Kazuki Orime

Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (15)58.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The glucokinase-induced upregulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) plays an important role in β cell adaptive proliferation in response to high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the role of IRS-2 in the proliferation of β cells following a 60% partial pancreatectomy. IRS-2 deficient (IRS-2(-/-)) mice or wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to a pancreatectomy (60% partial pancreatectomy) or a sham operation (Sham). The β cell proliferation and gene expression profiles of the islets were then assessed. Gene expression in islets from pancreatectomized and sham-operated C57BL/6J male mice was analyzed using a cDNA microarray analysis. To compare with β cell proliferation induced by a high-fat diet, Gck(+/-) mice subjected to a pancreatectomy were also analyzed. The IRS-2(-/-) mice exhibited β cell expansion and a significant increase in β cell proliferation after the pancreatectomy, compared with the Sham group. Although glucose stimulated insulin secretion from islets was not impaired, IRS-2(-/-) mice manifested severe hyperglycemia after the pancreatectomy. The expression levels of Aurora kinase B (AurkB), Cyclin A, and Cyclin B1 in the pancreatectomized islets were also enhanced in the IRS-2(-/-) mice. A gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) suggested an association between the genes that were upregulated in the pancreatectomized islets and those involved in M phase progression in the cell cycle. β cell proliferation after a pancreatectomy was observed even in the Gck(+/-) mice. In conclusion, IRS-2 was not required for β cell proliferation, but might be needed for functional β cell mass, after a pancreatectomy. A partial pancreatectomy in mice may be an attractive model for the development of new strategy for exploring the unique nature of β cell proliferation.
    Endocrinology 02/2014; · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing with the growing epidemics of obesity and diabetes. NAFLD encompasses a clinicopathologic spectrum of disease ranging from isolated hepatic steatosis to NASH, which is a more aggressive form of fatty liver disease, to cirrhosis and finally, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The exact mechanism behind the development of HCC in NASH remains unclear; however it has been established that hepatic steatosis is the important risk factor in the development of HCC. Metformin has recently drawn attention because of its potential antitumor effect. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced liver tumorigenesis using a mouse model of NASH and liver tumor. Metformin prevented long-term HFD-induced liver tumorigenesis in C57Bl/6 mice. Of note, metformin failed to protect against liver tumorigenesis in mice that had already begun to develop NAFLD. Metformin improved short-term HFD-induced fat accumulation in the liver, associated with the suppression of adipose tissue inflammation. Collectively, these results suggest that metformin may prevent liver tumorigenesis via suppression of liver fat accumulation in the early stage, before the onset of NAFLD, which seems to be associated with a delay in the development of inflammation of the adipose tissue.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2013; · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The derangement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis triggers β-cell apoptosis, leading to diabetes. Glucokinase up-regulates IRS-2 expression in β cell, but the role of glucokinase and IRS-2 in ER stress has been unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of glucokinase activation by glucokinase activator (GKA) on ER stress in β cells. GKA administration improved β-cell apoptosis in Akita mice, a model of ER stress-mediated diabetes. GKA increased the expression of IRS-2 in β cells, even under ER stress. Both glucokinase-deficient Akita mice and IRS-2-deficient Akita mice exhibited an increase in β-cell apoptosis, compared with Akita mice. β-cell-specific IRS-2-overexpressing (βIRS2Tg) Akita mice showed less β-cell apoptosis than Akita mice. IRS-2-deficient islets were vulnerable, but βIRS2Tg islets were resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, GKA regulated the expressions of CHOP and other ER stress-related genes in an IRS-2-independent fashion in islets. GKA suppressed the expressions of CHOP and Bax and protected against β-cell apoptosis under ER stress in an ERK1/2-dependent, IRS-2-independent manner. Taken together, GKA ameliorated ER stress-mediated apoptosis by harmonizing IRS-2 upregulation and the IRS-2-independent control of apoptosis in β cells.
    Diabetes 06/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The precise role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a target of metformin, in pancreatic β cells remains controversial, even though metformin was recently shown to enhance the expression of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors) in pancreatic β cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of AMPK in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets. The phosphorylation of AMPK in the mouse islets was decreased by increasing glucose concentrations. We showed the expression of incretin receptors in bell-shaped response to glucose; Expression of the incretin receptors in the isolated islets showed higher levels under a medium glucose concentration (11.1 mM) than that under a low glucose concentration (2.8 mM), but was suppressed under a high glucose concentration (22.2 mM). Both treatment with an AMPK inhibitor and DN-AMPK expression produced a significant increase of the incretin receptors expression under a low glucose concentration. By contrast, in hyperglycemic db/db islets, the enhancing effect of the AMPK inhibitor on the expression of incretin receptors was diminished under a low glucose concentration. Taken together, AMPK is involved in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets under a low glucose concentration.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64633. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased β-cell mass is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, and therapeutic approaches to increase the pancreatic β-cell mass have been expected. In recent years, gastrointestinal incretin peptides have been shown to exert a cell-proliferative effect in pancreatic β-cells. Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2), which is predominantly expressed in the surface epithelium of the stomach, plays a role in antiapoptosis, migration, and proliferation. The TFF family is expressed in pancreatic β-cells, whereas the role of TFF2 in pancreatic β-cells has been obscure. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TFF2 enhances pancreatic β-cell proliferation. The effects of TFF2 on cell proliferation were evaluated in INS-1 cells, MIN6 cells, and mouse islets using an adenovirus vector containing TFF2 or a recombinant TFF2 peptide. The forced expression of TFF2 led to an increase in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in both INS-1 cells and islets, without any alteration in insulin secretion. TFF2 significantly increased the mRNA expression of cyclin A2, D1, D2, D3, and E1 in islets. TFF2 peptide increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and BrdU incorporation in MIN6 cells. A MAPK kinase inhibitor (U0126) abrogated the TFF2 peptide-mediated proliferation of MIN6 cells. A CX-chemokine receptor-4 antagonist also prevented the TFF2 peptide-mediated increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and BrdU incorporation in MIN6 cells. These results indicated that TFF2 is involved in β-cell proliferation at least partially via CX-chemokine receptor-4-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting TFF2 may be a novel target for inducing β-cell proliferation.
    Endocrinology 11/2012; · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Ezetimibe selectively blocks intestinal cholesterol absorption by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). In animals, ezetimibe reversed diet-induced obesity, liver steatosis, and insulin resistance. In humans, its potential effects on liver steatosis and insulin resistance have been suggested. We investigated the effects of ezetimibe on postprandial hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia in obese subjects with dyslipidaemia in a double-blind randomized crossover trial.Methods: Twenty obese men with hypertriglyceridaemia were assigned randomly to an ezetimibe- or a placebo-precedence-treated group. Subjects in the ezetimibe group were treated with ezetimibe (10 mg/day) for the first 4 weeks, followed by a 4-week interval and then treated with placebo for another 4 weeks. The placebo group received these treatments in reverse order. Subjects were requested to fast for at least 12 hours and then received a standard meal. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 480 minutes after the meal on Days 0, 28, 56 and 84 and were used to measure the lipid and glucose metabolism markers.Results: Ezetimibe significantly decreased the postprandial serum triglyceride excursion (p=0.01) and fasting serum LDL-C, remnant-like particles(RLP) and ApoB48 levels (p<0.05). Postprandial glucose excursion, serum insulin levels, serum glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were not significantly affected by ezetimibe treatment.Conclusion: Ezetimibe restored the postprandial dysregulation of lipid but did not affect glucose metabolism in a double-blind randomized crossover trial.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 08/2012; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is used to treat diabetes. A hallmark of liraglutide is the glucose-dependent facilitation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. In β-cells, the glycolytic enzyme glucokinase plays a pivotal role as a glucose sensor. However, the role of glucokinase in the glucose-dependent action of liraglutide remains unknown. We first examined the effects of liraglutide on glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck(+/-)) mice. Single administration of liraglutide significantly improved glucose tolerance in Gck(+/-) mice without increase of insulin secretion. We also assessed the effects of liraglutide on the survival rates, metabolic parameters, and histology of liver or pancreas of β-cell-specific glucokinase-deficient (Gck(-/-)) newborn mice. Liraglutide reduced the blood glucose levels in Gck(-/-) neonates but failed to prolong survival, and all the mice died within 1 wk. Furthermore, liraglutide did not improve glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated islets from Gck(-/-) neonates. Liraglutide initially prevented increases in alanine aminotransferase, free fatty acids, and triglycerides in Gck(-/-) neonates but not at 4 d after birth. Liraglutide transiently prevented liver steatosis, with reduced triglyceride contents and elevated glycogen contents in Gck(-/-) neonate livers at 2 d after birth. Liraglutide also protected against reductions in β-cells in Gck(-/-) neonates at 4 d after birth. Taken together, β-cell glucokinase appears to be essential for liraglutide-mediated insulin secretion, but liraglutide may improve glycemic control, steatosis, and β-cell death in a glucokinase-independent fashion.
    Endocrinology 05/2012; 153(7):3066-75. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated a possible association between serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels and renal dysfunction in 124 type 2 diabetes patients. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the PAI-1 levels were significantly inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) independent of albuminuria, BMI, LDL-C, and triglyceride.
    Diabetes research and clinical practice 04/2012; 97(1):e9-12. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated changes in the expression of genes involved in beta cell function and proliferation in mouse islets stimulated with glucokinase activator (GKA) in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which GKA stimulates beta cell function and proliferation. Islets isolated from mice were used to investigate changes in the expression of genes related to beta cell function and proliferation stimulated by GKA. In addition, Irs2 knockout (Irs2 (-/-)) mice on a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet containing GKA were used to investigate the effects of GKA on beta cell proliferation in vivo. In wild-type mice, Irs2 and Pdx1 expression was increased by GKA. In Irs2 (-/-) mice, GKA administration increased the glucose-stimulated secretion of insulin and Pdx1 expression, but not beta cell proliferation. It was particularly noteworthy that oxidative stress inhibited the upregulation of the Irs2 and Pdx1 genes induced by GKA. Moreover, whereas neither GKA alone nor exendin-4 alone upregulated the expression of Irs2 and Pdx1 in the islets of db/db mice, prior administration of exendin-4 to the mice caused GKA to increase the expression of these genes. GKA-stimulated IRS2 production affected beta cell proliferation but not beta cell function. Oxidative stress diminished the effects of GKA on the changes in expression of genes involved in beta cell function and proliferation. A combination of GKA and an incretin-related agent might therefore be effective in therapy.
    Diabetologia 03/2012; 55(6):1745-54. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by diminished pancreatic β-cell mass and function. Glucagon-like peptide-1 has been reported to increase islet cell proliferation and reduce apoptosis of β-cells in rodents. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic administration of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on glucose tolerance, β-cell function, and β-cell mass in Irs2-knockout (Irs2(-/-)) mice. Wild-type and Irs2(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet for 20 wk, with or without vildagliptin. In both genotypes of mice, vildagliptin significantly decreased the area under the curve (0-120 min) of blood glucose and increased the insulin response to glucose during the oral glucose tolerance test. In the oral glucose tolerance test performed 1 d after discontinuation of vildagliptin administration, the area under the curve (0-120 min) of blood glucose was still significantly decreased and the insulin response to glucose was significantly increased in the Irs2(-/-) mice treated with vildagliptin as compared with the values in the mice not treated with vildagliptin. Histochemical analysis of the pancreatic islets revealed significant increase of the β-cell mass and decrease in the proportion of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive β-cells but no significant increase of the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in Irs2(-/-) mice treated with vildagliptin. Our results suggest that vildagliptin improved glucose tolerance and increased the β-cell mass by reducing β-cell apoptosis in the Irs2(-/-) mice, and that the reduction of β-cell apoptosis by vildagliptin was independent of the Irs2 expression in the cells.
    Endocrinology 03/2012; 153(3):1093-102. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to high glucose and fatty acid levels caused by dietary sugar and fat intake induces β cell apoptosis, leading to the exacerbation of type 2 diabetes. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are two major dietary fatty acids, but their effects in diabetes are unclear. We challenged β cell-specific glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck(+/-)) mice with a diet containing sucrose and oleic acid (SO) or sucrose and linoleic acid (SL) and analyzed β cell apoptosis. In Gck(+/-) but not wild-type mice, SL significantly decreased the β cell mass and β cell proportion in islet cells arising from increased apoptosis to a greater degree than did SO. The mRNA expression of SREBP-1c was significantly higher, and that of E-cadherin was significantly lower in the islets of Gck(+/-) mice fed SL compared with mice fed SO. We next evaluated monotherapy with desfluorositagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, in these mouse groups. DPP-4 inhibitor protected against β cell apoptosis, restored the β cell mass, and normalized islet morphology in Gck(+/-) mice fed SL. DPP-4 inhibition normalized the changes in the islet expression of SREBP-1c and E-cadherin mRNA induced by the SL diet. Furthermore, linoleic acid induced β cell apoptosis to a greater degree in the presence of high glucose levels than in the presence of low glucose levels in vitro in islets and MIN6 cells, whereas a GLP-1 receptor agonist prevented apoptosis. In conclusion, SL exacerbated β cell apoptosis in diabetic Gck(+/-) mice but not in euglycemic wild-type mice, and DPP-4 inhibition protected against these effects.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(29):25467-76. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to high glucose and fatty acid levels caused by dietary sugar and fat intake induces β cell apoptosis, leading to the exacerbation of type 2 diabetes. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are two major dietary fatty acids, but their effects in diabetes are unclear. We challenged β cell-specific glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck+/-) mice with a diet containing sucrose and oleic acid (SO) or sucrose and linoleic acid (SL) and analyzed β cell apoptosis. In Gck+/-, but not wild-type, mice, SL significantly decreased the β cell mass and β cell proportion in islet cells arising from increased apoptosis to a greater degree than SO. The mRNA expression of SREBP-1c was significantly higher and that of E-cadherin was significantly lower in the islets of Gck+/- mice fed SL, compared with mice fed SO. We next evaluated monotherapy with des-fluoro-sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, for them. DPP-4 inhibitor protected against β cell apoptosis, restored the β cell mass, and normalized islet morphology in Gck+/- mice fed SL. DPP-4 inhibition normalized the changes in the islet expression of SREBP-1c and E-cadherin mRNA induced by the SL diet. Furthermore, linoleic acid induced β cell apoptosis to a greater degree in the presence of high glucose levels than in the presence of low glucose levels in vitro in islets and MIN6 cells, whereas a GLP-1 receptor agonist prevented apoptosis. In conclusion, SL exacerbated β cell apoptosis in diabetic Gck+/- mice but not in euglycemic wild-type mice, and DPP-4 inhibition protected against these effects.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Kazuki Orime, Yasuo Terauchi
    Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 01/2011; 69 Suppl 1:150-6.
  • Kazuki Orime, Yasuo Terauchi
    Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 07/2010; 68 Suppl 7:519-23.
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the administration of miglitol after a meal was equally effective as administration before a meal. Since glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) reportedly promotes islet cell growth and inhibits apoptosis in animal models, an increase in GLP-1 secretion might also be beneficial for islet cell function and mass in humans. Miglitol reportedly enhances GLP-1 responses and reduces glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). However, whether the effect of miglitol on these incretins is comparable when miglitol is administered before or after a meal remains uncertain. Here, we compared the effects of the pre-meal versus post-meal administration of miglitol on the plasma active GLP-1 and total GIP levels in healthy men. Miglitol was administered according to three different intake schedules in each subject (control: no drug, intake 1: drug administered just before a meal [50 mg]; intake 2: drug administered at 30 min after the start of a meal [50 mg]). The area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma GLP-1 level for the intake 1 group was significantly greater than those of the control and intake 2 groups. The AUCs of the plasma GIP level for the intake 1 and 2 groups were significantly smaller than that of the control. The administration of miglitol just before a meal, rather than after a meal, is recommended in view of the up-regulation of GLP-1.
    Endocrine Journal 01/2010; 57(8):673-7. · 2.23 Impact Factor