Badrish Soni

Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidhyanagar, Gujarāt, India

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Publications (10)25.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have evaluated in vitro cytotoxicity of cyanobacterial phycoerythrin (C-PE) on three human cell lines by cell proliferation and neutral red uptake assays. No toxic effects of C-PE were observed to any of the cell lines tested. The protective role of purified C-PE to potassium permanganate-mediated human fibroblast-DNA damage was assessed by comet assay at 0 (control), 10 and 20 microg C-PE ml(-1) doses in pre-, simultaneous and post-mutagen exposure conditions. Significant DNA damage was detected only in post-mutagen exposure conditions. Our findings confirmed that the C-PE is non-toxic and provides protection against permanganate-mediated DNA damage. The preliminary acute (2000 mg C-PE kg(-1) body weight, b.w.) and 90 day sub-chronic (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg C-PE kg(-1) b.w./day) oral toxicity studies of purified C-PE in male albino rats showed no mortality or treatment-related major clinical signs, and all the doses of C-PE were well tolerated. The no observed adverse effect level and no observed effect level were found to be 15 and 5 mg C-PE kg(-1) b.w./day respectively.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 08/2010; 30(6):542-50. · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The rod-like phycobilisome (PBS) in cyanobacterium is the light-harvesting complex of phycoerythrin (PE), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC). The orderly degradation of PBS was observed under starvation conditions. A 14 kDa truncated fragment of a-subunit of PE (F-aPE) was identified from the degraded product. F-aPE was purified to homogeneity, sequenced and crystallized. The merohedrally twinned crystals with a twinning factor of approximately 0.5 were obtained. The crystal structure of F-aPE was determined with molecular replacement method using detwinned data and refined to an R cryst factor of 23.2% (R free = 27.6%). The structure consisted of two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The two molecules were designated as molecules A and B with a buried area of 200 Å 2 at the interface. The structure of F-aPE consists of seven a-helices A, B, E, F, F 0 , G and H. The first 31 N-terminal residues that fold into parallel a-helices X and Y in other PEs are not present in the amino acid sequence of F-aPE. Both molecules, A and B contain two chromophore ligands, PEB1 and PEB2 in each. These are covalently linked to the polypeptide chain through Cys82 and Cys139, respectively. The superimposition of C a tracings of molecules A and B shows an r.m.s. shift of 1.0 Å A 0 indicating that the structures of two independent molecules are very similar. The degradation of phycobilisome proteins under starvation stress seems to occur to supplement the requirement of amino acids for protein synthe-sis and to reduce the absorption of light energy.
    Journal of Structural Biology 04/2010; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorophytum borivilianum is a very popular herb in traditional Indian medicine and used as a potent "Rasayana" drug in "Ayurveda" as a rejuvenator. Currently, a large body of evidence supports the key role of free radicals in diverse pathological conditions such as aging and atherosclerosis. The present investigation essentially focuses on the comprehensive account of in vitro antioxidant activity exerted by C.borivilianum root extracts (i.e., aqueous and ethanolic), to clarify the pharmacological antagonism of chemicals/metals-mediated oxidation. Graded-dose (25 to 1000 microg/ml) of aqueous extract exhibited higher antioxidant potency as evidenced by powerful nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl, DPPH and ABTS(*+) radicals scavenging activity along with reducing capacity (Fe(3+)/ferricyanide complex and FRAP assays), metal chelating ability, as well as markedly suppressed the lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial fractions as compared to ethanolic extract. Further, aqueous extract significantly decreased (P < 0.05) copper-mediated human serum and kinetics of LDL oxidation, as demonstrated by prolongation of lag phase time with decline of oxidation rate, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In addition, the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of aqueous extract were higher than that of ethanolic extract, which indicated a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and contents of total phenols. The IC(50) values of both extracts were also compared with appropriate antioxidant standards. Overall, aqueous extract of C.borivilianum root has significant powerful antioxidant activity and may favorably affect atherosclerosis risk status by reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility.
    Drug and Chemical Toxicology 04/2010; 33(2):173-82. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An emerging consensus underscores the importance of oxidative events in vascular disease including excess production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), in addition to lipoprotein oxidation. Sesamum indicum has long been used extensively as a traditional food. The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant action of aqueous and ethanolic seed extracts from S. indicum using various in vitro ROS/RNS generated chemical and biological models. Results demonstrated that the graded-dose (25-1000 microg/ml) of aqueous and ethanolic extracts markedly scavenged the nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals and, showed metal chelating ability as well as reducing capacity in Fe(3+)/ferricyanide complex and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. In biological models, both extracts were found to inhibit metal-induced lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial fractions, human serum and LDL oxidation models. In lipoprotein kinetics study, both extracts significantly (P<0.05) increased lag phase time along with reduced oxidation rate and conjugated dienes production. Ethanolic extract of S. indicum showed higher amounts of total polyphenol and flavonoid content as compared to their counterpart. The IC(50) values of both extracts were compared with respective antioxidant standards. Overall, ethanolic extract of S. indicum possess strong antioxidant capacity and offering effective protection against LDL oxidation susceptibility.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2009; 47(10):2507-15. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant property of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts using in vitro models. The dose-dependent aqueous and ethanolic extracts demonstrated the scavenging activity against nitric oxide (concentration that caused 50% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals [IC(50)]=72 and 62.1 microg/ml, respectively), superoxide (IC(50)=64.2 and 38.4 microg/ml, respectively), hydroxyl (IC(50)=81.9 and 63 microg/ml, respectively), DPPH (IC(50)=43.6 and 28.3 microg/ml, respectively) and ABTS(*+) (IC(50)=77.3 and 57.2 microg/ml, respectively) radicals. Further, both extracts showed strong reducing power and iron-chelating capacities. In the Fe(2+)/ascorbate system, both extracts were found to inhibit mitochondrial fraction lipid peroxidation. In copper-catalyzed human serum and low-density lipoprotein oxidation models, both extracts significantly (P<0.05) lengthened the lag phase along with a decline in the oxidation rate, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance formation. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of G. glabra possess considerable antioxidant activity and protective effect against the human lipoprotein oxidative system.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 05/2009; 60 Suppl 2:135-49. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the protective role of purified C-phycoerythrin (C-PE) against diabetic complications and Cu-mediated lipoprotein oxidation was evaluated. C-PE (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight per d) was administered to experimental streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats for 28 d. C-PE treatment successfully ameliorated diabetic complications by decreasing food intake, organ weights, serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, TAG, VLDL-cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), with increases in body weight, Hb, total protein, bilirubin and ferric-reducing ability of plasma values. Hepatic and renal tissues demonstrated significant decreases in TBARS, lipid hydroperoxide and conjugated diene contents, with increases in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin E and vitamin C levels. Furthermore, the 4-week ex vivo and in vitro administration of C-PE (0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) indicated a decrease in Cu-mediated serum oxidation. The kinetics of the LDL oxidation profile showed significant prolongation of the lag phase with declines in oxidation rate, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS. Results indicated the involvement of C-PE in the amelioration of diabetic complications by significant reductions in oxidative stress and oxidised LDL-triggered atherogenesis.
    The British journal of nutrition 02/2009; 102(1):102-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical and experimental data showed the involvement of reactive oxygen species/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in many human pathophysiological conditions. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous (ARA) and ethanolic extracts (ARE) of Asparagus racemosus (AR) root were evaluated in a series of in vitro assays including ROS generation in chemicals and biological model systems. The dose-dependent ARA and ARE extracts showed the scavenging activity against DPPH (IC50 = 60.7 and 52.5 microg/ml), nitric oxide (IC50 = 141.9 and 63.4 microg/ml), superoxide (IC50 = 221 and 89.4 microg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 = 318.7 and 208.8 microg/ml) and ABTS.+ (IC50 = 134.5 and 71.9 microg/ml) radicals. The antioxidant capacity of ARA and ARE were assessed for their reducing power using FRAP (Ferric Reducing antioxidant power) and potassium ferricyanide reducing methods as well as free radical scavenging capacity by TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) method. ARA and ARE extracts were also found to be effective at suppressing lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/ascorbate system in rat liver mitochondrial preparation (IC50 = 511.7 and 309.2 microg/ml, respectively). Further, ARA and ARE root extracts significantly decreased (P < 0.05) copper-mediated human LDL oxidation by prolongation of lag phase time with decline in oxidation rate, maximal yield of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde concentrations. The addition of ARA and ARE root extracts to human serum significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the formation of lipid peroxidation in medium. Trolox, alpha-tocopherol and mannitol were tested similarly to compare their antioxidant activities. In conclusion, antioxidant activity of ARE as compared to ARA extract is more effective which act as hydrogen donors, metal ion chelators, reducing agents, radical scavengers and anti-lipid peroxidative. These effects are attributed to the high amount of lipophilic phenolics content of ARE root extract.
    Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France) 01/2009; 55 Suppl:OL1083-95. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) is largely used as solvent in chemical industries. Carbon tetrachloride is also well known for hepatic and renal toxic actions. The in vivo metabolism of carbon tetrachloride to trichloromethyl (CCl(3)) and peroxy trichloromethyl (OOCCl(3)) radicals has been extensively reported to cause acute liver damage like cirrhosis, steatosis and necrosis. We have evaluated protective action of purified cyanobacterial phycoerythrin (C-PE) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in male rats. Rats were orally treated with 25 and 50mg/kg BW of C-PE along with CCl(4) (50% CCl(4), 0.5 ml/kg BW, intraperitoneally) for 28 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that C-PE dose-responsively ameliorates CCl(4)-toxicity by significantly decreasing (P<0.05) organs weight, aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, lipid profile, creatinine, uric acid and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations with rise in body weight, food intake, hemoglobin, protein, bilirubin and FRAP values. Neither C-PE nor CCl(4) influenced on serum minerals. Hepatic and renal tissues showed significant decline (P<0.05) in malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes with rise in SOD, catalase, GPx, GSH, vitamin-E and vitamin-C levels. Presently observed pharmacological effect on CCl(4) toxicity were from tetrapyrrole molecule and to some extent bilirubin biotransformations, as well as metabolic (dietary protein) actions of C-PE.
    Toxicology 06/2008; 248(1):59-65. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phycocyanin--a major phycobiliprotein constitutively produced by many cyanobacteria--holds several promising applications in diagnostics, biomedical research, and therapeutics. This paper discusses a novel rapid method for the purification of cyanobacterial phycocyanin (C-PC) from Phormidium fragile using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The protein was extracted and concentrated by grinding under liquid nitrogen and ammonium sulfate fractionation. C-PC was purified by single step hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Purified phycocyanin showed absorbance maximum (lambda(max)) at 624 nm. The criterion of purity (R) achieved was 4.52. Phycocyanin to phycoerythrin and phycocyanin to allophycocyanin purity ratio were 3.85 and 7.49, respectively. The purified protein showed a pI of 5.2 and has two subunits with molecular mass of 19 and 20 kDa each, corresponding to its highly reported alpha and beta subunits. The subunits of phycocyanin were confirmed by their bilin fluorescence using zinc assisted fluorescence enhancement technique. Intact C-PC was of 125 kDa as determined by HPLC, suggested the (alphabeta)(3) subunit assembly. Results obtained by this method in terms of purity, recovery, process time, simplicity, and efficacy are much better than previous methodologies. Purified phycocyanin was further scrutinized for its antioxidant capacity and judged against five non-enzymatic antioxidants by FRAP assay.
    Bioresource Technology 02/2008; 99(1):188-94. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phycocyanin is a major phycobiliprotein produced by cyanobacteria, but only few strains for its efficient purification have been reported until now. In the present study, we discussed the extraction, purification and characterization of C-phycocyanin from a novel isolate Oscillatoria quadripunctulata. The phycocyanin was extracted by repeated freeze–thaw cycles and purified by a three-step process: ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-150 size exclusion chromatography and DEAE cellulose ion exchange chromatography. Purified phycocyanin showed absorbance maxima at 620 nm. A purity ratio (R) of 3.31 was achieved. The phycocyanin to phycoerythrin and phycocyanin to allophycocyanin ratio were 4.90 and 3.92, respectively. The recovery efficiency of C-phycocyanin from crude extract was above 68%. Twenty milligram pure phycocyanin was obtained from 10 g of dried cell mass. The purified protein showed pI of 5.0. The purity was checked by gel electrophoresis and UV-vis spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determined the molecular weight of intact phycocyanin to be 215 kDa, whereas denaturing gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two bands of 19 and 20 kDa molecular mass, indicating the characteristic (αβ)6 subunit assembly of phycocyanin. Zinc-assisted fluorescence enhancement further confirmed that both subunits are bilin-linked polypeptides.
    Process Biochemistry. 01/2006;