4):615-21. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inositol is the precursor for most Trypanosoma cruzi surface molecules, including phosphoinositides, glycosylinositolphospholipids and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. As the parasite is an inositol auxotroph, the inositol transport system might be a potential target for new trypanocide drugs, as some of its properties are different from its mammalian counterpart. Here, we investigated the modulation exerted by effectors of PKA and PKC on this transport system to comply with the parasite physiology. Pre-incubation of the cells with either dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (25 microM) or forskolin (30 microM) decreased the myo-inositol uptake by half, this effect being reversed by KT5720 (PKA inhibitor). Conversely, pre-incubation of the cells with PMA (2.8 microg/ml) or serum (5%) had a approximately 50% stimulation in myo-inositol uptake, being this effect reversed by staurosporine (0.5 microM) or sphingosine (10 microM). These results allow us to conclude that the myo-inositol transport system in T. cruzi epimastigotes is inhibited by PKA and stimulated by PKC effectors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene, TIF2, was identified as corresponding to the translation initiation factor eIF4A and when overexpressed it confers lithium tolerance in galactose medium to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Incubation of yeast with 6 mm LiCl in galactose medium leads to inhibition of [(35)S]methionine incorporation. By polysome analysis we show that translation is inhibited by lithium at the initiation step, accumulating 80 S monosomes. We further show by immunoblot analysis that when cells are incubated with lithium eIF4A does not sediment with ribosomal subunits. Overexpression of TIF2 overcomes inhibition of protein synthesis and restores its sedimentation with the initiation complex. In vivo, eIF4A is induced by lithium stress. We have shown previously that lithium is highly toxic to yeast when grown in galactose medium mainly due to inhibition of phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme responsible for the entry of galactose into glycolysis. We show that conditions that revert inhibition of phosphoglucomutase also revert inhibition of protein synthesis. Interestingly, glucose starvation leads to loss of polysomes but not to dissociation of eIF4A from the preinitiation complexes. Overexpression of SIT4, a protein phosphatase related to the TOR kinase pathway, reverts inhibition of protein synthesis by lithium and association of eIF4A with the initiation complex.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2002; 277(24):21542-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lithium is a drug frequently used in the treatment of manic depressive disorder. We have observed that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is very sensitive to lithium when growing in galactose medium. In this work we show that lithium inhibits with high affinity yeast (IC50 approximately 0.2 mm) and human (IC50 approximately 1.5 mm) phosphoglucomutase, the enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate. Lithium inhibits the rate of fermentation when yeast are grown in galactose and induces accumulation of glucose 1-phosphate and galactose 1-phosphate. Accumulation of these metabolites was also observed when a strain deleted of the two isoforms of phosphoglucomutase was incubated in galactose medium. In glucose-grown cells lithium reduces the steady state levels of UDP-glucose, resulting in a defect on trehalose and glycogen biosynthesis. Lithium acts as a competitive inhibitor of yeast phosphoglucomutase activity by competing with magnesium, a cofactor of the enzyme. High magnesium concentrations revert lithium inhibition of growth and phosphoglucomutase activity. Lithium stress causes an increase of the phosphoglucomutase activity due to an induction of transcription of the PGM2 gene, and its overexpression confers lithium tolerance in galactose medium. These results show that phosphoglucomutase is an important in vivo lithium target.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2001; 276(41):37794-801. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene, SIT4, was identified as corresponding to a serine/threonine protein phosphatase and when overexpressed confers lithium tolerance in galactose medium to the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This gene has been previously identified as a regulator of the cell cycle and involved in nitrogen sensing. It is shown that the transcription levels of SIT4 are induced by low concentrations of Li(+) in a time-dependent manner. Na(+) and K(+) at high concentrations, but not sorbitol, also induce transcription. As a response to Na(+) or Li(+) stress, yeast cells lower the intracellular K(+) content. This effect is enhanced in cells overexpressing SIT4, which also increase (86)Rb efflux after the addition of Na(+) or Li(+) to the extracellular medium. Another feature of SIT4-overexpressing cells is that they maintain a more alkaline pH of 6.64 compared with 6.17 in the wild type cells. It has been proposed that the main pathway of salt tolerance in yeast is mediated by a P-type ATPase, encoded by PMR2A/ENA1. However, our results show that in a sit4 strain, expression of ENA1 is still induced by monovalent cations, and overexpression of SIT4 does not alter the amount of ENA1 transcript. These results show that SIT4 acts in a parallel pathway not involving induction of transcription of ENA1 and suggest a novel function for SIT4 in response to salt stress.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2000; 275(40):30957-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NH2-terminus of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase is one of the least conserved segments of this protein among fungi. We constructed and expressed a mutant H+-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted at an internal peptide within the cytoplasmic NH2-terminus (D44-F116). When the enzyme was subjected to limited trypsinolysis it was digested more rapidly than wild type H+-ATPase. Membrane fractionation experiments and immunofluorescence microscopy, using antibodies against H+-ATPase showed that the mutant ATPase is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. The pattern observed in the immunofluorescence microscopy resembled structures similar to Russell bodies (modifications of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes) recently described in yeast. When the wild type H+-ATPase was co-expressed with the mutant, wild type H+-ATPase was also retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-expression of both ATPases in a wild type yeast strain was lethal, demonstrating that this is a dominant negative mutant.
Biochemistry and Cell Biology 02/2000; 78(1):51-8. · 2.92 Impact Factor