Janis Beaird

University of West Alabama, Alabama, United States

Are you Janis Beaird?

Claim your profile

Publications (2)3.31 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. However, the studies on which chromium's status are based are methodologically flawed. Whether chromium is an essential element has been examined for the first time in carefully controlled metal-free conditions using a series of purified diets containing various chromium contents. Male Zucker lean rats were housed in specially designed metal-free cages for 6 months and fed the AIN-93G diet with no added chromium in the mineral mix component of the diet, the standard AIN-93G diet, the standard AIN-93G diet supplemented with 200 μg Cr/kg, or the standard AIN-93G diet supplemented with 1,000 μg Cr/kg. The chromium content of the diet had no effect on body mass or food intake. Similarly, the chromium content of the diet had no effect on glucose levels in glucose tolerance or insulin tolerance tests. However, a distinct trend toward lower insulin levels under the curve after a glucose challenge was observed with increasing chromium content in the diet; rats on the supplemented AIN-93G diets had significantly lower areas (P < 0.05) than rats on the low-chromium diet. The studies reveal that a diet with as little chromium as reasonably possible had no effect on body composition, glucose metabolism, or insulin sensitivity compared with a chromium-"sufficient" diet. Together with the results of other recent studies, these results clearly indicate that chromium can no longer be considered an essential element.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 11/2010; 16(3):381-90. DOI:10.1007/s00775-010-0734-y · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids (ILs; salts with melting points below 100 degrees C) exhibit wide liquid ranges, non-flammability, and thermal stability among other properties. These unique salts are best known as "green" alternatives to traditional volatile organic solvents, which are utilized in both academia and industry. Our current study compares the developmental toxicity potential of three representative ionic liquids, with various chain lengths: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(2)mim]Cl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl), and 1-decyl-3methylimidazolium chloride ([C(10)mim]Cl). From gestation days (GD) 6-16, mated CD-1 mice were orally dosed with one of the following: 1,000, 2,000, or 3,000 mg/kg/day [C(2)mim]Cl; 113, 169, or 225 mg/kg/day [C(4)mim]Cl; 50, 75, or 100 mg/kg/day [C(10)mim]Cl; or the vehicle only. Dams were sacrificed on GD 17, and their litters were examined for adverse effects. Fetal weight was significantly decreased in the two highest dosage groups exposed to [C(4)mim]Cl and [C(10)mim]Cl in comparison with their controls, but the [C(2)mim]Cl treated groups were not affected. An apparent teratogenic effect was associated with both [C(4)mim]Cl and [C(10)mim]Cl, as the offspring exhibited certain uncommon morphological defects. However, the incidences of malformations were low and no correlation between incidence and dosage could be made. No morphological defects were observed in any of the [C(2)mim]Cl-treated groups, despite maternal morbidity at the highest dosage level. This study indicates that [C(4)mim]Cl and [C(10)mim]Cl may have adverse effects on development at high maternal exposures and strongly supports the supposition that the toxicity of imidazolium-based ILs is influenced by alkyl chain length.
    Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 06/2010; 89(3):233-8. DOI:10.1002/bdrb.20251 · 0.77 Impact Factor