[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis is related to hyperglycemia in mammals with insulin resistance. Despite the strong evidences linking Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) gene mutations to development of Type 2 diabetes, the precise physiological functions of KLF11 in vivo remain largely unknown.
In current investigation, we showed that KLF11 is involved in modulating hepatic glucose metabolism in mice. Overexpression of KLF11 in primary mouse hepatocytes could inhibit the expression of gluconeogenic genes, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (cytosolic isoform, PEPCK-C) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), subsequently decreasing the cellular glucose output. Diabetic mice with overexpression of KLF11 gene in livers significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance; in contrast, the knockdown of KLF11 expression in db/m and C57BL/6J mice livers impaired glucose tolerance.
Our data strongly indicated the involvement of KLF11 in hepatic glucose homeostasis via modulating the expression of PEPCK-C.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e89552. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder strongly associated with hepatic glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The trefoil peptides are a family of small regulatory proteins and Tff3 is widely expressed in multiple tissues including liver. But the roles of Tff3 in regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in liver remain unclear. Here we show that the hepatic Tff3 expression levels were decreased in ob/ob and high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Overexpression of Tff3 in primary mouse hepatocytes inhibited the expression of gluconeogenic genes, including G6pc, PEPCK and PGC-1α, subsequently decreasing cellular glucose output. GTT and ITT experiments revealed that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Tff3 in diabetic or obese mice improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Collectively, our results indicated that Tff3 peptides are involved in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, providing a promising peptide on new therapies against the metabolic disorders associated with T2DM.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75240. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Missense mutations in human Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) lead to the development of diabetes as a result of impaired insulin synthesis in the pancreas. However, the role of KLF11 in peripheral tissues is largely unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of KLF11 in the regulation of hepatic lipid homeostasis using different mouse models. METHODS: Adenoviruses expressing KLF11 (Ad-KLF11) or KLF11-specific shRNA (Ad-shKLF11) were injected into db/db diabetic, high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO), or normal C57BL/6J mice. Histological analysis of fatty liver phenotype and biochemical analysis of hepatic and serum TG levels in these mice were performed. The molecular mechanism by which KLF11 regulates lipid metabolism in primary hepatocytes and mice livers was explored. RESULTS: The expression of the transcription factor KLF11 gene is dysregulated in the livers of db/db and DIO mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of KLF11 in the livers of db/db and DIO mice activates the PPARα signaling pathway, subsequently markedly improving the fatty liver phenotype. Conversely, knockdown of KLF11 by adenovirus (Ad-shKLF11) in livers of wild-type C57BL/6J and db/m mice increases hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels, owing to decreased fatty acid oxidation. Finally, the treatment of diabetic mice with Ad-shPPARα abolishes the KLF11 stimulatory effects on expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and inhibitory effects on hepatic TG content. In contrast, PPARα rescue restores the increased hepatic TG levels in Ad-shKLF11-infected db/m mice to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS: KLF11 is an important regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism.
Journal of Hepatology 11/2012; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS: The expression levels of microRNA-29 (miR-29) family members (miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-29c, here denoted collectively as miR-29a-c) are increased in livers of Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats and db/db diabetic mice. However, the functional consequences of miR-29a-c upregulation in diabetic livers are not explored. The objective of this study is to evaluate the roles of miR-29a-c in the regulation of hepatic glucose production and blood glucose levels using different mouse models. METHODS: db/m, db/db diabetic and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were injected with adenovirus expressing miR-29a-c through tail vein. Blood glucose levels were measured and glucose-tolerance tests and pyruvate-tolerance tests were performed. To explore the molecular mechanism by which miR-29a-c regulate hepatic glucose metabolism, gain or loss of miR-29a-c function studies were performed in primary mouse hepatocytes and the direct effectors of miR-29-mediated effects on glucose metabolism were identified. RESULTS: Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-29a-c in the livers of db/m, db/db and DIO mice decreased fasting blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance. Overexpression of miR-29a-c in primary hepatocytes and mouse livers decreased the protein levels of PGC-1α and G6Pase, the direct targets of miR-29a-c, thereby reducing cellular and hepatic glucose production. In contrast, loss of miR-29a-c function in primary hepatocytes increased the protein levels of PGC-1α and G6Pase and increased cellular glucose production. Finally, enforced expression of PGC-1α increased miR-29a-c expression levels in primary hepatocytes, thus forming a negative feedback regulation loop. CONCLUSIONS: miR-29a-c can regulate hepatic glucose production and glucose tolerance in mice.
Journal of Hepatology 10/2012; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) is associated with increased liver fat content and liver injury. Here, we show that nutritional status regulates PNPLA3 gene expression in the mouse liver. Sterol response element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) activated PNPLA3 gene transcription via sterol regulatory elements (SREs) mapped to the promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that SREBP-1 proteins bound to the identified SREs. Furthermore, SREBP-1c mediated the insulin and liver X receptor agonist TO901317-dependent induction of PNPLA3 gene expression in hepatocytes. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of mouse PNPLA3 increased intracellular triglyceride content in primary hepatocytes, and knockdown of PNPLA3 suppressed the ability of SREBP-1c to stimulate lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Finally, the overexpression of PNPLA3 in mouse liver increased the serum triglyceride level and impaired glucose tolerance; in contrast, the knockdown of PNPLA3 in db/db mouse liver improved glucose tolerance. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that mouse PNPLA3, which is a lipogenic gene directly targeted by SREBP-1, promotes lipogenesis in primary hepatocytes and influences systemic lipid and glucose metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the Cide [cell death-inducing DFFA (DNA fragmentation factor-alpha)-like effector] gene family have been reported to be associated with lipid metabolism. In the present study, we show that Cidea mRNA levels are markedly reduced by fasting and are restored upon refeeding in mouse livers. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, the promoter region of the mouse Cidea gene was analysed and a putative SRE (sterol-regulatory element) was identified. Studies using luciferase reporter constructs together with electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of SREBP-1c (SRE-binding protein 1c) to the putative SRE. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SREBP-1c led to a dramatic increase in Cidea mRNA. In contrast with the induction of Cidea expression by insulin and TO901317 in wild-type mouse hepatocytes, the stimulatory effects were lost in hepatocytes prepared from SREBP-1c-null mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Cidea in hepatocytes promoted lipid accumulation and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) storage; however, knockdown of Cidea compromised the ability of SREBP-1c to stimulate lipid accumulation. Taken together, these results suggest that SREBP-1c directly mediates the effect of insulin on Cidea in hepatocytes and that Cidea, at least in part, mediates SREBP-1c-dependent lipid accumulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) coactivator-1 beta (PGC-1 beta) is a well-established regulator of the beta-oxidation of fatty acids and the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. However, the underlying mechanism of PGC-1 beta action remains elusive. This study reveals that PGC-1 beta is highly induced during myogenic differentiation and knockdown of endogenous PGC-1 beta by siRNA leads to a decrease in the expression of several mitochondria-related genes. In consistence, the over-expression of PGC-1 beta stimulates its target genes such as cytochrome c, ATP synthase beta and ALAS-1 by its interaction with two transcriptional factors, NRF-1 and ERR alpha. The deletion or mutation of NRF-1 and/or ERR alpha binding sites in target gene promoters attenuates their activation by PGC-1 beta. Moreover, inhibition of NRF-1 or ERR alpha by siRNA ablated the aforesaid function of PGC-1 beta and compromised the oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Taken together, these results confirm the direct interaction of NRF-1 and ERR alpha with PGC-1 beta, and their participation in mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration.