ABSTRACT: The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide (NOP) receptor was reported to be functionally heterogeneous. We investigated if [Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11), a peptide ligand reported to selectively bind to the high affinity site of (125)I-[Tyr(14)]N/OFQ in rodent brains, can be a tool for revealing the NOP receptor heterogeneity. We have previously founded an NOP receptor subset insensitive to Ro 64-6198 and (+)-5a Compound, two non-peptide NOP agonists, in rat ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) neurons. Here, we examined if [Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11) differentiated (+)-5a Compound-sensitive and -insensitive vlPAG neurons. Certain mu-opioid (MOP) receptor ligands highly competing with [Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11) in binding studies also showed high affinity at expressed heteromeric NOP-MOP receptors. We also examined if [Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11) distinguished heteromeric NOP-MOP receptors from homomeric NOP receptors.
The NOP receptor activity was evaluated by G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) currents in rat vlPAG slices, and by inhibition of cAMP accumulation in HEK293 cells expressing NOP receptors or co-expressing NOP and MOP receptors.
In vlPAG neurons, [Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11), like N/OFQ, induced GIRK currents through NOP receptors. It was less potent (EC(50): 8.98μM) but equi-efficacious as N/OFQ. [Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11) displayed different pharmacological profiles as (+)-5a Compound, and was effective in both (+)-5a Compound-sensitive and -insensitive neurons. In NOP-expressing HEK293 cells and NOP- and MOP-co-expressing cells, [Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11) displayed similar concentration-response curves in decreasing cAMP accumulation.
[Tyr(10)]N/OFQ(1-11) is an NOP full agonist and less potent than N/OFQ. However, it can neither reveal the functional heterogeneity of NOP receptors in vlPAG neurons nor differentiate heteromeric NOP-MOP and homomeric NOP receptors.
Life sciences 12/2011; 90(7-8):306-12. · 2.56 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Methadone and buprenorphine are used in maintenance therapy for heroin addicts. In this study, we compared their effects on adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably overexpressing human μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and nociceptin/opioid receptor-like 1 receptor (ORL1) simultaneously. After acute exposure, methadone inhibited AC activity; however, buprenorphine induced compromised AC inhibition. When naloxone was introduced after 30 min incubation with methadone, the AC activity was enhanced. This was not observed in the case of buprenorphine. Enhancement of the AC activity was more significant when the incubation lasted for 4 h, and prolonged exposure to buprenorphine elevated the AC activity as well. The removal of methadone and buprenorphine by washing also obtained similar AC superactivation as that revealed by naloxone challenge. The study demonstrated that methadone and buprenorphine exert initially different yet eventually convergent adaptive changes of AC activity in cells coexpressing human MOR and ORL1 receptors.
Neurochemical Research 06/2011; 36(11):2008-21. · 2.24 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Abuse of addictive substances is a serious problem that has a significant impact on areas such as health, the economy, and public safety. Heroin use among young women of reproductive age has drawn much attention around the world. However, there is a lack of information on effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on their offspring. In this study, an animal model was established to study effects of prenatal exposure to opioids on offspring.
Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were sub-grouped to receive (1) vehicle, (2) 2-4 mg/kg morphine (1 mg/kg increment per week), (3) 7 mg/kg methadone, and (4) 3 mg/kg buprenorphine, subcutaneously, once or twice a day from E3 to E20. The experiments were conducted on animals 8-12 weeks old and with body weight between 250 and 350 g.
Results showed that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine caused higher mortality than other tested substance groups. Although we observed a significantly lower increase in body weight in all of the opioid-administered dams, the birth weight of the offspring was not altered in all treated groups. Moreover, no obvious behavioral abnormality or body-weight difference was noted during the growing period (8-12 weeks) in all offspring. When the male offspring received morphine injection twice a day for 4 days, the prenatally opioid-exposed rats more quickly developed a tolerance to morphine (as shown by the tail-flick tests), most notably the prenatally buprenorphine-exposed offspring. However, the tolerance development to methadone or buprenorphine was not different in offspring exposed prenatally to methadone or buprenorphine, respectively, when compared with that of the vehicle controlled group. Similar results were also obtained in the female animals.
Animals prenatally exposed to morphine, methadone, or buprenorphine developed tolerance to morphine faster than their controlled mates. In our animal model, prenatal exposure to buprenorphine also resulted in higher mortality and much less sensitivity to morphine-induced antinociception than prenatal exposure to morphine or methadone. This indicates that buprenorphine in higher doses may not be an ideal maintenance drug for treating pregnant women. This study provides a reference in selecting doses for clinical usage in treating pregnant heroin addicts.
Journal of Biomedical Science 01/2010; 17:46. · 2.01 Impact Factor