[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To monitor and characterize oseltamivir-resistant (OR) pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with the H275Y mutation, we analyzed 4,307 clinical specimens from Japan by neuraminidase (NA) sequencing or inhibition assay; 61 OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses were detected. NA inhibition assay and M2 sequencing indicated that OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was resistant to M2 inhibitors, but sensitive to zanamivir. Full-genome sequencing showed OR and oseltamivir-sensitive (OS) viruses had high sequence similarity, indicating that domestic OR virus was derived from OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Hemagglutination inhibition test demonstrated that OR and OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses were antigenically similar to the A/California/7/2009 vaccine strain. Of 61 case-patients with OR viruses, 45 received oseltamivir as treatment, and 10 received it as prophylaxis, which suggests that most cases emerged sporadically from OS pandemic (H1N1) 2009, due to selective pressure. No evidence of sustained spread of OR pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was found in Japan; however, 2 suspected incidents of human-to-human transmission were reported.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In March 2009, pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A(H1N1)pdm) emerged in Mexico and the United States. In Japan, since the first outbreak of A(H1N1)pdm in Osaka and Hyogo Prefectures occurred in the middle of May 2009, the virus had spread over 16 of 47 prefectures as of June 4, 2009.
We analyzed all-segment concatenated genome sequences of 75 isolates of A(H1N1)pdm viruses in Japan, and compared them with 163 full-genome sequences in the world. Two analyzing methods, distance-based and Bayesian coalescent MCMC inferences were adopted to elucidate an evolutionary relationship of the viruses in the world and Japan. Regardless of the method, the viruses in the world were classified into four distinct clusters with a few exceptions. Cluster 1 was originated earlier than cluster 2, while cluster 2 was more widely spread around the world. The other two clusters (clusters 1.2 and 1.3) were suggested to be distinct reassortants with different types of segment assortments. The viruses in Japan seemed to be a multiple origin, which were derived from approximately 28 transported cases. Twelve cases were associated with monophyletic groups consisting of Japanese viruses, which were referred to as micro-clade. While most of the micro-clades belonged to the cluster 2, the clade of the first cases of infection in Japan originated from cluster 1.2. Micro-clades of Osaka/Kobe and the Fukuoka cases, both of which were school-wide outbreaks, were eradicated. Time of most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for each micro-clade demonstrated that some distinct viruses were transmitted in Japan between late May and early June, 2009, and appeared to spread nation-wide throughout summer.
Our results suggest that many viruses were transmitted from abroad in late May 2009 irrespective of preventive actions against the pandemic influenza, and that the influenza A(H1N1)pdm had become a pandemic stage in June 2009 in Japan.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(6):e11057. · 3.73 Impact Factor