[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anandamide monounsaturated analogue oleoylethanolamide (OEA) acts as satiety signal released from enterocytes upon the ingestion of dietary fats to prolong the interval to the next meal. This effect, which requires intact vagal fibers and intestinal PPAR-alpha receptors, is coupled to the increase of c-fos and oxytocin mRNA expression in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and is prevented by the intracerebroventricular administration of a selective oxytocin antagonist, thus suggesting a necessary role of oxytocinergic neurotransmission in the pro-satiety effect of OEA. By brain microdialysis and immunohistochemistry, in this study we demonstrate that OEA treatment can stimulate oxytocin neurosecretion from the PVN and enhance oxytocin expression at both axonal and somatodendritic levels of hypothalamic neurons. Such effects, which are maximum two hours after OEA administration, support the hypothesis that the satiety-inducing action of OEA is mediated by the activation of oxytocin hypothalamic neurons.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant acting as an MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor agonist/5-HT2C serotonin receptor antagonist. Because of its peculiar pharmacological profile, this drug caters the potential to correct the abnormalities of circadian rhythms associated with mood disorders, including abnormalities of the sleep/wake cycle. Here, we examined the effect of chronic agomelatine treatment on sleep architecture and circadian rhythms of motor activity using the rat model of prenatal restraint stress (PRS) as a putative 'aetiological' model of depression. PRS was delivered to the mothers during the last 10 d of pregnancy. The adult progeny ('PRS rats') showed a reduced duration of slow wave sleep, an increased duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, an increased number of REM sleep events and an increase in motor activity before the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. In addition, adult PRS rats showed an increased expression of the transcript of the primary response gene, c-Fos, in the hippocampus just prior to the beginning of the dark phase. All these changes were reversed by a chronic oral treatment with agomelatine (2000 ppm in the diet). The effect of agomelatine on sleep was largely attenuated by treatment with the MT1/MT2 melatonin receptor antagonist, S22153, which caused PRS-like sleep disturbances on its own. These data provide the first evidence that agomelatine corrects sleep architecture and restores circadian homeostasis in a preclinical model of depression and supports the value of agomelatine as a novel antidepressant that resynchronizes circadian rhythms under pathological conditions.
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 02/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deficits in glutamate neurotransmission and mitochondrial functions were detected in the frontal cortex (FC) and hippopcampus (HIPP) of aged 3×Tg-Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice, compared with their wild type littermates (non-Tg). In particular, basal levels of glutamate and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) expression were reduced in both areas. Cortical glutamate release responded to K(+) stimulation, whereas no peak release was observed in the HIPP of mutant mice. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) and excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) were reduced in HIPP homogenates, where the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was lower. In contrast, glutamate transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were found to be higher in the frontal cortex. The respiration rates of complex-I, II, IV, and the membrane potential were reduced in cortical mitochondria, where unaltered proton leak, F(0)F(1)-ATPase activity and ATP content, with increased hydrogen peroxide production (H(2)O(2)), were also observed. In contrast, complex-I respiration rate was significantly increased in hippocampal mitochondria, together with increased proton leak and H(2)O(2) production. Moreover, loss of complex-IV and F(0)F(1)-ATPase activities were observed. These data suggest that impairments of mitochondrial bioenergetics might sustain the failure in the energy-requiring glutamatergic transmission.
Neurobiology of aging 10/2011; 33(6):1121.e1-12. · 5.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a biologically active lipid amide that is released by small-intestinal enterocytes during the absorption of dietary fat and inhibits feeding by engaging the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha). Previous studies have shown that the anorexic effects of systemically administered OEA require the activation of sensory afferents of the vagus nerve. The central circuits involved in mediating OEA-induced hypophagia remain unknown. In the present study, we report the results of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments in rats and mice, which show that systemic injections of OEA (5-10 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneal) enhance expression of the neuropeptide oxytocin in magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. No such effect is observed with other hypothalamic neuropeptides, including vasopressin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and pro-opiomelanocortin. The increase in oxytocin expression elicited by OEA was absent in mutant PPAR-alpha-null mice. Pharmacological blockade of oxytocin receptors in the brain by intracerebroventricular infusion of the selective oxytocin antagonist, L-368,899, prevented the anorexic effects of OEA. The results suggest that OEA suppresses feeding by activating central oxytocin transmission.
Journal of Neuroscience 06/2010; 30(24):8096-101. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid amide produced by enterocytes upon the absorption of dietary fat and participates in the induction of satiety. Through indirect pathways, probably depending on the local activation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and involving afferent vagus nerve fibers, OEA signal is transmitted to the brain-stem and the hypothalamus, where it stimulates the release of oxytocin from magnocellular neurons.
OEA mechanism might, thus, provide a novel target for the design of therapies controlling appetite.
Drug Discovery Today Disease Mechanisms 01/2010; 7(3).